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कपिलवस्तु  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kapilavastu prachin samay men shaky vnsh ki rajadhani ke roop men prasiddh tha. ye nagar, siddharth nagar se 20 kilomitar aur gorakhapur se 97 kilomitar door sthit hai. kapilavastu mahatma buddh ke pita shuddhodhan ke rajy ki rajadhani thi. yahan bhagavan buddh ne apana bachapan vyatit kiya tha. yah shravasti ka samakalin nagar tha. parnpara ke anusar vahan kapil muni ne tapasya ki, isiliye yah kapilavastu (arthath maharshi kapil ka sthan) nam se prasiddh ho gaya. nagar ke charon or ek parakota tha, jisaki oonchaee atharah hath thi. gautam buddh ke kal men bharatavarsh ke samriddhishali nagaron men isaki ganana hoti thi. yah us samay tijarati raston par padata tha. vahan se ek sidha rasta vaishali, patana aur rajagrih hote huye poorab ki or nikal jata tha, doosara rasta vahan se pashchim men shravasti ki or jata tha.

aitihasik tathy

zila basti, uttar pradesh ke uttari bhag men piparavan namak sthan se 9 mil uttar-pashchim tatha ruminideee ya prachin lunbini se 15 mil pashchim ki or memirakot ke pas prachin kapilavastu ki sthiti bataee jati hai. isi kshetr men sthit tilaura ya tirorakot ko bhi kuchh log kapilavastu manate hain, kintu in sthanon par abhi tak utkhanan n hone ke karan is vishay men nishchit roop se kuchh kahana kathin hai. kintu lunbani ka abhigyan zila basti men nepal-bharat sima par sthit kakaraha gram se 13 mil uttar men vartaman ruminideee ke sath nishchit hone ke karan kapilavastu ki sthiti bhi isi ke asapas kuchh mil ke bhitar rahi hogi, yah bhi nishchit samajhana chahie.[1]

gautam buddh ke pita shakyavnshi shuddhodhan ki rajadhani kapilavastu men thi. saundarannd-kavy men mahakavi ashvaghosh ne kapilavastu ke basaee jane ka vistrit varnan kiya hai, jisake anusar yah nagar kapil muni ke ashram ke sthan par basaya gaya tha. yah ashram himachal ke anchal men sthit tha-

tasy vistirnatapasah parshve himavatah shubhe, kshetrn chayatann chaiv tapasamashramoabhavath[2]

tapasviyon ke nivas sthan aur tapasya ke kshetr us ashram men kuchh ikshvaku rajakumar basane ki ichchha se ge-

tejasvinsadann tapn kshetrn tamashramamh, kechidikshvakuvo jammuah rajaputra vivatsavah[3]

unhonne jis sthan par nivas kiya, vah shaky ya sagaun vrikshon se dhaka tha, isalie ve ikshvaku rajakumar shaky kahalae. ek din unaki samriddhi karane ki ichchha se jal ka ghada lekar muni akash men ud ge aur rajaputron se kaha- "akshay jal ke is kalash se jo jaladhara prithvi par gire, usaka atikraman na karake kam se mera anusaran karo." kapil muni ne us ashram ki bhoomi ke charon or jal ki dhara giraee aur chaupad ki takhti ki tarah naksha banaya aur use simachihnon se sushobhit kiya. tab vastu-visharadon ne us sthan par kapil ke adesh anusar ek nagar banaya. usaki parikha nadi ke saman chaudi thi aur rajapath bhavy aur sidha tha. prachin pahadon ki tarah vishal thi- jaise vah doosara girivraj hi ho. shvet attalikaon se usaka mukh sundar lagata tha. usake bhitar bajar achchhi tarah se vibhajit the. vah nagar prasad mala se gira hua aisa jan padata tha, mano himalay ki kukshi ho. dhani, shant, vidvan aur anuddhat logon se bhara hua vah nagar kinnaron se mndarachal ki bhanti shobhayaman tha. vahan puravasiyon ko prasann karane ki ichchha se rajakumaron ne prasannachitt hokar udyan namak yash ke sundar sthan banavaye. sab dishaon men sundar jhilen nirmit kin, jo svachchh jal se poorn thin. margon aur upavanon men charon or manoram, sundar, thaharane ke sthan banavae ge, jinake sath koop bhi the.[4] kyonki kapil muni ke ashram ke sthan par vah nagar basaya gaya tha, atah kapilavastu kahalaya-

kapilasy ch tasyashrestasminnashramavastuni, yasmattatpurn chakustasmath kapilavastu tath.[5][1]

siddharth ne kapilavastu men hi apana bachapan bitaya tha aur sachche gyan aur sukh ki prapti ki lalasa se apane parivar aur rajadhani ko chhodakar chale gaye the. buddhatv ko prapt karane par ve antim bar kapilavastu ae the aur tab unhonne apane pita shuddhodhan aur patni yashodhara ko apane dharm men dikshit kiya tha.

kapilavastu ashok (mrityu 232 ee.poo.) ke samay men tirth ke saman samajha jata tha. apane guru upagupt ke sath samrat ne kapilavastu ki yatra ki aur yahan stoop adi smarak banavae. kintu shighr hi is nagar ki avanati ka yug prarnbh ho gaya aur isaka prachin gaurav ghatata chala gaya. is avanati ka karan anishchit hai. snbhavatah kalapravah men nepal ki taraee kshetr men hone ke karan kapilavastu ke sthan ko ghane vanon ne achchhadit kar liya tha aur is karan yahan pahunchana dushkar ho gaya hoga. chini yatri fahyan (405-411 ee.) ke samay tak kapilavastu nagari ujad ho chuki thi. keval thode-se bauddh bhikshu yahan nivas karate the, jo apani jivika kabhi-kabhi a jane vale yatriyon ke dan men die ge dhan se chalate the. yah bhi ullekhaniy hai ki fahyan ke samay tak bauddh dharm se ghanishth roop se snbndhit any pramukh sthan jaise bodhagaya aur kushinagar bhi ujad ho chale the. vastav men bauddh dharm ka avanati kal is samay prarnbh ho gaya tha. harsh ke shasanakal men prasiddh chini paryatak yuvanachvang ne kapilavastu ki yatra ki thi (630 ee. ke lagabhag). usake varnan ke anusar kapilavastu men pahale ek sahasr sngharam the, kintu ab keval ek hi bacha tha, jisamen 30 bhikshu rah rahe the. smith ke anusar yuvanachvang dvara ullikhit kapilavastu piparava se 10 mil uttar-pashchim ki or nepal ki taraee men sthit tilaurakit namak sthan raha hoga[6]

bauddh grathon men

nagar ke bhitar ek sabha-bhavan bana hua tha, jahan par shaky log ekatr hokar mahattvapoorn vishayon par soch-vichar kiya karate the. bad men ek sabha-grih aur banava diya gaya, jisaka udghatan svayn gautam buddh ne kiya tha. ve is avasar par apane shishyon sahit vahan aye the. unake samman men nagar achchhi tarah saza diya gaya aur charon or ek yojan ki doori tak roshani ki gee. unaki suvidha ke liye is samay shanti ki poori vyavastha kar di gee thi. kuchh bauddh granthon men isaki shobha ka varnan atishayokti ke sath kiya gaya hai. 'buddhacharit' namak bauddh grnth men isi pur ko sabhi nagaron men shreshth (puradhiraj) kaha gaya hai. isaki samata men tatkalin koee bhi nagar nahin a sakata tha aur isake that-bat ko dekh kar lagata tha, manon svayn rajalakshmi hi vahan par nivas kar rahi hon. daridrata ke liye vahan koee avakash nahin tha. nagarikon ke ghar vahan usi tarah sushobhit the, jis tarah sarovar men kamalon ki pnktiyan. lalitavistar namak granth men isake sundar upavan evn vihar adi ka varnan milata hai. nagarik samriddh, achchhe vicharon vale tatha dharmik the. yahan logon ko yuddh-shiksha di jati thi. nagar men sundar bazar lagate the. raja shuddhodhan sadashay aur puravasiyon ke hit men snlagn the. 'saundaranand' namak kavy men ise gautam ki janmabhoomi kaha gaya hai. is granth ke anusar vahan ke nagarikon ko anuchit kar nahin dene padate the aur ve sukhi evn snpann the.

buddh dvara diksha

gautam buddh ke vishram ki suvidha ke liye shakyon ne nagar ke bahar shant vatavaran men nigrodharam namak vihar banava diya tha. pahali bar ve isamen apane bis hazar shishyon ke sath padhare the. kapilavastu ke nagarikon ne unake vyaktitv aur upadeshon men itana akarshan paya ki doosare hi din unamen se adhikansh unake shishy ban gayen unake bhaee nand aur putr rahul tatha isi tarah rajakul ke kuchh aur bhi sadasyon ne unase diksha le li thi. unake prabhav men akar shaky bahusnkhya men bauddh sngh ke sadasy ban gaye. is karan vahan kuchh logon ne unake oopar parivaron ko todane ka arop lagaya. shuddhodhan ne bhi yah sab dekhakar rajaniyam bana diya ki bina man-bap ki anumati se rajy ka koee bhi vyakti bauddh dharm men diksha n grahan kare. shakyon aur unake vipakshiyon ke bich ke jhagadon men buddh ne kee samayon par madhyasthata ki thi. ek bar kosal ke raja vidudabh ne shakyon se apane apaman ka badala lene ke liye kapilavastu par akraman kar diya. is samay buddh use samajhane ke liye is nagar men aye huye the. shakyon ke padosi koliy log ramagram men shasan karate the. donon ke bich rohini nadi ke jal ke prashn ko lekar vivad khada hua. is jhagade ke karan bhishan snhar ka khatara a khada hua. gautam buddh ki madhyasthata ke phalasvaroop donon hi dal ek snbhavit bhaynkar kshati se bach gaye. unake mahaparinirvan ke anantar shakyon ne unake sharir ke avashesh ki prapti ke liye apani mang pesh ki thi. unhen unaki asthiyon ka ek bhag prapt hua, jisake oopar unhonne stoop ka nirman kiya.

lumbini gram

is nagar ke pas hi lumbini gram sthit tha, jahan par gautam buddh ka janm hua tha. isaki pahachan nepal ki taraee men sthit roominadeee namak gram se ki jati hai. bauddh dharm ka yah ek pramukh kendr mana jane laga. ashok apane rajy-kal ke bisaven varsh dharmayatra karata hua lumbini pahuncha tha. usane is sthan ke charon or patthar ki dival khadi kar di. vahan usane ek stnbh ka nirman bhi kiya, jis par usaka ek lekh khuda hua hai. yah stnbh ab bhi apani jagah par vidyaman hai. vidvanon ka aisa anuman hai ki ashok ki yah lat thik usi jagah khadi hai, jahan buddh ka janm hua tha. ashok ne vahan ke nivasiyon ko kar men bhari chhoot de di thi. jo tirthayatri vahan ate the, unhen ab yahan yatra-kar nahin dena padata tha. vah kapilavastu bhi aya hua than gauntam buddh ke jis stoop ka nirman shakyon ne kiya tha, use usane akar men duguna kara diya tha.

mahattv

jaise-jaise shaky ganarajy ka adh:patan hota gaya, vaise-vaise kapilavastu ka rajanitik mahattv bhi ghatane laga. bad men chal kar isaki pratishtha ab keval bauddh tirth ke roop men hi rah gee thi. panchavin sadi men jab chini yatri phahiyan yahan aya, us samay isaki janasnkhya kafi ghat gee thi. satavin shatabdi men husenasang bhi vahan aya tha. vah likhata hai ki is nagar men kee stoop the, jo buddh ke parinirvan ke bad rajaon aur bhakton dvara banavaye gaye the. vahan kee purane math bhi the, jo ab barbad ho chuke the. yah nagar is samay kafi ujad gaya tha. isake khndaharon ke bich jngali janavar rahate the, jinake karan yatriyon ko khatara bana rahata tha.


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 133 |
  2. saundarannd 1,5
  3. saudarannd 1,18
  4. saundarannd, 1,24-28-29-32-33-41-42-43-48-49-50-51
  5. saudarannd 1,57
  6. arli histri aauv indiya, chaturth snskaran, pri. 167

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