ईलियद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

eeliyad yoorop ke adikavi homar dvara rachit mahakavy. isaka namakaran eeliyan nagar (tray) ke yuddh ke varnan ke karan hua hai. samagr rachana 24 pustakon men vibhakt hai aur isamen 15,693 pnktiyan hain.

snkshep men is mahakavy ki kathavastu is prakar hai : eeliyan ke raja priyam ke putr peris ne sparta ke raja menelaus ki patni param sundari helen ka usake pati ki anupasthiti men apaharan kar liya tha. helen ko pun: prapt karane tatha eeliyan ko dnd dene ke lie menelaus aur usake bhaee agamemnan ne samast grik rajaon aur samnton ki sena ekatr karake eeliyan ke viruddh abhiyan arnbh kiya. parntu is abhiyan ke uparyukt karan, aur usake antim parinam, arthath‌ eeliyan ke vidhvns ka pratyaksh varnan is kavy men nahin hai. isaka arnbh to grik shivir men kavy ke nayak ekilij ke rosh se hota hai. agamemnan ne sooryadev apolo ke pujari ki putri ko balatkarapoorvak apane pas rakh chhoda hai. parinamat: grik shivir men mahamari phaili huee hai. bhavishyadrashta kalkas ne batalaya ki jab tak pujari ki putri ko nahin lautaya jaega tab tak mahamari nahin rukegi. agamemnan badi kathinaee se isake lie prastut hota hai par isake sath hi vah badale men ekiliz ke pas se ek doosari beti briseis ko chhin leta hai. ekiliz is apaman se kshubdh aur rusht hokar yuddh men n ladane ki pratigya karata hai. vah apani miramidan (pipilika) sena aur apane mitr patroklas ke sath apane deron men chala jata hai aur kisi bhi manuhar ko nahin sunata. parinamat: yuddh men agamemnan ke paksh ki kirakiri hone lagati hai. grik sena bhagakar apane shivir men sharan leti hai. paristhitiyon se vivash hokar agamemnan ekiliz ke pas apane doot bhejata hai aur usake rosh ke nivaran ke lie bahut kuchh karane ko taiyar ho jata hai. parntu ekiliz ka rosh door nahin hota aur vah doosare din apane ghar laut jane ki ghoshana karata hai. par vastav men vah agamemnan ki sena ki durdasha dekhane ke lie thahara rahata hai. kintu usaka mitr patroklas apane paksh ki is durdasha ko dekhakar ko dekhakar khijh uthata hai aur vah ekiliz se yuddh men ladane ki agya prapt kar leta hai. ekiliz usako apana kavach bhi de deta hai aur apane miramidan sainikon ko bhi usake sath yuddh karane ke lie bhej deta hai. patroklas eeliyan ki sena ko khaded deta hai par svayn ant men vah eeliyan ke maharathi hektar dvara mar dala jata hai. patroklas ke nidhan ka samachar sunakar ekiliz shok aur krodh se pagal ho jata hai aur agamemnan se sndhi karake navin kavach dharan kar hektar se apane mitr ka badala lene yuddh kshetr men pravisht ho jata hai. ekiliz se yuddh arnbh karate hi pasa palat jata hai. vah hektar ko mar dalata hai aur usake pair ko apane rath ke pichhale bhag se bandhakar usake sharir ko yuddhakshetr men ghasitata hai jisase usaka sir ghool men ludhakata chalata hai. isake pashchath‌ patroklas ki antyeshti bade that bat ke sath ki jati hai. ekiliz hektar ke shav ko apane shivir men le ata hai aur nirnay karata hai ki usaka sharir khnd-khnd karake kutton ko khila diya jae. hektar ka pita eeliyan raja priyam usake shivir men apane putr ka shav prapt karane ke lie upasthit hota hai. usake vilap se ekiliz ko apane pita ka smaran ho ata hai aur usaka krodh door ho jata hai aur vah karuna se abhibhoot hokar hektar ka shav usake pita ko de deta hai aur sath hi sath 12 din ke lie yuddh bhi rok diya jata hai. hektar ki antyeshti ke sath eeliyad ki samapti ho jati hai.

kuchh hastalikhit pratiyon men eeliyad ke ant men ek pnkti is ashay ki milati hai ki hektar ki antyeshti ke bad amezan (nistani) namak nari yoddhaon ki rani painthesiliya priyam ki sahayata ke lie aee. isi snket ke adhar par smarna ke kvintus namak kavi ne 14 pustakon men eeliyad ka poorak kavy likha tha. adhunik samay men shri aravind ghosh ne bhi apane jivan ki sndhya men matrik vritt men eeliyan namak eeliyad ko poorn karanevali rachana ka angreji bhasha men arnbh kiya tha jo poori nahin ho saki. navam pustak ki rachana ke madhy men hi unaki chirasamadhi ki upalabdhi ho gee.

eeliyad men jis yug ki ghatanaon ka ullekh hai usako virayug kahate hain. shliman aur dephailt ko tray nagar ki khudaee ke pashchath‌ is yug ki satyata nirvivad siddh ho chuki thi. ee.poo. 13vin aur 13 shatabdiyan is yug ka kal mani jati hain. par eeliyad ke rachanakal ki simaen ee.poo. navin aur satavin shatabdiyan hain. homar ki rachanaon se snbndh rakhanevali samasyaen atynt jatil hain. ek samay homar ke astitv tak par sndeh kiya jane laga tha. par ab sthiti adhik anukool ho chali hai, yadyapi ab bhi homar ke mahakavy ek vikasakram ki charam parinati mane jate hain jinamen ek lokottar pratibha ka kaushal spasht lakshit hota hai.

eeliyad men mahakavy ki drishti se saralata aur kavikarm ka abhootapoorv samnjasy hai. niti ki drishti se asadharan kam aur krodh ke vidhvnsakari parinam ka pradarshan jaisa is kavy men hua he vaisa anyatr mushkil se milega. isake purush patron men agamemnan, ekiliz, patroklas, menelaus, priyam, peris aur hektar ullekhaniy hain. stri patron men helen, hekuba, andromako ityadi mahan hain. yuddh men manushy aur devata sabhi bhag lete hain, kahin manushy gunon men devataon se oonche uth jate hain to kahin devata log manaviy durbalataon ke shikar hote drishtigochar hote hain evn parihas ke patr banate hain. bharatiy mahakavyon ke sath eeliyad ki anek baten mel khati hain, jinamen helen ka apaharan aur eeliyan ka dahan sita-haran aur lnkadahan se spasht sadrishy rakhate hain. snbhavat: isi karan megasthaniz ko bharat men homar ke mahakavyon ke astitv ka bhram hua tha.[1]

homar ke anuvad bahut hain parntu usaka anuvad, jaisa pratyek uchch koti ki maulik rachana ka anuvad hua karata hai, ek samasya hai. yadi anuvadak saralata par drishti rakhata hai to homar ke kavitv ko gnva baithata hai aur kavitv ko pakadana chahata hai to saralata kaphoor ho jati hai.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 37 |
  2. sn.grn.-moolamatr : munaron aur elen ka aksaphord ka snskaran. sanuvad : loeb klasikal laibreri ka snskaran. sulabh saste anuvad : rivyoo paingvin aur rauz (maitar) ke snskaran.alochana : gilbart mare, ainshent grik litarechar; naurvud : raitars aauv gris; baura : ainshent grik litarechar.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah