}

पद्मावत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

padmavat
'padmavat' ka avaran prishth
kavi malik muhammad jayasi
mool shirshak 'padmavat'
mukhy patr 'padmini' aur 'ratnasen'
desh bharat
bhasha avadhi
vidha prabndh kavy
prakar mahakavy
mukhaprishth rachana sajild
vishesh is pustak ki vyakhya bhi isi nam se vasudev sharan agraval ne ki hai.
tippani jayasi ki is premagatha men sinhaladvip ki rajakumari 'padmini' aur chittaud ke raja 'ratnasen' ke pranay ka varnan hai.

padmavat (angrezi: Padmavat) ek premagatha hai, jo adhyatmik svaroop men hai. jayasi ke mahakavy 'padmavat' ki katha premamargi soofi kaviyon ki bhanti kalpanik n hokar ratnasen aur padmavati (padmini) ki prasiddh aitihasik katha par adharit hai. is premagatha men sinhaladvip ki rajakumari padmavati aur chittaud ke raja ratnasen ke pranay ka varnan hai. 'nagamati ke virah-varnan' men to jayasi ne apani snvedana gahan roop se varnit ki hai. katha ka dvitiy bhag aitihasik hai, jisamen chittaud par alauddin khilaji ke akraman aur 'padmavati ke jauhar' ka sajiv varnan hai. 'padmavat' masanavi shaili men rachit ek prabndh kavy hai. is mahakavy men kul 57 khnd hain. is mahakavy men padmavati evn ratnasen ki laukik prem kahani ke dvara alaukik prem ki vynjana ki gayi hai. is kavy ka prarambh kalpanik katha se hai aur ant itihas par adharit hai. jayasi ne itihas aur kalpana, donon ka mishran kiya hai. jayasi hi likhate hain ki unhonne 'padmavat' ki rachana 927 hijari men prarnbh ki.

kathanak

kavi sinhaladvip, usake raja gandharvasen, rajasabha, nagar, bagiche ityadi ka varnan karake padmavati ke janm ka ullekh karata hai. rajabhavan men 'hiraman' nam ka ek adbhut sua tha jise padmavati bahut chahati thi aur sada usi ke pas rahakar anek prakar ki baten kaha karati thi. padmavati kramash: sayani huee aur usake roop ki jyoti bhoomandal men sabase oopar huee. jab usaka kahin vivah n hua tab vah rat din hiraman se isi bat ki charcha kiya karati thi. sooe ne ek din kaha ki yadi kaho to desh deshantar men phir kar main tumhare yogy var dhoondhoon. raja ko jab is batachit ka pata laga tab usane kruddh hokar sooe ko mar dalane ki agya di. padmavati ne vinati kar kisi prakar sooe ke pran bachae. sooe ne padmavati se vida mangi, par padmavati ne prem ke mare sooe ko rok liya. sooa us samay to ruk gaya, par usake man men khataka bana raha.

sue ka bikana
ek din padmavati sakhiyon ko lie hue manasarovar men snan aur jalakrida karane gee. sooe ne socha ki ab yahan se chatapat chal dena chahie. vah van ki or uda, jahan pakshiyon ne usaka bada satkar kiya. das din pichhe ek baheliya hari pattiyon ki tatti lie us van men chala a raha tha aur pakshi to us chalate ped ko dekhakar ud ge par hiraman chare ke lobh men vahin raha. ant men baheliye ne use pakad liya aur bazar men use bechane ke lie le gaya. chittaud ke ek vyapari ke sath ek din brahman bhi kahin se rupaye lekar lobh ki asha se sinhal ki hat men aya tha. usane sooe ko pandit dekh mol le liya aur lekar chittaud aya. chittaud men us samay raja chitrasen mar chuka tha aur usaka beta 'ratnasen' gaddi par baitha tha. prashnsa sunakar ratnasen ne lakh rupaye dekar hiraman sooe ko mol le liya.
sue dvara padmavati ka bakhan

ek din ratnasen kahin shikar ko gaya tha. usaki rani nagamati sooe ke pas aee aur boli - 'mere saman sundari aur bhi koee snsar men hai?' is par sooa hnsa aur usane sinhal ki padmini striyon ka varnan karake kaha ki unamen aur tumamen din aur andheri rat ka antar hai. rani ne socha ki yadi yah tota rahega to kisi din raja se bhi aisa hi kahega aur vah mujhase prem karana chhodakar padmavati ke lie jogi hokar nikal padega. usane apani dhay se use le jakar mar dalane ko kaha. dhay ne parinam sochakar use mara nahin, chhipa rakha. jab raja ne lautakar sooe ko n dekha tab usane bada kop kiya. ant men hiraman usake samane laya gaya aur usane sab vrittant kah sunaya. raja ko padmavati ka roop varnan sunane ki badi utkantha huee aur hiraman ne usake roop ka lamba chauda varnan kiya. us varnan ko sun raja besudh ho gaya. usake hriday men aisa prabal abhilasha jagi ki vah rasta batane ke lie hiraman ko sath le jogi hokar ghar se nikal pada.

ratnasen ka sinhal jana

usake sath solah hazar kunvar bhi jogi hokar chale. madhy pradesh ke nana durgam sthanon ke bich hote hue sab log kaling desh men pahunche. vahan ke raja gajapati se jahaz lekar ratnasen ne aur sab jogiyon ke sahit sinhal dvip ki or prasthan kiya. kshar samudr, kshir samudr, dadhi samudr, udadhi samudr, sura samudr aur kilakila samudr ko par karake ve sataven 'manasarovar samudr' men pahunche jo sinhaladvip ke charon or hai. sinhaladvip men utarakar jogi ratnasen to apane sab jogiyon ke sath mahadev ke mandir men baithakar tap aur padmavati ka dhyan karane laga aur hiraman padmavati se bhent karane gaya. jate samay vah ratnasen se kahata gaya ki basnt pnchami ke din padmavati isi mahadev ke mandap men vasantapooja karane aegi; us samay tumhen usaka darshan hoga aur tumhari asha poorn hogi. bahut din par hiraman ko dekh padmavati bahut roee. hiraman ne apane nikal bhagane aur beche jane ka vrittant kah sunaya. isake uparant usane ratnasen ke roop, kul, aishvary, tej adi ki badi prashnsa karake kaha ki vah sab prakar se tumhare yogy var hai aur tumhare prem men jogi hokar yahan tak a pahuncha hai. padmavati ne usaki premavyatha sunakar jayamal dene ki pratigya ki aur kaha ki vasant pnchami ke din pooja ke bahane main use dekhane jaoongi. sooa yah samachar lekar raja ke pas mndap men laut aya.

vasant pnchami par padmavati aur ratnasen ka milana

vasant pnchami ke din padmavati sakhiyon ke sahit mndap men gee aur udhar bhi pahunchi jidhar ratnasen aur usake sathi jogi the. par jyon hi ratnasen ki aaunkhen us par padin, vah moorchchhit hokar gir pada. padmavati ne ratnasen ko sab prakar se vaisa hi paya jaisa sooe ne kaha tha. vah moorchchhit jogi ke pas pahunchi aur use hosh men lane ke lie us par chandan chhidaka. jab vah n jaga tab chandan se usake hriday par yah bat likhakar vah chali gee ki 'jogi, toone bhiksha prapt karane yogy yog nahin sikha, jab phalaprapti ka samay aya tab too so gaya.'

parvati dvara ratnasen ki pariksha lena
rani padmini (abhikalpit chitr)

raja ko jab hosh aya tab vah bahut pachhatane laga aur jal kar marane ko taiyar hua. sab devataon ko bhay hua ki yadi kahin yah jala to isaki ghor virahagni se sare lok bhasm ho jaenge. unhonne jakar mahadev parvati ke yahan pukar ki. mahadev kodhi ke vesh men bail par chadhe raja ke pas ae aur jalane ka karan poochhane lage. idhar parvati ki, jo mahadev ke sath aeen thin, yah ichchha huee ki raja ke prem ki pariksha len. ye atyant sundari apsara ka roop dharanakar aeen aur boli - 'mujhe indr ne bheja hai. padmavati ko jane de, tujhe apsara prapt huee.' ratnasen ne kaha - 'mujhe padmavati ko chhod aur kisi se kuchh prayojan nahin.' parvati ne mahadev se kaha ki ratnasen ka prem sachcha hai. ratnasen ne dekha ki is kodhi ki chhaya nahin padati hai, isake sharir par makkhiyan nahin baithati hain aur isaki palaken nahin girati hain at: yah nishchay hi koee siddh purush hai. phir mahadev ko pahachanakar vah unake pairon par gir pada. mahadev ne use siddhi gutika di aur sinhalagadh men ghusane ka marg bataya. siddhi gutika pakar ratnasen sab jogiyon ko lie sinhalagadh par chadhane laga.

ratnasen ka pakada jana

raja gandharvasen ke yahan jab yah khabar pahunchi tab usane doot bheje. dooton se jogi ratnasen ne padmini ke pane ka abhipray kaha. doot kruddh hokar laut ge. is bich hiraman ratnasen ka premasandesh lekar padmavati ke pas gaya aur padmavati ka premabhara sndesh lakar usane ratnasen se kaha. is sandesh se ratnasen ke sharir men aur bhi bal a gaya. gadh ke bhitar jo agadh kund tha vah rat ko usamen dhnsa aur bhitari dvar ko, jisamen vajr ke kivad lage the, usane ja khola. par is bich sabera ho gaya aur vah apane sathi jogiyon ke sahit gher liya gaya. raja gandharvasen ke yahan vichar hua ki jogiyon ko pakadakar sooli de di jay. dal bal ke sahit sab saradaron ne jogiyon par chadhaee ki. ratnasen ke sathi yuddh ke lie utsuk hue par ratnasen ne unhen yah upadesh dekar shant kiya ki premamarg men krodh karana uchit nahin. ant men sab jogiyon sahit ratnasen pakada gaya. idhar yah sab samachar sun padmavati ki buri dasha ho rahi thi. hiraman sooe ne jakar use dhiraj bndhaya ki ratnasen poorn siddh ho gaya hai, vah mar nahin sakata.

yuddh aur ratnasen ka padmini se vivah

jab ratnasen ko bandhakar sooli dene ke lie lae tab jisane use dekha sabane kaha ki yah koee rajapootr jan padata hai. idhar sooli ki taiyari ho rahi thi, udhar ratnasen padmavati ka nam rat raha tha. mahadev ne jab jogi par aisa snkat dekha tab ve aur parvati bhat bhatini ka roop dharakar vahan pahunche. is bich hiraman sooa bhi ratnasen ke pas padmavati ka yah sndesh lekar aya ki 'main bhi hatheli par pran lie baithi hoon, mera jina marana tumhare sath hai.' bhat (jo vastav men mahadev the) ne raja gandharvasen ko bahut samajhaya ki yah jogi nahin raja aur tumhari kanya ke yogy var hai, par raja is par aur bhi kruddh hua. is bich jogiyon ka dal charon or se ladaee ke lie chadha. mahadev ke sath hanuman adi sab devata jogiyon ki sahayata ke lie a khade hue. gandharvasen ki sena ke hathiyon ka samooh jab age badha tab hanuman ji ne apani lambi poonchh men sabako lapetakar akash men phenk diya. raja gandharvasen ko phir mahadev ka ghanta aur vishnu ka shnkh jogiyon ki or sunaee pada aur sakshat shiv yuddhasthal men dikhaee pade. yah dekhate hi gandharvasen mahadev ke charanon par ja gira aur bola - 'kanya apaki hai, jise chahie use dijie'. isake uparant hiraman sooe ne akar raja ratnasen ke chittaud se ane ka sab vrittant kah sunaya aur gandharvasen ne badi dhoomadham se ratnasen ke sath padmavati ka vivah kar diya. ratnasen ke sathi jo solah hazar kunvar the un sabaka vivah bhi padmini striyon ke sath ho gaya aur sab log bade anand ke sath kuchh dinon tak sinhal men rahe.

nagamati ka virah

idhar chittaud men viyogini nagamati ko raja ki bat johate ek varsh ho gaya. usake vilap se pashu pakshi vikal ho ge. ant men adhi rat ko ek pakshi ne nagamati ke du:kh ka karan poochha. nagamati ne usase ratnasen ke pas pahunchane ke lie apana sndesa kaha. vah pakshi nagamati ka sndesa lekar sinhaladvip gaya aur samudr ke kinare ek ped par baitha. snyog se ratnasen shikar khelate khelate usi ped ke niche ja khada hua. pakshi ne ped par se nagamati ki du:kh katha aur chittaud ki hin dasha ka varnan kiya. ratnasen ka ji sinhal se uchata aur usane svadesh ki or prasthan kiya. chalate samay use sinhal ke raja ke yahan se vidaee men bahut sa saman aur dhan mila. itani adhik sampatti dekh raja ke man men garv aur lobh hua. vah sochane laga ki itana adhik dhan lekar yadi main svadesh pahuncha to phir mere saman snsar men kaun hai. is prakar lobh ne raja ko a ghera.

samudr ka krodh

samudratat par jab ratnasen aya tab samudr yachak ka roop dharakar raja se dan mangane aya, par raja ne lobhavash usaka tiraskar kar diya. raja adhe samudr men bhi nahin pahuncha tha ki bade zor ka toofan aya jisase jahaz dakkhin lnka ki or bah ge. vahan vibhishan ka ek rakshas manjhi machhali mar raha tha. vah achchha ahar dekh raja se akar bola ki chalo ham tumhen raste par laga den. raja usaki baton men a gaya. vah rakshas sab jahajon ko ek bhaynkar samudr men le gaya jahan se nikalana kathin tha. jahaz chakkar khane lage aur hathi, ghode, manushy adi doobane lage. vah rakshas anand se nachane laga. is bich samudr ka rajapakshi vahan a pahuncha jisake dainon ka aisa ghor shabd hua mano pahad ke shikhar toot rahe hon. vah pakshi us dusht rakshas ko chngul men dabakar ud gaya. jahaz ke ek takhte par ek or raja baha aur doosare takhte par doosari or rani.

padmavati ka vilap

padmavati bahate bahate vahan ja lagi jahan samudr ki kanya lakshmi apani saheliyon ke sath khel rahi thi. lakshmi moorchchhit padmavati ko apane ghar le gee. padmavati ko jab chet hua tab vah ratnasen ke lie vilap karane lagi. lakshmi ne use dhiraj bndhaya aur apane pita samudr se raja ki khoj karane ka vachan diya. idhar raja bahate bahate ek aise nirjan sthan men pahuncha jahan moongon ke tilon ke siva aur kuchh n tha. raja padmini ke lie bahut vilap karane laga aur katar lekar apane gale men marana hi chahata tha ki brahman ka roop dharakar samudr usake samane a khada hua aur use marane se roka. ant men samudr ne raja se kaha ki tum meri lathi pakadakar ankh moond lo; main tumhen jahan padmavati hai usi tat par pahuncha doonga.

lakshmi dvara ratnasen ki pariksha

jab raja us tat par pahunch gaya tab lakshmi usaki pariksha lene ke lie padmavati ka roop dharan kar raste men ja baithin. ratnasen unhen padmavati samajh unaki or lapaka. pas jane par ve kahane lagi- 'main padmavati hoon.' par ratnasen ne dekha ki yah padmavati nahin hai, tab chat munh pher liya. ant men lakshmi ratnasen ko padmavati ke pas le geen. ratnasen aur padmavati kee dinon tak samudr aur lakshmi ke mehaman rahe. padmavati ki prarthana par lakshmi ne un sab sathiyon ko bhi la khada kiya jo idhar udhar bah ge the. jo mar ge the ve bhi amrit se jivit kie ge. is prakar bade anand se donon vahan se vida hue. vida hote samay samudr ne bahut se amooly ratn die. sabase badhakar panch padarth die -

  1. amrit
  2. hns
  3. rajapakshi
  4. shardool aur
  5. paras patthar.

in sab anamol padarthon ko lie ant men ratnasen aur padmavati chittaud pahunch ge. nagamati aur padmavati donon raniyon ke sath ratnasen sukhapoorvak rahane lage. nagamati se nagasen aur padmavati se kamalasen ye do putr raja ko hue.

raghav ko desh nikala

chittaudagadh ki rajasabha men raghavachetan nam ka ek pandit tha jise yakshini siddh thi. ek din raja ne panditon se poochha, 'dooj kab hai?' raghav ke munh se nikala 'aj'. aur sab panditon ne ek svar se kaha ki 'aj nahin ho sakati, kal hogi.' raghav ne kaha 'ki yadi aj dooj n ho to main pandit nahin.' panditon ne kaha ki 'raghav vamamargi hai; yakshini ki pooja karata hai, jo chahe so kar dikhave, par aj dooj nahin ho sakati.' raghav ne yakshini ke prabhav se usi din sndhya ke samay dvitiya ka chandrama dikha diya.'[1] par jab doosare din chandrama dekha gaya tab vah dvitiya ka hi chandrama tha. is par panditon ne raja ratnasen se kaha - 'dekhie, yadi kal dvitiya rahi hoti, to aj chandrama ki kala kuchh adhik hoti; jhooth aur sach ki parakh kar lijie.' raghav ka bhed khul gaya aur vah ved viruddh achar karane vala pramanit hua. raja ratnasen ne use desh nikale ka dand diya.

raghav ka badala

padmavati ne jab yah suna tab usane aise guni pandit ka asantusht hokar jana rajy ke lie achchha nahin samajha. usane bhari dan dekar raghav ko prasann karana chaha. sooryagrahan ka dan dene ke lie usane use bulaya. jab raghav mahal ke niche aya tab padmavati ne apane hath ka ek amooly kngan, jisaka joda aur kahin dushprapy tha, jharokhe par se phenka. jharokhe par padmavati ki jhalak dekh raghav besudh hokar gir pada. jab use chet hua tab usane socha ki ab yah kngan lekar badashah ke pas dilli chaloon aur padmini ke roop ka usake samane varnan karoon. vah lampat hai, turant chittaud par chadhaee karega aur isake jod ka doosara kngan bhi mujhe inam dega. yadi aisa hua to raja se main badala bhi le loonga aur sukh se jivan bhi bitaoonga.

alauddin dvara chadhaee aur sndhi

yah sochakar raghav dilli pahuncha aur vahan badashah alauddin ko kngan dikhakar usane padmini ke roop ka varnan kiya. alauddin ne bade adar se use apane yahan rakha aur 'saraja' namak ek doot ke hath ek patr ratnasen ke pas bheja ki padmini ko turant bhej do, badale men aur jitana rajy chaho le lo. patr pate hi raja ratnasen krodh se lal ho gaya aur bigadakar doot ko vapas kar diya. alauddin ne chittaud gadh par chadhaee kar di. ath varsh tak musalaman chittaud ko ghere rahe aur ghor yuddh hota raha, par gadh n toot saka. isi bich dilli se ek patr alauddin ko mila jisamen harev logon ke phir se chadh ane ka samachar likha tha. badashah ne jab yah dekha ki gadh nahin tootata hai tab usane kapat ki ek chal sochi. usane ratnasen ke pas sandhi ka ek prastav bheja aur yah kahalaya ki mujhe padmini nahin chahie; samudr se jo panch amooly vastuen tumhen mili hain unhen dekar mel kar lo.

nitigyon dvara virodh

raja ne svikar kar liya aur badashah ko chittaudagadh ke bhitar le jakar badi dhoomadham se usaki davat ki. gora badal namak vishvasapatr saradaron ne raja ko bahut samajhaya ki musalamanon ka vishvas karana thik nahin, par raja ne dhyan n diya. ve donon vir nitigy saradar roothakar apane ghar chale ge. kee dinon tak badashah ki mehamanadari hoti rahi. ek din vah tahalate tahalate padmini ke mahal ki or bhi ja nikala, jahan ek se ek roopavati striyan svagat ke lie khadi thin. badashah ne raghav se, jo barabar usake sath sath tha, poochha ki 'inamen padmini kaun hai?' raghav ne kaha, 'padmini inamen kahan? ye to usaki dasiyan hain.' badashah padmini ke mahal ke samane hi ek sthan par baithakar raja ke sath shatarnj khelane laga. jahan vah baitha tha vahan usane ek darpan bhi rakh diya tha ki padmini yadi jharokhe par avegi to usaka pratibimb darpan men dekhoonga. padmini kutoohalavash jharokhe ke pas aee aur badashah ne usaka pratibimb darpan men dekha. dekhate hi vah behosh hokar gir pada.

ratnasen ko pakadakar dilli le jana

ant men badashah ne raja se vida mangi. raja use pahunchane ke lie sath- sath chala. ek ek phatak par badashah raja ko kuchh n kuchh deta chala. antim phatak par hote hi raghav ke ishare se badashah ne ratnasen ko pakad liya aur bandhakar dilli le gaya. vahan raja ko tng kothari men band karake vah anek prakar ke bhaynkar kasht dene laga. idhar chittaud men hahakar mach gaya. donon raniyan ro rokar pran dene lagin. is avasar par raja ratnasen ke shatru kumbhalaner ke raja devapal ko dushtata soojhi. usane kumudani nam ki dooti ko padmavati ke pas bheja. pahale to padmini apane mayake ki stri sunakar bade prem se mili aur usase apana du:kh kahane lagi, par jab dhire dhire usaka bhed khula tab usane uchit dand dekar use nikalava diya. isake pichhe alauddin ne bhi jogin ke vesh men ek dooti is asha se bheji ki vah ratnasen se bhent karane ke bahane padmini ko jogin banakar apane sath dilli laegi. par usaki dal bhi n gali.

gora badal

ant men padmini gora aur badal ke ghar gee aur un donon kshatriy viron ke samane apana du:kh rokar usane unase raja ko chhudane ki prarthana ki. donon ne raja ko chhudane ki dridh pratigya ki aur rani ko bahut dhiraj bndhaya. donon ne socha ki jis prakar musalamanon ne dhokha diya hai usi prakar unake sath bhi chal chalani chahie. unhonne solah sau dhaki palakiyon ke bhitar sashastr rajapoot saradaron ko bithaya aur jo sabase uttam aur bahumooly palaki thi usake bhitar aujar ke sath ek lohar ko bithaya. is prakar ve yah prasiddh karake chale ki solah sau dasiyon ke sahit padmini dilli ja rahi hai.

gora badal ka ratnasen ko chhudana

gora ke putr badal ki avastha bahut thodi thi. jis din dilli jana tha usi din usaka gauna aya tha. usaki navagata vadhoo ne use yuddh men jane se bahut roka par us vir kumar ne ek n suni. ant men solah sau savariyon ke sahit ve dilli ke qile men pahunche. vahan karmachariyon ko ghoos dekar apane anukool kiya jisase kisi ne palakiyon ki talashi n li. badashah ke yahan khabar gee ki padmini aee hai aur kahati hai ki raja se mil loon aur unhen chittaud ke khazane ki kunji supurd kar doon tab mahal men jaoon. badashah ne agya de di. vah saji huee palaki vahan pahunchaee gee jahan raja ratnasen kaid tha. palaki men se nikalakar lohar ne chat raja ki bedi kat di aur vah shastr lekar ek ghode par savar ho gaya jo pahale se taiyar tha. dekhate dekhate aur hathiyaraband saradar bhi palakiyon men se nikal pade. is prakar gora aur badal raja ko chhudakar chittaudagadh chale.

ratnasen ka badala lena aur shahid hona

badashah ne jab suna tab apani sena sahit pichha kiya. gora badal ne jab shahi fauj pichhe dekhi tab ek hazar sainikon ko lekar gora to shahi fauj ko rokane ke lie dat gaya aur badal raja ratnasen ko lekar chittaud ki or badha. vriddh vir gora badi virata se ladakar aur hajaron ko marakar ant men 'saraja' ke hath se mara gaya. is bich men raja ratnasen chittaud pahunch gaya. pahunchate hi usi din rat ko padmini ke munh se ratnasen ne jab devapal ki dushtata ka hal suna tab usane use bandh lane ki pratigya ki. sabera hote hi ratnasen ne kumbhalaner par chadhaee kar di. ratnasen aur devapal ke bich dvandv yuddh hua. devapal ki sang ratnasen ki nabhi men ghusakar us par nikal gee. devapal sang marakar lautana hi chahata tha ki ratnasen ne use ja pakada aur usaka sir katakar usake hath-pair bandhen. is prakar apani pratigya poori kar aur chittaudagadh ki raksha ka bhar 'badal' ko saunp ratnasen ne sharir chhoda.

raniyon ka sati hona

raja ke shav ko lekar padmavati aur nagamati donon raniyan sati ho geen. itane men shahi sena chittaudagadh a pahunchi. badashah ne padmini ke sati hone ka samachar suna. badal ne pran rahate gadh ki raksha ki par ant men vah phatak ki ladaee men mara gaya aur chittaudagadh par musalamanon ka adhikar ho gaya.[2]

padmavat ki aitihasikata

rani nagamati ek tote (sua) se apani sundarata ke bare men poochhati huee
  • padmavat ki sampoorn akhyayika ko ham do bhagon men vibhakt kar sakate hain -
poorvarddh

ratnasen ki sinhaladvip yatr se lekar chittaud lautane tak ham katha ka poorvardh man sakate hain. poorvardh ek kalpit kahani hai.

uttarardh

raghav ke nikale jane se lekar padmini ke sati hone tak uttarardh. uttarardh aitihasik adhar par hai.

  • taaud ke anusar - 'alauddin ne snvat 1346[3] men phir chittaudagadh par chadhaee ki. isi doosari chadhaee men rana apane gyarah putron sahit mare ge. jab rana ke gyarah putr mare ja chuke aur svayn rana ke yuddhakshetr men jane ki bari aee tab padmini ne jauhar kiya. kee sau rajapoot lalanaon ke sath padmini ne chittaudagadh ke us gupt bhoodhare men pravesh kiya jahan un sati striyon ko apani god men lene ke lie ag dahak rahi thi. idhar yah kand samapt hua udhar vir bhimasi ne ranakshetr men shariratyag kiya.' tad ne jo vrittantash diya hai vah rajapootane men rakshit charanon ke itihason ke adhar par hai.
  • thik yahi vrittant 'aina e akabari' men diya hua hai. 'aina e akabari' men bhimasi ke sthan par ratanasi (ratnasinh ya ratnasen) nam hai.
  • in donon aitihasik vrittanton ke sath jayasi dvara varnit katha ka milan karane se kee baton ka pata chalata hai. pahali bat to yah hai ki jayasi ne jo 'ratnasen' nam diya hai yah unaka kalpit nahin hai, kyonki pray: unake samasamayik ya thode hi pichhe ke granth 'aine akabari' men bhi yahi nam aya tha. yah nam avashy itihasgyon men prasiddh tha.
  • jayasi ne ratnasen ka musalamanon ke hath se mara jana n likhakar jo devapal ke sath dvandvayuddh men kumbhalaneragadh ke niche mara jana likha hai usaka adhar shayad vishvasaghati ke sath badashah se milane jane vala vah pravad ho jisaka ullekh aine akabarikar ne kiya hai.
uttar bharat men prachalit katha

ab 'padmavat' ki poorvardh katha jayasi dvara kalpit hai athava jayasi ke pahale se kahani ke roop men janasadharan ke bich prachalit chali ati hai. uttar bharat men, visheshat: avadh men, 'padmini rani aur hiraman sooe' ki kahani ab tak pray: usi roop men kahi jati hai jis roop men jayasi ne usaka varnan kiya hai.

  • jayasi itihasavigy the isase unhonne ratnasen, alauddin adi nam die hain, par kahani kahane vale nam nahin lete hain; keval yahi kahate hain ki 'ek raja tha', 'dilli ka ek badashah tha', ityadi. yah kahani bich bich men ga gakar kahi jati hai. jaise, raja ki pahali rani jab darpan men apana munh dekhati hai tab sooe se poochhati hai-

des des tum phirau ho suata. more roop aur kahu koee॥
sooa uttar deta hai-
kah bakhanaun sinhal ke rani. tore roop bharai sab pani॥

anuman hai ki jayasi ne prachalit kahani ko hi lekar sookshm byoron ki manohar kalpana karake, ise kavy ka sundar svaroop diya hai. is manohar kahani ko kee logon ne kavy ke roop men bandha.

  • husain gajanavi ne 'kissa e padmavat' nam ka ek pharasi kavy likha.
  • sanh 1652 ee. men rayagovind munshi ne padmavati ki kahani pharasi gady men 'tukaphatul kuloob' ke nam se likhi.
  • usake bad mir jiyauddin 'ibrat' aur gulamali 'isharat' ne milakar sanh 1769 ee. men urdoo sheron men is kahani ko likha.
  • malik muhammad jayasi ne apani padmavat sanh 1520 ee. men likhi thi.[2]

'padmavat' ki premapaddhati

vasudev sharan agraval dvara padmavat ki vyakhya

'padmavat' ek prem kahani hai. ab snkshep men yah dekhana chahie ki kaviyon men dampaty prem ka avirbhav varnan karane ki jo pranaliyan prachalit hain unamen se 'padmavat' men varnit prem kisake antargat jata hai.

  • jayasi ke shrringar men manasik paksh pradhan hai, sharirik gaun hai. chumban, alingan adi ka varnan kavi ne bahut kam kiya hai, keval man ke ullas aur vedana ka kathan adhik kiya hai. prayatn nayak ki or se hai aur usaki kathinata dvara kavi ne nayak ke prem ko napa hai. nayak ka yah adarsh laila majanoon, shirin pharahad adi arabi pharasi kahaniyon ke adarsh se milata julata hai
  • bharatiy premapaddhati adi men to lokasambaddh aur vyavaharatmak thi hi, pichhe bhi adhikatar vaisi hi rahi. adikavi ke kavy men prem lokavyavahar se kahin alag nahin dikhaya gaya hai, jivan ke aur vibhagon ke saundary ke bich usake saundary ki prabha phootati dikhaee padati hai.
  • jayasi ne yadyapi ishk ke dastanavali masanaviyon ke prem ke svaroop ko pradhan rakha hai par bich bich men bharat ke lok vyavahar snlagn svaroop ka bhi mel kiya hai. ishk ki masanaviyon ke saman 'padamavat' lokapakshashoony nahin hai. raja jogi hokar ghar se nikalata hai, itana kahakar kavi yah bhi kahata hai ki chalate samay usaki mata aur rani donon use ro rokar rokati hain. jaise kavi ne raja se snyog hone par padmavati ke rasarng ka varnan kiya vaise hi sinhaladvip se vida hote samay parijanon aur sakhiyon se alag hone ka svabhavik du:kh bhi. kavi ne jagah jagah padmavati ko jaise chandr, kamal ityadi ke roop men dekha hai, vaise hi use pratham samagam se darate, sapatni se jhagadate aur priy ke hit ke anukool lokavyavahar karate bhi dekha hai.
  • raghavachetan ke nikale jane par raja aur rajy ke anisht ki ashnka se padmavati us brahman ko apana khas kngan dan dekar santusht karana chahati hai. lokavyavahar ke bich bhi apani abha ka prasar karane vali premajyoti ka mahattv kuchh kam nahin.
  • jayasi aikantik prem ki goodhata aur gambhirata ke bich men jivan ke aur angon ke sath bhi us prem ke sampark ka svaroop kuchh dikhate ge hain, isase unaki premagatha parivarik aur samajik jivan se vichchhinn hone se bach gee hai.par hai vah premagatha hi, poorn jivanagatha nahin. granth ka poorvardh-adhe se adhik bhag-to premamarg ke vivaran se hi bhara hai.uttarardh men jivan ke aur angon ka sannivesh milata hai par ve poornataya parisphut nahin hain. men bhavatmak aur vyavaharatmak donon shailiyon ka mel hai.
  • dampaty prem ke atirikt manushy ki aur vrittiyan, jinaka kuchh vistar ke sath samavesh hai, ve yatra, yuddh, sapatnikalah, matrisneh, svamibhakti, virata, chhal aur satitv hain. par inake hote hue bhi 'padmavat' ko ham shrringar ras pradhan kavy hi kah sakate hain. 'ramacharit' ke saman manushy jivan ki bhinn bhinn bahut si paristhitiyon aur sambndhony ka isamen samanvay nahin hai.
roopalobh aur premalakshan

raja ratnasen tote ke munh se padmavati ka alaukik roopavarnan sun jis bhav ki prerana se nikal padata hai vah pahale roopalobh hi kaha ja sakata hai. premalakshan usi samay dikhaee padata hai jab vah shivamandir men padmavati ki jhalak dekh besudh ho jata hai. is prem ki poornata us samay sphut hoti hai jab parvati apsara ka roop dharan karake usake samane ati hain aur vah unake roop ki or dhyain n dekar kahata hai ki-

bhalehi rng achhari tor rata. mohi dusare saun bhav n bata॥
ukt kathan se roopalobh ki vynjana nahin hoti, prem ki vynjana hoti hai.
jayasi ke varnan men snyog aur viyog donon ka mishran hai. ratnasen ka nam tak sunane ke pahale viyog ki vyakulata kaise huee, isaka samadhan kavi ke pas yadi kuchh hai to ratnasen ke yog ka alakshy prabhav-
padamavati tehi jog snjoga. pari prem bas gahe viyoga॥

nagamati ka prem

sadhanatmak rahasyavad men yog jis prakar agyat eeshvar ke prati hota hai usi prakar soophiyon ka premayog bhi agyat ke prati hota hai. padmavati ke navaprasphutit prem ke sath sath nagamati ka garhasthy paripusht prem bhi atyant manohar hai. padmavati premika ke roop men adhik lakshit hoti hai, par nagamati patipran hindoo patni ke madhur roop men hi hamare samane ati hai. use pahale pahal ham roopagarvita aur premagarvita ke roop men dekhate hain. ye donon prakar ke garv dampaty sukh ke dyotak hain.[2]

nagamati ka viyog

jayasi ke bhavuk hriday ne svakiya ke punit prem ke saundary ko pahachana. nagamati ka viyog hindi sahity men vipralambh shrringar ka atyant utkrisht niroopan hai. purushon ke bahuvivah ki pratha se utpann premamarg ki vyavaharik jatilata ko jis darshanik dhng se kavi ne sulajhaya hai vah dhyahn dene yogy hai. nagamati aur padmavati ko jhagadate sunakar dakshin nayak raja ratnasen donon ko samajhata hai-

ek bar jei priy man boojha . so dusare saun kahe k joojha॥
ais gyan man jan n koee . kabahoon rati , kabahoon din hoee॥
dhoop chhanh doonau ek rnga . doonon mile rahahin ek snga॥
joojhab chhandahu , boojhahu dooo. sev karahu, sevaphal hooo॥

oopar ki chaupaiyon men pati patni ke parasparik premasambandhon ki bat bachakar sevy-sevak bhav par zor diya gaya hai. isi prakar ki yuktiyon se purani ritiyon ka samarthan pray: kiya jata hai. hinduon aur musalamanon donon men kee striyon se vivah karane ki riti barabar se hai. at: ek premagatha ke bhitar bhi jayasi ne usaka sannivesh karake bade kaushal se usake dvara mat sambandhi vivad shanti ka upadesh nikala hai.[2]

shaili

jayasi ne is mahakavy ki rachana doha-chaupaiyon men ki hai. jayasi snskrit, arabi evn pharasi ke gyata the, phir bhi unhonne apane grnth ki rachana theth avadhi bhasha men ki. isi bhasha evn shaili ka prayog bad men gosvami tulasidasaji ne apane grntharatn 'ramacharit manas' men kiya. padmavat ki bhasha avadhi hai. chaupaee namak chhnd ka prayog isame milata hai. inaki prabndh kushalata kamal ki hai. jayasi ke mahatv ke sambandh men baboo gulabaray likhate hai -

"jayasi mahanh kavi hai ,unamen kavi ke samast sahaj gun vidman hai. unhonne samayik samasya ke lie prem ki pir ki den di. us pir ko unhonne shaktishali mahakavy ke dvara upasthit kiya . ve amar kavi hai."[4]

jayasi ne 'padmavat' ke madhyam se hindoo aur musalamanon ki prithakh snskritiyon, dharmo, manyataon evn parnparaon ke bich samanvay tatha prem ka nirjhar pravahit kiya. vaishnavon ke eeshvaronmukh prem evn soophiyon ke rahasyavad ko jayasi ne mila diya hai. 'padmavat' jayasi ki kavy-kala ka utkrisht udaharan hai. hindi ke mahakavyon men tulasikrit 'ramacharit manas' ke bad 'padmavat' ki samakakshata men koee bhi grnth nahin thaharata. sahityik rahasyavad evn darshanik saundary se paripusht jayasi ki yah kriti unaki kirti ko amar rakhegi, isamen sndeh nahin hai. unaki doosari prasiddh pustak 'akharavat' hai, jisamen varnamala ke ek-ek akshar par soophi siddhanton se snbndhit baton ka vivechan hai. 'akhiri kalam' men mrityu ke bad jiv ki dasha tatha kayamat ke antim nyay ka varnan hai.[5]

nidhan

ramachndr shukl ne qazi nasirooddin husain jayasi ke adhar par jayasi ka mrityu-kal 949 hijari (1542 ee.) svikar kiya hai. jayasi ki mrityu amethi men huee. amethi men jayasi ki qabr hai, jahan hindoo-musalaman saman shraddhapoorvak ate hain. kavi ke roop men malik muhammad jayasi ki kirti ka ek hi mahattvapoorn adhar 'padmavat' hai, jise kavi ne rakt aur prem-jal se bhigokar likha hai.[6]

rachanaen

jayasi ki any rachanaen ye hain- 'akharavat', 'akhiri kalam', 'chitrarekha', 'masalanama', 'kaharanama'.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. lona ke sambandh men bhi prasiddh hai ki usaki bat isi prakar se saty karane ke lie devi ne pratipada ke din akash men jakar apane hath ka kngan dikhaya tha jise dekhane valon ko dvitiya ke chandrama ka bhram hua tha.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 malik muhammad jayasi (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) hindi samay daaut kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 7 julaee, 2011.
  3. san 1290 ee; par pharishta ke anusar sanh 1303 ee. jo ki thik mana jata hai
  4. malik muhammad jayasi (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 7julaee, 2011.
  5. malik muhammad jayasi ki samanvay bhavana (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 7julaee, 2011.
  6. malik muhammad jayasi (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 7julaee, 2011.

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