भक्तिकाल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi sahity men bhaktikal 1375 vi0 se 1700 vi0 tak jana jata hai. hindi sahity ka madhyakal bhaktikal ke nam se prasiddh hai. yah samay bhaktikal ke nam se prasiddh hai. bhaktikal hindi sahity ka shreshth yug hai. bhaktikal ka arnbh chaudahavin-pndrahavin shatabdi se mana jata hai. hindi sahity ki uttam rachanaen aur samast shreshth kavi is yug men hue hain. dakshin men alavar bndhu nam se prasiddh bhakt hue hain. inamen se anek nichi jatiyon se the. ve padhe-likhe bhi nahin the lekin bahut hi anubhavi the. alavaron ke bad dakshin men acharyon ki ek parnpara chali jisamen ramanujachary pramukh the. ramanujachary ki parnpara men age chalakar ramannd hue. ramannd ka vyaktitv asadharan tha. ve us samay ke sabase bade achary the. unhonne bhakti ke kshetr men oonch-nich ka bhed khatm kiya. sabhi jatiyon ke yogy vyaktiyon ko unhonne apana shishy banaya. us samay ka sootr ho gaya tha-

jati-panti poochhe nahin koee.
hari ko bhajai so hari ka hoee.

ramannd ne vishnu ke avatar ram ki upasana par zor diya. ramannd aur unake shishyon ne dakshin ki bhaktignga ko uttar men pravahit kiya. poore uttar-bharat men bhaktidhara bahane lagi. us samay poore bharat men yogy snt aur mahatma bhakton ka avirbhav hua.


mahaprabhu vallabhachary ne pushtimarg ko sthapit kiya aur vishnu ke krishnavatar ki upasana ko pracharit kiya. vallabhachary ke dvara jis lila-gan ka prasar hua usane poore desh ko prabhavit kiya. ashtachhap ke suprasiddh kaviyon ne vallabhachary ke upadeshon ko madhur kavita men bana jan-jan men pahunchaya. vallabhachary ke bad madhv aur ninbark snpradayon ka bhi jan-manas par bahut gahara prabhav pada. sadhana-kshetr ke do any snpraday bhi us samay vidyaman the. nathon ke yog-marg se prabhavit snt snpraday chala jisamen snt kabiradas pramukh hai. muslim kaviyon ka soophivad hinduon ke vishishtadvaitavad se bahut alag nahin hai. kuchh bhavuk muslim kaviyon ne soophivad men doobi huee ati uttam rachanaen likhi.

prasiddh kavi

bhaktikal ki avadhi men kabir, raidas, nanak, dadoodayal, sundar das, malookadas, kutaban, mnjhan, jayasi, usaman, sooradas, paramanndadas, kunbhanadas, nndadas, hitaharivnsh, haridas, rasakhan, dhruvadas, mirabaee, tulasidas, agradas, nabhadas adi ne apani bhaktipoorn rachanaon se hindi sahity ki shrivriddhi ki. in kaviyon ke aradhyon ke nam-roop men prakatat: bhale hi antar pratit ho, samarpan ki bhavana sabhi men vidyaman hai.

kavy-dharaen

bhaktikal men char pramukh kavy-dharaen milati hain :


  • gyanashrayi shakha aur premashrayi shakha donon dharaen nirgun mat men ati hain.
  • krishnashrayi shakha aur ramashrayi shakha donon sagun mat ke antargat ati hain.

gyanashrayi shakha

gyanashrayi shakha ke bhakt-kavi nirgunavadi the aur nam ki upasana karate the. guru ka ve bahut samman karate the aur jati-pati ke bhedon ko nahin manate the. vaiyaktik sadhana ko vah pramukhata dete the. mithya adnbaron aur roodhiyon ka virodh karate the. lagabhag sabhi snt anapadh the lekin anubhav ki drishti se bahut hi samridhd the.

premashrayi shakha

premashrayi shakha ke muslim soophi kaviyon ki kavy-dhara ko premamargi mana gaya kyonki prem se hi prabhu milate hain aisi unaki manyata thi. eeshvar ki tarah prem bhi sarvavyapi hai aur eeshvar ka jiv ke sath prem ka hi snbndh ho sakata hai, yahi unaki rachanaon ka mool tattv hai . unhonne premagathaen likhi hain. ye premagathaen farasi ki masanaviyon ki shaili par rachi gee hain. in gathaon ki bhasha avadhi hai aur inamen doha-chaupaee chhndon ka prayog kiya gaya hai. muslim hote hue bhi in kaviyon ne hindoo-jivan se judi kathaen likhi hain. khndan-mndan n kar in faqir kaviyon ne bhautik prem ke madhyam se eeshvariy prem ko varnit kiya hai.

krishnashrayi shakha

krishnashrayi shakha ka sabase adhik prachar aur prasar hua hai. anek snpradayon men uchch koti ke kavi hue hain. inamen vallabhachary ke pushti-snpraday ke sooradas jaise mahanh kavi hue hain. vatsaly evn shrringararas ke shiromani bhakt-kavi sooradas ke padon ka paravarti hindi sahity par sabase adhik prabhav pada hai . is shakha ke kaviyon ne prayah muktak kavy hi likha hai. shri krishn ka bal evn kishor roop hi in kaviyon ko akarshit kar paya hai isalie inake kavyon men shrikrishn ke aishvary ki apeksha madhury ki hi pradhanata rahi hai.

ramashrayi shakha

krishnabhakti shakha ke antargat lila-purushottam krishn ka gan raha to ramabhakti shakha ke pramukh kavi tulasidas ne maryada-purushottam ram ka dhyan kiya. isalie kavi tulasidas ne ramachndr ko aradhy mana aur ‘ramacharitamanas’ se ram-katha ko ghar-ghar men pahuncha diya. tulasidas hindi sahity ke shreshth kavi mane jate hain. samanvayavadi tulasidas men lokanayak ke sabhi gun maujood the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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