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potala mahal, lhasa (tibbat)

tibbat madhy eshiya ka pramukh pathar hai. satavin shatabdi men tibbat ke raja strongachanh-stramh-po (lagabhag 626-98 ee.) ne bauddh dharm grahan kar liya aur thovami-sambhota namak tibbati vidvanh ko bharat bheja, jisane bauddh dharm sambandhi kuchh grnth ikatthe kie aur pashchimi gupt lipi ko tibbat le gaya, jo devanagari lipi se kafi milati julati thi. yahi lipi tibbati varnamala ka adhar bani. sambhav hai buddh avalokiteshvar ki chndan ki prasiddh moorti jo ab tak dalaeelama ke rajamahal potala men pratishthapit hai pooji jati hai, vah sarvapratham thovami ke dvara tibbat le jayi gayi ho. raja strongachanh ne n keval bauddh dharm grahan kiya balki thovami ka shishy banakar vidyadhyayan bhi kiya. satavin shatabdi men hi tibbat ne nepal par adhipaty sthapit kar liya.

bauddh dharm ka prachar

raja strongachanh tibbati logon men bauddh dharm ka prachar karake unamen satyavadita, daya, pavitr evn sada jivan, viddhanon ka adar aur matribhoomi prem adi gunon ka vikas kiya. is prakar bauddh dharm ne tibbat ke sanskritik aur arthik vikas men paryapt yogadan kiya. snskrit grnthon ke tibbati bhasha men anuvad ka jo kary strongachanh-stramh-po ke dvara prarambh kiya gaya tha, vah usake uttaradhikariyon dvara age badhaya gaya aur isase tibbati bhasha pranjal evn samarth sahityik madhyam ke roop men nikalakar samane ayi. bauddh dharm ke prachar prasar ne tibbat aur bharat ke bich ghanishth sampark sthapit kar diya.

prarthana chakr, lhasa (tibbat)

tibbati log bauddh dharm ke bharatiy shiksha kendron, visheshatah nalnda aur vikramashila ane lage aur isi tarah bharatiy log tibbat jane lage. ane jane ka yah silasila tibbat aur bharat ke sanskritik sambandhon ka ek niyamit ang ban gaya. bauddh dharm ke mahanh acharyon shantarakshit aur padmasnbhav ne tibbat ki yatraen 8vin shati ke madhy men aur atisha ne 11 vin shatabdi ke madhy men kin. is sanskritik sampark se tibbat men lamavad ki sthapana aur vikas hua. lamavad ne bauddh dharm ke hinayan, mahayan aur tntrayan sampradayon men samanvay sthapit karane ka prayas kiya. isane tibbatiyon ke rashtriy charitr men parivartan karake unhen dhire-dhire yuddhapriy se shantipriy dharmabhiru vyakti bana diya. isane unake bich anek adhyatmik guru, prakand vidvanh, suyogy bhashavidh, aur oonche sadhak utpann kiye.

snskrit grnthon ka tibbati bhasha men anuvad karane ka tibbati aur bharatiy vidvanon ka prayas atyadhik saphal siddh hua aur bahut se snskrit grnth jinaki mool pratiyan ab bharat men nahin payi jati hain, ya to mool roop men ya tibbati anuvad ke roop men tibbat men upalabdh hue hain.

rajanitik sambandh

prarthana chakr, lhasa (tibbat)

bhootakal men tibbat aur bharat ke madhy rajanitik sambandh bahut thode the. dvitiy gupt samrat samudragupt nepal ke nripati ko apana karad tatha agyapalak banane par bada garv karata tha. usane apane chauthi shatabdi ke prayag abhilekh men tibbat ka koee ullekh nahin kiya hai. 7vin shatabdi men harshavardhan ne, jisaka chin ke sath mitratapoorn sambandh tha, tibbat ke marg se ek doot chin bheja tha, jisase prakat hota hai, ki tibbat ke sath bhi usaka maitri-sambandh tha. harsh ki mrityu ke bad usaka mntri arjun jisane usaki gaddi chhin li thi, tibbati shasak raja strongachanh ka kopabhajan ban gaya, kyonki usane chini doot vang-hyoo en-tse-si ko loot liya tha, aur use parast hokar tirahut se hath dhona pada. kintu 1703 ee. men tirahut ne tibbati shasan ka jua utar phenka. isake pashchath tibbat ka bharat ke sath kisi bhi prakar ka rajanitik sambandh nahin raha.

akraman

bharat ke musalaman vijeta tibbat ke himaveshtit parvaton par senaen bhejane se katarate the aur bakhtiyar ke bete ikhtayararuddin mohammad ke siva jisaka tibbat ke oopar akraman 1204 ee. men buri tarah vifal hua, aur kisi ne use vijay karane ka prayas tak nahin kiya. kintu angrezon ka vyaparik lobh simahin tha, aur 1774-75 ee. men varen hestings ne kampani ke yuva adhikari jarj bogal ko tibbat ke dharmik guru evn shasak tashilama se bhent karane ke lie bheja. kintu bogal, jisane apani yatra ka rochak varnan kiya hai, angrezon ke lie koee labh prapt nahin kar saka. tibbat atharahavin shatabdi ke prarambh se hi chin ki prabhu-satta ko svikar karane laga tha, aur tibbat ki rajadhani lhasa men do chini rajapratinidhi, jinhen amban kaha jata tha, nivas karane lage the. chin aur tibbat ne unnisavin shatabdi ke ant tak angrezon ko bharat se tibbat men ghusane nahin diya. tisare barmayuddh ke bad 1886 ee. men british sarakar ne chin ke sath ek samajhauta kiya, jisake antargat tibbat par chin ki prabhu-satta ki paroksh svikriti ke badale men chini sarakar briten ke dvara barma hathiyane par koee apatti n karane ke lie sahamat ho gee. 1887 ee. men tibbatiyon ne british surakshit sikkim rajy par hamala kar diya, kintu ve badi asani se pichhe khaded die ge.

samajhauta

potala mahal, lhasa (tibbat)

1890 ee. men tibbat sikkim ki sima ka nirdharan chin aur briten ke madhy hue samajhaute ke antargat kiya gaya. 1893 ee. men angrezon ko tibbat men kuchh vyaparik suvidhaen pradan karane ki bat tay huee, kintu vyavahar roop men ye suvidhaen upalabdh nahin karayi gee. is prakar bisavin shatabdi ke prarambh men bhi angrezon ke lie tibbat varjit desh bana raha. pratham british nagarik, jisane lhasa men ghusane ka sahas kiya aur vahan ki rajanitik aur dharmik avastha ki amooly janakari prapt karake vapas lauta, sharatachndr das namak ek bngali adhyapak tha. bisavin shati ke prarambh men dalaee lama ne apane shikshak tatha roosi bauddh dorajif ki sahayata se chini prabhu-satta ukhad phenkane ke lie roosi sarakar ke sath kuchh samajhaute ki bat chalaee, jisase british bharatiy sarakar jo us samay dabng vaisaray laaurd karzan dvara niyntrit thi, snshakit ho uthi ki tibbat shighr hi roosi snrakshan men chala jaega. british bharatiy sarakar ise rokane ke lie kritasnkalp thi aur 1903 ee. men karnal fransis yngahasabaind ke netritv men ek dal tibbat bheja gaya. isane julaee 1903 ee. men bina kisi virodh ke tibbati kshetron men pravesh kiya aur march 1904 ee. men tibbati sena ko guru namak sthan par asani se parast kiya.

saparng guj, tibbat

aprail men usane vishal tibbati sena ko punah harakar agast 1904 ee. men lhasa men pravesh kiya. vahan yngahasabaind ne sitnbar men tibbat ko sandhi karane ke lie vivash kiya. jisake antargat use angrezon ko tibbat ki tin mnndiyon men vyapar karane, 75 lakh rupaye ka harzana dene [1]ki sharten svikar karani padin. is prakar tibbat men roosi prasar ka marg band kar diya gaya. kintu shighr hi angrezon ki galatiyon ke parinamasvaroop tibbat par chin ki jo prabhu-satta ab tak keval namamatr ki aur sakentik roop men thi, vah vastavik roop men svikar kar li gee. tibbat ki or se 25 lakh rupaye harzana chin ko ada karane ki anumati de di gee aur angrezon ko chumbi ghati se hat jana pada.

1906 ee. men inglaind aur chin ke bich ek samajhaute ke antargat inglaind is bat ke lie raji ho gaya ki vah n to tibbat ke kisi bhoobhag par adhikar karega aur n usake antarik prashasan men hastakshep karega. isake badale men chin sahamat ho gaya ki vah kisi videshi shakti ko tibbat ke antarik prashasan men hastakshep karane athava usaki kshetriy akhandata ka ullaghnn karane ki anumati nahin dega. 1907 ee. men inglaind aur roos tibbat ke sath apane rajanitik sambandh chin ke madhyam se snchalit karane ke lie sahamat ho ge. is prakar chin ko tibbat ka svami svikar kar liya gaya, aur isake bad hi chin ne tibbat ko raund dala aur dalaee lama ko bhagakar bharat men sharan leni padi. british sarakar ne us par tivr prativad kiya aur tibbatiyon ne 1918 ee. men chin ki antarik avyavastha se labh uthakar apane ko chini adhipaty se mukt kar liya.

tibbat men jhil

tibbati bhasha men jhil ko chhvu kaha jata hai. tibbat svayatt pradesh men chhoti badi kul 1500 se adhik jhilen hain. inaka kul kshetraphal 240 vargakilomitar se adhik hai, jo chin ki jhilon ke kul kshetraphal ki ek tihaee hai. tibbat ki jhilen n sirph badi hain, balki gahari bhi hai. jhilon ka nihit jal snsadhan prachur hai. tibbat ki sab se badi jhil na moo chhvu hai. tibbati bhasha men na moo chhvu ka matalab pavitr jhil hai, jo bauddh dharm ka prasiddh tirthasthan hai. na moo chhvu jhil lhasa shahar ki tang shung kaunti aur na chhoo priphekchar ki bainag kaunti ke bich sthit hai. usaki dakshin poorv men gaganachunbi nanachhingathangakula pahad ki mukh choti khadi hai. us ke uttar men apar pathar hai. is jhil ki charon or vishal ghas maidan hai. na moo chhvu ek vishal darpan ki tarah uttari tibbat men phaili huee hai. nile nile akash, hare hare ghas, rngabirngi phool aur charavahon ke tamboo se ek bada sundar prakritik sama ban jata hai.[2]

bharat se sambandh

jokheng mandir, tibbat

tibbat aur bharat ke bich sanskritik sambandhon ka lamba itihas hai. 1917 ki rajyakranti ke bad roos men jo parivartan hue tatha chin men jo avyavastha qayam rahi usake parinamasvaroop tibbat men british hiton par kisi videshi shatru ke dvara aghat kie jane ka khatara samapt ho gaya aur agale bis varshon tak tibbat aur bharat ki sarakaron ke bich maitripoorn sambandh rahe. kuchh is shatabdi ke panchaven dashak men rajanitik paristhitiyan badal geen. maotse tung ke netritv men chin ek mahanh samyavadi rashtr ban gaya aur usane tibbat ke oopar apani prabhu-satta ko punah sthapit karane ka snkalp liya. isake anusar chini senaon ne 1959 ee. men tibbat par adhikar kar liya aur dalaee lama ko pranaraksha ke lie bhagakar bharat ki sharan leni padi. bharatiy ganarajy ki navasthapit sarakar in ghatanaon ki mook darshak bani rahi. is prakar tibbat vishal chini samrajy ka ang bana liya gaya aur usaki dakshini sima bharat ki uttari simarekha ko chhoone lagi. isake parinamasvaroop donon deshon ke bich sngharsh anivary ho gaya.[3]

potala mahal
potala mahal ka vihngam drishy, lhasa tibbat


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. pahale to 75 varshik qiston men dene ki bat tay huee, kintu bad men ise ghatakar 25 lakh rupaya kar diya gaya aur use tin varshik qiston men ada karane ki bat tay huee, harzane ka bhugatan n hone tak angrezon ko sikkam aur bhootan ke madhy sthit chumbi ghati par adhikar karane, kisi videshi shakti ko tibbat ka bhoobhag n dene tatha use tibbat men relave lain bichhane ki izazat us samay tak n dene jab tak ki usi prakar ki suvidhaen british sarakar ko n di jaen
  2. tibbat men jhil (hindi) cri-online. abhigaman tithi: 19 mee, 2013. 
  3. 1962 ee. men bharat aur chin ke bich yuddh hua, jisake parinamasvaroop donon deshon ke sambandh abhi tak samany nahin ho pae hain).

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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