बुद्धचरित  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

buddhacharit mahakavi ashvaghosh ki kavitv-kirti ka adhar stambh hai, kintu durbhagyavash yah mahakavy mool roop men apoorn hi upalabdh hai. 28 sargon men virachit is mahakavy ke dvitiy se lekar trayodash sarg tak tatha pratham evamh chaturdash sarg ke kuchh ansh hi milate hain. is mahakavy ke shesh sarg snskrit men upalabdh nahin hai. is mahakavy ke poore 28 sargon ka chini tatha tibbati anuvad avashy upalabdh hai. mahakavy ka arambh buddh ke garbhadhan se tatha buddhatv-prapti men isaki parinati hoti hai. yah mahakavy bhagavan buddh ke sngharshamay saphal jivan ka jvalant, ujjval tatha moort chitrapat hai. isaka chini bhasha men anuvad panchavin shatabdi ke prarambh men dharmaraksh, dharmakshetr athava dharmakshar namak kisi bharatiy vidvanh ne hi kiya tha tatha tibbati anuvad navin shatabdi se poorvavarti nahin hai. isaki katha ka roop-vinyas valmiki krit ramayan se milata-julata hai.

  • buddhacharit 28 sargon men tha jisamen 14 sargon tak buddh ke janm se buddhatv-prapti tak ka varnan hai. yah ansh ashvaghosh krit mool snskrit sampoorn upalabdh hai. keval pratham sarg ke prarambh sat shlok aur chaturdash sarg ke battis se ek sau barah tak (81 shlok) mool men nahin milate hain. chaukhamba snskrit sirij tatha chaukhamba vidyabhavan ki prerana se un shlokon ki rachana shri ramachandradas ne ki hai. unhin ki prerana se is ansh ka anuvad bhi kiya gaya hai.
  • 15 se 28 sargon ki mool snskrit prati bharat men bahut dinon se anupalabdh hai. usaka anuvad tibbati bhasha men mila tha. usake adhar par kisi chini vidvanh ne chini bhasha men anuvad kiya tatha aksaphort vishvavidyalay se snskrit adhyapak daktar jaaunsatan ne use angrezi men likha. isaka anuvad shrisooryanarayan chaudhari ne hindi men kiya hai, jisako shri ramachandradas ne snskritapadyamay kavy men parinat kiya hai.[1]
  • buddhacharit aur saundaranand mahakavy ke atirikt ashvaghosh ke do roopak-shariputraprakaran tatha rashtrapal upalabdh hain. isake atirikt ashvaghosh ki jatak ki shaili par likhit 'kalpana manditika' kathaon ka sngrahagranth hai.[2]

kathavastu

  • buddhacharit ki kathavastu gautam buddh ke janm se lekar nirvan-prapti tatha dharmopadesh dene tak parivyapt hai. kapilavastu janapad ke shakvnshiy raja shuddhodan ki patni maharani mayadevi ek rat svapn men ek gajaraj ko unake sharir men pravisht hote dekhati hai. lumbinivan ke pavan vatavaran men vah ek balak ko janm deti hai. balak bhavishyavani karata hai- mainne lokakalyan tatha gyanarjan ke lie janm liya hai. brahman bhi tatkalin shakunon aur shubhalakshanon ke adhar par bhavishyavani karate hain ki yah balak bhavishy men rishi athava samrat hoga. maharshi asit bhi raja se spasht shabdon men kahate hain ki apaka putr bodh ke lie janma hai. balak ko dekhate hi raja ki ankhon se ashrudhara pravahit hone lagati hai. raja apane shok ka karan batata hai ki jab yah balak yuvavastha men dharm-pravartan karega tab main nahin rahoonga. balak ka sarvarthasiddh namakaran kiya jata hai. kumar sarvarthasiddh ki shaishavavastha se hi sansarik vishayon ki or asakt karane ki cheshta ki gee. unhen rajaprasad ke bhitar rakha jane laga tatha bahy-bhraman pratishiddh kar diya gaya. unaka vivah yashodhara namak sundari se kiya gaya, jisase rahul namak putr hua.
  • samriddh rajy ke bhog-vilas, sundari patni tatha navajat putr ka moh bhi unhen sansarik pash men abaddh nahin kar saka. ve sabaka parityag kar antat: vihar-yatra ke lie bahar nikal pade. devataon ke prayas se sarvarthasiddh sarvapratham rajamarg par ek vriddh purush ko dekhate hain tatha pratyek manushy ki parinati isi durgati men dekhakar unaka chitt uddhign ho uthata hai. ve bahut dinon tak vriddhavastha ke vishay men hi vichar karate rahe. udyan bhoomi men anand ki upalabdhi ko asambhav samajhakar ve pun: chitt ki shanti ke lie bahar nikal padate hain. is bar devataon ke prayas se unhen ek rogi dikhaee deta hai. sarathi se unhen gyat hota hai ki sampoorn snsar men koee bhi rog-mukt nahin hai. rog-shok se santapt hone par bhi prasann manushyon ki agyanata par unhen ashchary hota hai aur ve pun: udvign hokar laut ate hain.
  • tritiy vihar-yatra ke samay sarvarthasiddh ko shmashan ki or le jaya jata hua mrit vyakti ka shav dikhaee deta hai. sarathi se unhen gyat hota hai ki pratyek vyakti ka ant isi prakar avashyambhavi hai isase uddhign hakar sarvarthasiddh vihar se virat hona chahate hain. unaki ichchha n hote hue bhi sarathi unhen viharabhoomi le jata hai. yahan sundariyon ka samooh bhi unhen akrisht nahin kar pata hai. jivan ki kshanabhngurata, yauvan ki kshanikata tatha mrityu ki avashynbhavita ka bodh ho jane par jo manushy kamasakt hota hain, usaki buddhi ko lohe se nirmit manakar sarvarthasiddh vahan se bhi laut ate hain.
  • apani antim vihar-yatra men sarvarthasiddh ko ek snnyasi dikhaee deta hai. poochhane par pata chalata hai ki vah janm-maran se bhayabhit hokar snnyasi ban gaya hai. snnyasi ke is adarsh se prabhavit hokar sarvarthasiddh bhi sannyas lene ka snkalp karate hain. parantu raja unhen sannyas ki anumati nahin dete hain. tatha sarvarthasiddh ko grihasthashram men hi abaddh karane ka prayatn karate hain. pramadaon ka vivrit aur vikrit roop dekhakar sarvarthasiddh ke man men vitrishna aur ghrina ka bhav utpann hota hai. ve man hi man sochate hain ki striyon ki itani vikrit aur apavitr prakriti hone par vastrabhooshanon se vnchit hota hua purush unake anurag-pash men abaddh hota hai.
  • virakt sarvarthasiddh sarathi chhandak ko sath lekar aur kanthak namak ashv ki pith par aroodh hokar argharatri men nagar se bahar nikalate hain tatha pratigya karate hain-'janm aur mrityu ka par dekhe bina kapilavastu men pravesh nahin karoonga.' nagar men door pahunchakar sarvarthasiddh apane sarathi tatha ashv ko bandhan-mukt kar tapovan men rishiyon ke pas apani samasya ka samadhan dhoondhane ke lie jate hain, parantu un tapasviyon ki svarg-pradayini pravritti se unhen santosh nahin hota hai. ve ek jatil dvij ke nirdeshanusar divy gyani aradh muni ke pas moksh-marg ki shiksha grahan karane ke lie chale jate hain. idhar sarathi chhandak aur kanthak namak ghode ko khali dekhakar ant:pur ki striyan bailon se bichhudi huee gayon ki bhanti vilap karane lagati hain. putr-moh se vyagr raja ke nirdeshanusar mantri aur purohit kumar ka anveshan karane ke lie nikal padate hain. raja bimbasar sarvarthasiddh ko adha rajy dekar pun: grihasth dharm men pravesh karane ka asaphal prayas karate hain. parantu atmavan ko bhog-vilason se sukh-shanti ki prapti kaise ho sakati hai? antat: raja prarthana karata hai ki saphal hone par ap mujh par anugrah karen. nivritti-marg ke anveshak sarvarthasiddh ko aradh muni ne sankhy-yog ki shiksha di, parantu unake upadeshon men bhi sarvarthasiddh ko shashvat moksh-path parilakshit nahin hua.
  • ant men sarvarthasiddh gayashram jate hain. yahan unhen seva lie prastut panch bhikshu milate hain. gayashram men gautam tap karate hain, kintu isase bhi unhen abhisht-siddhi nahin milati hai. unhen yah avabodh hota hai ki indriyon ko kasht dekar moksh-prapti asambhav hai, kyonki santapt indriy aur man vale vyakti ki samadhi poorn nahin hoti. samadhi ki mahima se prabhavit sarvarthasiddh tap ka parityag kar samadhi ka marg angikar karate hain.
  • ashvatth mahavriksh ke niche moksh-prapti ke lie pratishrut rajarshivnsh men utpann maharshi sarvarthasiddh ko samadhisth dekhakar sara snsar to prasann hua, par saddharm ka shatru mar bhayabhit hota hai. apane vibhram, harsh evamh darp namak tinon putron tatha arati, priti tatha trisha namak putriyon sahit pushpadhanva 'mar' snsar ko mohit karane vale apane panchon banon ko lekar ashvatth vriksh ke mool men sthit prashantamoorti samadhisth sarvarthasiddh ko bhautik pralobhanon se vichalit karane ka asaphal prayas karata hai. yahin sarvarthasiddh ka mar ke sath yuddh hai. is men mar ki parajay tatha sarvarthasiddh ki vijay hoti hai. samadhisth sarvarthasiddh dhairy aur shanti se mar ki sena par vijay prapt kar param tattv ka parigyan prapt karane ke lie dhyan lagate hain. dhyan ke madhyam se unhen saphalata milati hai. ve ashtang yog ka ashray lekar avinashi pad tatha sarvgytv ko prapt karate hain.
  • is prakar mool snskrit men upalabdh buddhacharit ke 14 sargon men bhagavan buddh ka janm se lekar buddhatv-prapti tak vishuddh jivan-vrittant varnit hai. pandrahaven sarg se lekar atharahaven sarg tak ka shesh bhag tibbati bhasha men prapt hai. aksaphord vishvavidyalay ke snskrit adhyapak da. jaaunstan ne tibbati tatha chini bhasha se usaka angraji men bhavanuvad kiya tha, jisaka shrisooryanarayan chaudhari ne hindi bhasha men anuvad kiya. usi ka snskrit padyanuvad jabalapur mahant shriramachandradas shastri ne kiya hai. yadyapi mahant shri ramachandradas shastri ne anuvad ashvaghosh ke mool ke samakaksh banane ka yathasaghy prayas kiya hai, phir bhi mool to mool hi hota hai. anuvad kabhi bhi mool ka sthan nahin le sakata.
  • ashvaghosh pranit mool buddhacharit ka chaudahavan sarg buddhatv-prapti men samapt hota hai. usake bad ke sargon men kramash: buddh ka kashigaman, shishyon ko dikshadan, mahashishyon ki pravrajya, anathapindad ki diksha, putr-pitasamagam, jaitavan ki svikriti, pravrajyasrot, amrapali ke upavan men ayunirnay, lichchhaviyon par anukampa, nirvanamarg, mahaparinirvan, nirvan ki prashnsa tatha dhatu ka vibhajan vishay varnit hai. buddhacharit ke 15 se 28ven sarg tak is anoodit bhag men bhagavan buddh ke siddhanton ka vivechan hai. adhikatar anushtup chhand men virachit buddhacharit ke is dvitiy bhag men shastriji ne sarg ke ant men snskrit-kavy-sarani ke anuroop vasantatilaka adi chhandon ka bhi prayog kiya hai.
  • 28 sargon men rachit buddhacharit ke mool 14 sargon tak ke pratham bhag men 1115 tatha 15 se 28 sarg tak anoodit dvitiy bhag men 1033 shlok hain. bhagavan buddh ke vishuddh jivanavritt par adharit is mahakavy ki kathavastu ko varnanatmak upadanon se alnkrit karane ka mahakavi ashvaghosh ne saphal prayas kiya hai. is mahakavy ke saral evn prabhavotpadak varnanon men ant:pur-vihar, upavan-vihar, vriddh-darshan, rogi-darshan, mritak-darshan, kaminiyon dvara manornjan, vanabhoomi-darshan, shramanopadesh, sundariyon ka vikrit roop-darshan, mahabhinishkraman, van-yatra, chhandak-kanthak-visarjan, tapasviyon se vartalap, ant:pur-vilap tatha maravijay ullekhaniy hain.
  • mahakavi ashvaghosh ne uparyukt vishayon ka kavyochit shaili men varnan kar is mahakavy ke saushthav ka snvardhan kiya hai tatha kavy ko saras banane ke lie in varnanon ka samuchit snyojan kiya hai. kavy ko darshan aur dharm ke anukool bana lena ashvaghosh ki maulik visheshata hai. buddhacharit men kavi ka yah vaishishty pad-pad par parilakshit hota hai. ashvaghosh ne is mahakavy ke madhyam se bauddh-dharm ke siddhanton ka prachar karane ka saphal prayas kiya hai. vishuddh kavy ki drishti se buddhacharit ke pratham panch sarg tatha ashtam evamh trayodash sarg ke kuchh ansh atyant ramaniy hain. isamen yamak, upama aur utpreksha adi alnkaron ki kavi ne atyant ramaniy yojana ki hai. is mahakavy men svabhavikata ka samrajy hai. adhyatmik jivan tatha tathagat bhagavan buddh ke vishuddh evamh lokasundar charitr ke prati kavi ki agadh shraddha ke karan is mahakavy men bhavon ka naisargik pravah is mahakavy ko udatt bhavabhoomi par pratishthit karata hai. manavata ko abhyuday aur mukti ka sandesh dene ke abhilashi ashvaghosh ke vyaktitv ki garima ke anuroop hi unaka yah kavy bhi bhagavan buddh ke gauravapoorn vyaktitv se mandit hai.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. buddhacharitamh, chaukhamba vidyabhavan, varanasi 1988 ee. pratham bhag prakkathan pri0 7-8
  2. snskrit sahity ka itihas, achary baladev upadhyay pri0 70-73

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