ऊर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

oor sumer(sumeriya) ka prachin nagar. vartaman eerak men pharat nadi se pray: chhah mil dakshin 'khaldiyon ke oor' ke khndahar khod nikale ge hain. baibil men ise ibrahim ka mool sthan kaha gaya hai. vahan se thodi hi door par arabi marubhoomi ki sima anrabh hoti hai. prachin sumeriyon ka ziggurat aj bhi doosare khndaharon ke sath vahan khada hai. daau. liyonard vooli ne athak parishram se sumeri sabhyata ke us atynt prachin oor nagar ke bhagnavashesh khod nikale hai. unaka samay pray: 3500 ee. poo. hai aur unamen sabase mahatv ke avashesh us nagar ki shavasamadhiyan hain. vahan ki imaraton men snbhavat: ve sabase prachin hain aur unamen paee gee anek vibhootiyon se us kal ki sabhyata aur us sabhyata ke aishvary ka pata chalata hai.

oor ki kabron men mili vastuon ke adhyayan se jivan aur mrityu donon se snbndhit adbhooth‌ rahasyon ka gyan hota hai. rajaon ke un makabaron men kalpanatit svarn aur bahumooly vastuon ka snchay hua tha. sath hi vahaaun anek manavon ki bali hone ka praman prastut hai. misriyon ki hi bhanti, lagata hai, prachin sumeri log bhi apane mritakon ko unaki annt yatra ke lie pratyek avashyak parthiv upakaranon se snyukt kar dete the. anek prakar ke bhojy aur pey, rath, sinhasan aur sngit ke vividh upakaran mritakon ke sath gad die jate the. oor ki pray: do hajar kabron se jo chijen nikali hain unamen dhatukarm ki ashcharyajanak vastuen pradhan hain. rajaon aur raniyon ke sath jivit daphanaen ge dason aur dasiyon ke pnjar sumeri sabhyata ke bhishan vishvason ko prakat karate hain. in das-dasiyon ne jivan men apane svamiyon ki seva ki thi, ab vahi maranantar unaki seva karane ke lie unake sath kar die ge the. svamiyon ke jo das jivan men jitane hi priyapatr rahe the, mrityu men ve utane hi nikatatar mane ge aur svamiyon ke sath hi unaka akal ant hua. oor ki kabron se sone ke kirit, kngan,kanon ke alnkar, anek prakar ke har adi upalabdh hue hain. tanbe aur chandi ke pharase aur unase bane bhanti bhanti ke acharaj ke kam ke barachhe bhale mile hain jinase dhatu ki dhalaee ka praman milata hai. chhoti-chhoti shrringaramnjooshaon men rakhi dant aur kan kuredanevali chhoti chhoti dhatu ki pinen mili hain jinaka prabhav dekhanevalon par nitant adhunik padata hai.[1]

ek kabr men svarn ka ek sudnr kirit pahane ek nari ka shav pada tha jisake hathon men sone ka ek sundar gilas tha. prakat hi hai ki vah svamini thi jisake char dason ko marakar unake shav unake charanon men dal die ge the aur usaki kabr ke bahar bnd dvar par tin bhedon ki bali de di gee thi. kabr ki tinamnjili imarat ki har mnjil men ek manav bali di gee thi. sabase oopar vali kabr men do sone ke phalakavale khnjar mile jinaki nilamajadi moothon par svarnaksharon men 'raja meskalamdug' ka nam utkirn tha. doosari kabron men to aur bhi adhik daulat bhari thi aur unamen bali die hue adamiyon ki snkhya prachur thi. ek men to 74 lashen milin. rani shubad ki kabr men to sone aur bahumooly pattharon ki bani anek chijen mili hain. shrringar ki anek chijon aur maniyon se nirmit vinuon, kiriton aur bartanon ki chhata dekhane hi yogy hai. oor ki in kabron men jahan maranantar paralok ke bhayanak janavishvason par prakash padata hai vahan 3500 ee.poo. aur 2500 ee.poo. ke bich ke kal ki sabhyata ka bhi prabhoot roop se udghatan hota hai.

in shavasamadhiyon ke bad hi oor ke pahale rajavnsh ka uday hua. in kabron ka samay itana prachin hone par bhi prasiddh jalapralay ke pashchath‌ hai, jo snbhavat: 3200 ee. poo. se bhi pahale hua tha. inase pahale keval kish aur erekh ke rajakulon ne sumer men raj kiya tha. oor ke mahanh‌ mndir ka ghera samrath nabookhadanejjar ka banavaya hua hai. usake uttar-poorvi bhag men boor-sin ka ek abhilekh hai. sumeriyon ka yahi mndir ziggurat nam se prasiddh tha. isamen bad ke rajaon ne dhire-dhire anek parivartan kar die the. isake atirikt vahan anek purane mndir hain jinaka samay samay par vidhvns aur jirnoddhar hota aya tha.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 188 |
  2. sn.grn.-si.liyonard vooli : oor aauv d kaildiz (1930); bhagavatasharan upadhyay : di enshent varld (1955).

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