रसखान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rasakhan vishay soochi
rasakhan
Raskhan-1.jpg
poora nam saiyyad ibrahim (rasakhan)
janm sanh 1533 se 1558 bich (lagabhag)
janm bhoomi pihani, haradoee zila, uttar pradesh
karm bhoomi mahavan (mathura)
karm-kshetr krishn bhakti kavy
mukhy rachanaen 'sujan rasakhan' aur 'premavatika'
vishay sagun krishnabhakti
bhasha sadharan braj bhasha
vishesh yogadan prakriti varnan, krishnabhakti
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari bharatendu harishchandr ne jin muslim haribhakton ke liye kaha tha, "in musalaman harijanan par kotin hindoo varie" unamen "rasakhan" ka nam sarvopari hai.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
rasakhan ki rachanaen
saiyyad ibrahim 'rasakhan' (angrezi:Raskhan) ka hindi sahity men krishn bhakt tatha ritikalin kaviyon men mahattvapoorn sthan hai. rasakhan ko 'ras ki khan(qan)' kaha jata hai. inake kavy men bhakti, shrringar ras donon pradhanata se milate hain. rasakhan krishn bhakt hain aur prabhu ke sagun aur nirgun nirakar roop ke prati shraddhalu hain. rasakhan ke sagun krishn lilaen karate hain. yatha- balalila, rasalila, phagalila, kunjalila adi. unhonne apane kavy ki simit paridhi men in asimit lilaon ka bahut sookshm varnan kiya hai. bharatendu harishchandr ne jin muslim haribhakton ke liye kaha tha, "in musalaman harijanan par kotin hindoo varie" unamen "rasakhan" ka nam sarvopari hai. saiyyad ibrahim "rasakhan" ka janm upalabdh sroton ke anusar sanh 1533 se 1558 ke bich kabhi hua hoga. akabar ka rajyakal 1556-1605 hai, ye lagabhag akabar ke samakalin hain. janmasthan 'pihani' kuchh logon ke matanusar dilli ke samip hai. kuchh aur logon ke matanusar yah 'pihani' uttar pradesh ke haradoee zile men hai. mrityu ke bare men koee pramanik tathy nahin milate hain. rasakhan ne bhagavat ka anuvad farasi men bhi kiya.
rasakhan ke dohe mahavan, mathura

jivan parichay

rasakhan ke janm ke snbndh men vidvanon men matabhed paya jata hai. anek vidvanon ne inaka janm snvath 1615 ee. mana hai aur kuchh vidvanon ne 1630 ee. mana hai. rasakhan svayn batate hain ki gadar ke karan dilli shmashan ban chuki thi, tab use chhodakar ve braj chale gaye. aitihasik sakshy ke adhar par pata chalata hai ki uparyukt gadar sanh 1613 ee. men hua tha. unaki bat se aisa pratik hota hai ki vah gadar ke samay vayask the aur unaka janm gadar ke pahale hi hua hoga. rasakhan ka janm snvath 1590 ee. manana adhik samichin pratit hota hai. bhavani shnkar yagyik ne bhi yahi mana hai. anek tathyon ke adhar par unhonne apane is mat ki pushti bhi ki hai. aitihasik grnthon ke adhar par bhi yahi tathy samane ata hai. yah manana adhik prabhavashali pratit hota hai ki rasakhan ka janm 1590 ee. men hua hoga.[1]

janm sthan

rasakhan prekshagrih, haradoee

rasakhan ke janm sthan ke vishay men anek vidvanon ne anek mat prastut kie hain. kee to rasakhan ke janm sthan pihani athava dilli ko batate hain, kintu yah kaha jata hai ki dipali shabd ka prayog unake kavy men keval ek bar hi milata hai. jaisa ki pahale likha gaya ki rasakhan ne gadar ke karan dilli ko shmashan bataya hai. usake bad ki zindagi usaki mathura men gujari. shivasinh saroj tatha hindi sahity ke pratham itihas tatha aitihasik tathyon evn any pusht pramanon ke adhar par rasakhan ki janm-bhoomi pihani zila haradoee mana jae. haradoee janapad mukhyalay par nirmit ek prekshagrah ka nam ‘rasakhan prekshagrah’ rakha gaya hai. pihani aur bilagram aisi jagah hain, jahan hindi ke bade-bade evn uttam koti ke musalaman kavi paida hue.[1]

nam evn upanam

janm sthan tatha janm kal ki tarah rasakhan ke nam evn upanam ke snbndh men bhi anek mat prastut kie ge hain. hajari prasad dvivedi ji ne apani pustak men rasakhan ke do nam likhe hain:- saiyyad ibrahim aur sujan rasakhan. jabaki sujan rasakhan ki ek rachana ka nam hai. halanki rasakhan ka asali nam saiyad ibrahim tha aur "khan' usaki upadhi thi. navalagadh ke rajakumar sngramasinh ji dvara prapt rasakhan ke chitr par nagari lipi ke sath- sath farasi lipi men bhi ek sthan par "rasakhan' tatha doosare sthan par "rasakhan' hi likha paya gaya hai. uparyukt sabooton ke adhar par kaha ja sakata hai ki rasakhan ne apana nam "rasakhan' sirph isalie rakha tha ki vah kavita men isaka prayog kar sake. farasi kaviyon ki nam chasipt men rakhane ki parnpara ka palan karate hue rasakhan ne bhi apane nam khane ke pahale "ras' lagakar svayn ko ras se bhare khan ya rasile khan ki dharana ke sath kavy- rachana ki. unake jivan men ras ki kami n thi. pahale laukik ras ka asvadan karate rahe, phir alaukik ras men lin hokar kavy rachana karane lage. ek sthan par unake kavy men "rasakhan' shabd ka prayog bhi milata hai.

nain dalalani chauhaten m manik piy hath.
"rasakhan' dhol bajaee ke bechiyon hiy jiy sath..

uparyukt sakshyon ke adhar par kaha ja sakata hai ki unaka nam saiyyad ibrahim tatha upanam "rasakhan' tha.[1]

balyakal tatha shiksha

rasakhan ek jagiradar pita ke putr the. isalie inaka lalan palan bade lad-pyar se hua mana jata hai. aisa isalie kaha jata hai ki unake kavy men kisi vishesh prakar ki katuta ka sarasar abhav paya jata hai. ek snpann parivar men paida hone ke karan unaki shiksha achchhi aur uchch koti ki gee thi. unaki yah vidvatta unake kavy ki sadhikar abhivyakti men jag zahir hote hain. rasakhan ko farasi, hindi evn snskriti ka achchha gyan tha. farasi men unhonne "shrimadbhagavat' ka anuvad karake yah sabit kar diya tha. isako dekh kar is bat ka abhas hota hai ki vah farasi aur hindi bhashaon ka achchha vakta honge. rasakhan ne apana baly jivan apar sukh- suvidhaon men gujara hoga. unhen padhane ke lie kisi makatab men jane ki avashyakata nahin padi hogi.[1]

vyaktitv

abraham jarj griyarsan ne likha hai saiyad ibrahim upanam rasakhan kavi, haradoee zile ke antargat pihani ke rahane vale, janm kal 1573 ee.. yah pahale musalaman the. bad men vaishnav hokar braj men rahane lage the. inaka varnan 'bhaktamal' men hai. inake ek shishy kadir bakhsh hue. sansarik prem ki sidhi se chadhakar rasakhan bhagavadiy prem ki sabase oonchi mnzil tak kaise pahunche, is snbndh ki do akhyayikaen prachalit hain. 'varta' men likha hai ki rasakhani pahale ek baniye ke ladake par atynt asakt the. usaka jootha tak yah kha lete the. ek din char vaishnav baithe bat kar rahe the ki bhagavanh‌ shrinath ji se priti aisi jodani chahie, jaise priti rasakhan ki us baniye ke ladake par hai. rasakhan ne raste men jate hue yah bat sun li. unhonne poochha ki 'apake shrinath ji ka svaroop kaisa hai?' vaishnavon ne shrinath ji ka ek sundar chitr unhen dikhaya. chitrapat men bhagavanh‌ ki anupam chhavi dekhakar rasakhani ka man udhar se phir gaya. prem ki vihval dasha men shrinath ji ka darshan karane yah gokul pahunche. gosaee vitthaladas ji ne inake antar ke paratpar prem ko pahachanakar inhen apani sharan men le liya. rasakhani shrinath ji ke anany bhakt ho ge.[2]

kavitaen

rasakhan ki kavitaon ke do sngrah prakashit hue hain- 'sujan rasakhan' aur 'premavatika'. 'sujan rasakhan' men 139 savaiye aur kavitt hai. 'premavatika' men 52 dohe hain, jinamen prem ka bada anootha niroopan kiya gaya hai. rasakhani ke saras savaiy sachamuch bejod hain. savaiya ka doosara nam 'rasakhan' bhi pad gaya hai. shuddh brajabhasha men rasakhani ne premabhakti ki atynt sundar prasadamayi rachanaen ki hain. yah ek uchch koti ke bhakt kavi the, isamen sndeh nahin.

manush haun to vahi rasakhani basaun braj gokul ganv ke gvalan.
jo pasu haun to kaha basu mero charaun nit nand ki dhenu mnjharan.
pahan haun to vahi giri ko jo dharayau kar chhatr purandar dharan.
jo khag haun basero karaun mil kalindi-kool-kadamb ki daran..

sahityik visheshataen

saiyyad ibrahim rasakhan ke kavy ke adhar bhagavan shrikrishn hain. rasakhan ne unaki hi lilaon ka gan kiya hai. unake poore kavy- rachana men bhagavan shrikrishn ki bhakti ki gee hai. isase bhi age badhate hue rasakhan ne suphijm (tasavvuph) ko bhi bhagavan shrikrishn ke madhyam se hi prakat kiya hai. isase yah kaha ja sakata hai ki ve samajik evn apasi sauhard ke kitane himayati the.

holi varnan

krishn bhakt kaviyon ki tarah rasakhan ne bhi krishn ji ki ullasamayi lilaon ka vistarapoorvak varnan kiya hai. unhonne apane padon men krishn ko gopiyon ke sath holi khelate hue dikhaya gaya hai, jinamen krishn gopiyon ko kinbhago dete hain. gopiyan phalgun ke sath krishn ke avagunon ki charcha karate hue kahati hain ki krishn ne holi khel kar ham men kam- vasana jagrit kar di hain. pichakari tatha ghamar se hamen kinbhago diya hai. is tarah hamara har bhi toot gaya hai. rasakhan apane pad men krishn ko maryada hin chitrit kiya hai:-

avat lal gulal lie mag sune mili ik nar navini.
tyon rasakhani jagai hiye yatoo moj kiyo man mahi adhini.
sari phati sukumari hati, angiya daraki saraki rng bhini.
lal gulal lagai ke ank rijhai bida kari dini.

kala paksh

kavi ne kahin chamatkar lane ke lie alnkaron ko barabas thoonsane ki cheshta nahin ki hai. bhav aur ras ke pravah par bhi usaki drishti kendrit rahi hai. bhavon aur rason ki abhivyakti ko utkrisht banane ke lie hi alnkaron ki yojana ki gee hai. uchit sthan par alnkaron ka grahan kiya gaya hai. unhen door tak khinchane ka vyarth prayas nahin kiya gaya hai. auchity ke anusar thik sthan par unaka tyag kar diya gaya hai. rasakhan dvara prayukt alnkar apane 'alnkar' nam ko sarthak karate hain. shabdalnkaron men anupras aur arthalnkaron men upama, utpreksha evn roopak ki nibndhana men kavi ne vishesh ruchi dikhaee hai. badi kushalata ke sath unaka sannivesh kiya hai, unhen is vidhan men poorn saphalata mili hai. alnkaron ki sundar yojana se unaki kavita ka kala-paksh nissandeh nikhar aya hai.

bhav paksh

rasakhan ke kavy men chh: sthayi bhavon ki nibndhana milati hai- rati, nirved, utsah, has, vatsaly aur bhakti. yah bat dhyan dene yogy hai ki unhonne parnparaprathita char sthayi bhavon ko hi gaurav diya hai, jinamen anyatam bhav rati ka hai. krodh, jugupta, vismay, shok aur bhay ki upeksha ka mool karan yah pratit hota hai ki in bhavon ka rati se mel nahin hai. rasakhan premi jiv the, atev unhonne apani kavita men tin prakar ke rati bhavon ki rati, vatsaly aur bhakti ki vynjana ki; jo bhav inamen vishesh sahayak ho sakate the unhen yathasthan abhivyakti kiya. doosara karan yah bhi hai ki unaki rachana muktak hai; atev prabandh kavy ki bhanti usamen sabhi prakar ke bhavon ka sannivesh avashyak bhi nahin hai.

ras snyojan

rasakhan ne bhaktiras ke anek pad likhe hain, tathapi unake kavyon men bhaktiras ki pradhanata nahin hai. ve pramukh roop se shrringar ke kavi hain. unaka shrringar krishn ki lilaon par ashrit hai. atev samany pathak ko yah bhranti ho sakati hai ki unake adhikansh pad bhakti ras ki abhivyakti karate hain. shastriy drishti se jin padon ke dvara pathak ke man men sthit eeshvar vishayak-ratibhav rasata nahin prapt karata, un padon ko bhakti ras vynjak manana tark sngat nahin hai. isamen sndeh nahin ki rasakhan bhakt the aur unhonne apani rachanaon men bhajaniy krishn ka saras roop se niroopan kiya hai.

bhakti bhavana

hindi-sahity ka bhakti-yug (snvath 1375 se 1700 vi0 tak) hindi ka svarn yug mana jata hai. is yug men hindi ke anek mahakaviyon– vidyapati, kabiradas, malik muhammad jayasi, sooradas, nndadas, tulasidas, keshavadas, rasakhan adi ne apani anoothi kavy-rachanaon se sahity ke bhandar ko sampann kiya. is yug men satrahavin shatabdi ka sthan bhakti-kavy ki drishti se mahattvapoorn hai. sooradas, mirabaee, tulasidas, rasakhan adi ki rachanaon ne is shatabdi ke gaurav ko badha diya hai. bhakti ka jo andolan dakshin se chala vah hindi-sahity ke bhaktikal tak sare bharat men vyapt ho chuka tha. usaki vibhinn dharaen uttar bharat men phail chuki thin. darshan, dharm tatha sahity ke sabhi kshetron men usaka gahara prabhav tha. ek or sanpradayik bhakti ka zor tha, anek tirthasthan, mndir, math aur akhade usake kendr the. doosari or aise bhi bhakt the jo kisi bhi tarah ki sanpradayik halachal se door rah kar bhakti men lin rahana pasnd karate the. rasakhan isi prakar ke bhakt the. ve svachchhnd bhakti ke premi the.

bhasha

solahavin shatabdi men brajabhasha sahityik asan par pratishthit ho chuki thi. bhakt-kavi sooradas ise sarvadeshik kavy bhasha bana chuke the. kintu unaki shakti bhasha saushthav ki apeksha bhav dyotan men adhik rami. isilie baboo jagannath das ratnakar brajabhasha ka vyakaran banate samay rasakhan, bihari lal aur ghananand ke kavyadhyayan ko sooradas se adhik mahattv dete hain. bihari ki vyavastha kuchh kadi tatha bhasha parimarjit evn sahityik hai. ghananand men bhasha-saundary unaki 'lakshana' ke karan mana jata hai. rasakhan ki bhasha ki visheshata usaki svabhavikata hai. unhonne brajabhasha ke sath khilavad n kar usake madhur, sahaj evn svabhavik roop ko apanaya. sath hi bolachal ke shabdon ko sahityik shabdavali ke vikat lane ka saphal prayas kiya.

rasakhan ki samadhi mahavan, mathura

darshan

ab prashn yah uthata hai ki jab ve bhakt the aur unaki rachana bhakti pradhan hai to usaka koee darshan bhi avashy hoga. jahan alochak ki janakari ke lie niyamon ki shrinkhala men koee vastu nahin bndhati, vahan use svachchhnd kah diya jata hai. par vastav men aisi bat nahin. pratyek kary ka mool karan avashy rahata hai. mishr ji ne ek bat bar-bar kahi hai ki rasakhan men videshipan ki jhalak avashy dikhaee padati hai. yah premamargi bhakt the. laukik paksh men inaka virah farasi kavy ki vndana se prabhavit hai, alaukik paksh men soophiyon ki premapir se. age kahate hain svachchhnd kaviyon ne prem ki pir soophi kaviyon se hi li hai isamen koee sndeh nahin.

prakriti varnan

manas aur usako dharan karane vale sharir ko tatha manushy ke nirman bhag ko chhodakar any samast chetan aur achetan srishti-prasar ko prakriti svikar kiya jata hai.[3] vyavaharik roop se to jitani manavetar srishti hai usako ham prakriti kahate hain kintu darshanik drishti se hamara sharir aur man usaki gyanendriyan, man, buddhi, chitt, ahnkar adi sookshm tattv prakriti ke antarbhoot hain.[4] kavy men prakriti chitran har kal men milata hai. snskrit kavy se lekar adhunik kavy tak men prakriti ke darshan hote hain. yah svabhavik bhi hai. manav adhyayan bhale hi kavy ka mukhy vishay mana gaya ho kintu prakriti ke sahachary bina manav ki cheshtaen aur manodashaen bhavahin-si hone lagati hain. yamuna tat, vnshivat, kadnb ke vriksh aur braj ke van bag-tadag-bina nat nagar krishn ki samast lilaen shoony evn niras-si pratit hoti hain. at: prakriti ke abhav men kisi sundar kavy ki kalpana kuchh adhoori-si hi pratit hoti hai. kavy men prakriti chitran bhinn-bhinn roopon men milata hai. rasakhan ke kavy men prakriti ki chhata tin roopon men drishtigochar hoti hai.

  1. krishn ki vihar-bhoomi vrindavan, karil kunj, kalindi nadi kool adi ka vishad varnan prakriti sahachari ke roop men milata hai.
  2. snyog aur viyog donon pakshon men prakriti manav bhavanaon ki poshika rahi hai. krishn-gopika milan aur virah varnan men rasakhan ne prakriti uddipan vibhavon ke antargat dikhaya hai.
  3. sath hi apane aradhy ke komal saundaryamay paksh ke niroopan ke lie alnkar roop men prakriti ko apanaya hai.

kavy sadhana

rasakhan ki bhasha paryaph‍t parimarjit aur saras tatha kavh‍yochit thi. brajabhasha men jitani uth‍tamata se apane hriday ke bhav ve vh‍yakh‍t kar sake, utana aur kaviyon ke liye kashh‍t sadhh‍y tha. unaki paramoth‍krishh‍t visheshata yah thi ki unh‍honne apane laukik prem ko bhagavadh prem men roopanh‍tarit kar diya. asar snsar ka parith‍yag karake sarvatha nanh‍dakumar ke darabar ke sadash‍y ho gaye.

ek samay kahin bhagavat katha men upasthit the. vh‍yasagaddi ke pas shh‍yamasunh‍dar ka chitr rakha hua tha. unake nayanon men bhagavan ka roopamadhury sama gaya. unh‍honne premamayi mithi bhasha men vh‍yas se bhagavan shrikrishn ka pata poochha aur braj ke liye chal pade. rasarasik nanh‍dananh‍dan se milane ke liye virahi kavi ka hriday-bin baj utha. ve apani premika ki bat sochate jate the. abhi thode hi samay pahale usane kaha tha ki- "jis tarah mujhe chahate ho, usi tarah yadi shrikrishh‍n ko chahate to bhavasagar se par utar jate". pair aur veg se age badhane lage, usi tarah nahin. usase bhi adhik chahane ke liye ve shrikrishh‍n ki lila bhoomi men ja rahe the. abhi unh‍honne kal hi bhagavat ke farasi anuvad men gopi prem ke samh‍banh‍dh men vishesh roop se premamayi sh‍phoorti payi thi. unh‍honne apane man ko bar-bar dhikh‍kara. moorkh ne lok-banh‍dhan men mukti-sukh man liya tha. unake kanh‍th men bhakti ki madhur ragini ne amrit ghol diya. brajaraj ka mash‍tak se sh‍parsh hote hi, bhagavati kalinh‍di ke jal ki shitalata ke sh‍parsh-sukh se unh‍math‍t samir ke madir kamh‍pan ki anubhooti hote hi, shh‍yamatamal se arujhi lataon ki hariyali ka nayanon men alodan hote hi ve apani sudhi-budhi kho baithe. snsar chhoot gaya, bhagavan men man ram gaya. unh‍honne vrindavan ke aishh‍vary ki sh‍tuti ki, bhakti ka bhashh‍y kiya. unh‍honne vrinh‍davan ke jad, jiv, chetan aur jngam men ath‍manubhooti ki ath‍miyata dekhi. pahad, nadi aur vihngon se apane janh‍m-janh‍manh‍tar ka samh‍banh‍dh joda. ve kah uthe-

ya lakuti aru kamariya par raj tihoo pur kau taji daraun.
athahu siddhi navaun nidhi kau sukh nnd ki gay charay bisaraun..
'rasakhan' sada in nayananhin saun braj ke ban bag tadag niharaun.
kotin hoo kaladhaut ke dham karil ki kunjan oopar varaun..

kitana adbhut ath‍masamarpan tha, bhavamadhury tha. premasudha ka niranh‍tar pan karate ve braj ki shobha dekh rahe the. unake pairon men virakti ki bedi thi, hathon men anurakti ki hathakadi thi, hriday men bhakti ki banh‍dhan-mukti thi. rasakhan ke darshan se braj dhanh‍y ho utha. braj ke darshan se rasakhan ka jivan saphal ho gaya. ve govardhan par shrinath ji ke darshan ke liye mandir men jane lage, dvarapal ne dhakh‍ka dekar nikal diya. shrinath ji ke nayan rakh‍t ho uthe. idhar rasakhan ki sthiti vichitr thi. unh‍hen apane praneshh‍var shh‍yamasunh‍dar ka bharosa tha. anh‍n-jal chhod diya, n jane kin papon ke phalash‍varoop pauriya ne mandir se nikal diya tha. tin din bit gaye, bhakt ke pran kalap ho rahe the. udhar bhagavan bhi bhakt ki bhavana ke anusar vikal the. rasakhan pade-pade soch rahe the-

des bides ke dekhe naresan, rijhi ki kou n boojh karaigau.
taten tinh‍hen taji jan girayau gun saun gun augun ganthi paraigau..
bansurivarau badau rijhavar hai sh‍yam jo naiku sudhar dharaigau.
ladilau chhail vahi to ahir kau hamare hiye ki haraigau..

ahir ke chhail ne unake hriday ki vedana har hi to li. bhagavan ne sakshat darshan diye, usake bad gosaeen shrivitthalanath ji ne unako govinh‍dakunh‍d par sh‍nan karakar dikshit kiya. rasakhan poore 'rasakhani' ho gaye. bhagavan ke prati poornaroop se samarpan ka bhav uday hua.. rasakhan ki kavh‍y-sadhana poori ho gayi. unake nayanon ne gavahi di-

brahm main dhoondhyon puranani ganani, ved richa suni chaugune chayan.
dekhh‍yon sunh‍yon kabahun n kitoon vah kaise saroop o kaise subhayan..
terat terat hari paryau 'rasakhan' batayau n log lugayan.
dekhh‍yon, durayau vah kunj kutir men baithyau palotatu radhika payan..

shesh, ganesh, mahesh, dinesh aur suresh jinaka par nahin pa sake, ved anadi, ananh‍t, akhanh‍d, abhed kahakar neti-neti ke bhramasagar men doob gaye, unake sh‍varoop ka itana bhavh‍y rasamay darshan jis sunh‍dar riti se rasakhan ne kiya, vah itihas ki ek adbhut ghatana hai. bhakti-sahith‍y ka rahash‍yamay vaichitry hai. ve ajivan braj men hi bhagavan ki lila ko kavh‍yaroop dete hue vicharan karate rahe. bhagavan hi unake ekamatr sh‍nehi, sakha aur samh‍banh‍dhi the.

divy dham yatra

paitalis sal ki avash‍tha men rasakhan ne bhagavan ke divh‍y dham ki yatra ki. premadevata radharaman ne antim samay men unako darshan diya tha. unh‍honne bhagavan ke samane yahi kamana ki, vida-vela men keval itana hi nivedan kiya-

manush haun tau vahi 'sasakhan' basaun braj gokul ganv ke gh‍varan.
jo pasu haun tau kaha bas merau charaun nit nnd ki dhenu mnjharan..
pahan haun tau vahi giri kau jo dharayau kar chhatr purndar dharan.
jo khag haun to baserau karaun nit kalindi kool kadnb ki daran..

bhakt ke hriday ki vivashata ka kitana marmik ath‍manivedan hai yah. bhagavan ki lila se samh‍baddh drishh‍yon, sh‍thalon, jivon ke prati kitani samichin ath‍miyata hai. bhagavan ke samane hi unake pran chal base. jinake charanon ki raj ke liye koti-koti janh‍mon tak mrith‍yu ke adhidevata yam tarasa karate hain, unh‍honne bhakt ki kirti ko samujh‍jh‍valatam aur nitanh‍t akshunh‍n rakhane ke liye apane hathon se anh‍th‍yeshti-kriya ki. prabhu ki kripa ka anh‍t pana kathin hai, asamh‍bhav hai. prem ke samrajh‍y men unaki kripa ka darshan rasakhan jaise bhakton ke hi saubhagh‍y ki bat hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 rasakhan (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) www.ignca.nic.in. abhigaman tithi: 11 mee, 2012.
  2. rasakhan: vyaktitv aur krititv |lekhak: daau. majada asad |prakashak: prem prakashan mandir, dilli |
  3. prakriti aur kavy pri0 4
  4. hindi kavy men prakriti chitran, pri0 6

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah