केशव  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(केशवदास se punarnirdeshit)
keshav
keshavadas
poora nam keshavadas
janm 1555 ee.
janm bhoomi orachha, madhy pradesh
mrityu 1617 ee.
karm-kshetr ritikalin kavi
mukhy rachanaen 'rasikapriya' (1591 ee.), 'kavipriya' aur 'ramachandrika' (1601 ee.), 'vigyanagita' (1610 ee.) aur 'jahangirajasachandrika' (1612 ee.)
vishesh yogadan hindi men sarvapratham keshavadas ji ne hi kavy ke vibhinn angon ka shastriy paddhati se vivechan kiya.
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh virasinhadevacharit, chhndamala
any janakari achary ramachndr shukl ke shabdon men keshav ki rachana men sooradas, tulasi adi ki si saralata aur tanmayata chahe n ho par kavyangon ka vistrit parichay kara kar unhonne age ke lie marg khola.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
Disamb2.jpg keshav ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- keshav (bahuvikalpi)

keshav athava keshavadas (angrezi:Keshavdas, janm: 1555 ee. - mrityu: 1617 ee.) hindi ke prasiddh ritikalin kavi the, jinaka samay bhakti kal ke antargat padata hai, par jo apani rachana men poornat: shastriy tatha ritibaddh hain. shivasinh sengar tatha griyarsan dvara ullikhit kramash: sanh 1567 ee. (sn. 1624) tatha 1580 ee. (sn. 1337) inaka kavitakal hai, janmakal nahin. keshav snskrit kavyashastr ka samyakh parichay karane vale hindi ke prachin achary aur kavi the.

janm

'mishrabandhuvinod' pratham bhag men 1555 ee. (sn. 1612) tatha 'hindi navaratn' men 1551 ee. (sn. 1608) men anumanit janmakal ramachandr shukl ne 1515 ee. (sn. 1612) janmakal mana hai. gaurishnkar dvivedi ke 'sukavi saroj' men udaghrit dohon ke anusar inaka janmakal 1559 ee. (samvath 1618) tatha janm-mas chaitr pramanit hota hai. inake pita ka nam pandit kashinath tha, jo orachha naresh madhukarashah ke vishesh snehabhajan the. orachha rajadarabar men inake parivar ka bada man-samman tha. keshavadas svayn maharaj ramasinh ke bhaee indrajit sinh ke darabari kavi, mntri aur guru the. indrajit sinh ki or se keshav ko 21 ganv diye ge the. ve atmasamman ke sath vilasamay jivan vyatit karate the.

snvath dvadash shath subhag, sodah se madhumas.
tab kavi kesav ko janam, nagar adachhe vas..

lala bhagavanadin inaki vnsh parampara men many janmatithi samvat 1618 (1559 ee.) ke chaitramas ki ramanavami ki pushti karate hain. tungarany ke samip betava nadi ke tat par sthit madhyapradesh rajy ke orachha nagar men inaka janm hua tha.

vnsh parichay

keshavadas ne 'kavipriya' men apana vnsh parichay vistar se diya hai. jisake anusar vnshanukram yon hain- kunbhavar-devanand-jayadev-dinakar-gayagajadhar-jayanand-trivikram-bhavasharma-surottam ya 'shiromani'-harinath-krishnadatt-kashinath-balabhadr-keshavadas-kalyan. 'ramachandrika' aur 'vigyanagita' ke arambh men ullekhit parichay snkshipt hai. 'vigyanagita' men vnsh ke mool purush ka nam vedavyas ullekhit hai. inaki parivar ki vritti puran ki thi. keshavadas bharadvaj gotriy mardani shakha ke yajurvedi, mishr upadhikari brahman the. odachhadhipati maharaj, indrajit sinh keshavadas ke pradhan ashrayadata the. jinhonne 21 ganv keshavadas ko bhent men die the. virasinhadev ka ashray bhi keshavadas ko prapt tha. tatkalin jin vishisht janon se inaka ghanishth parichay tha, unake ullekhit nam ye hain- akabar, birabal, todaramal aur udayapur ke rana amarasinh. tulasidas se inaka sakshatkar maharaj indrajit ke sath kashi yatra ke samay sambhav hai. uchchakoti ke rasik hone par bhi keshavadas poore astik the. keshavadas vyavaharakushal, vagvidagdh aur vinodi the. apane pandity ka inhen abhiman tha. niti-nipun, nirbhik evn spashtavadi keshav ki pratibha sarvatomukhi thi. sahity aur sngit, dharmashastr aur rajaniti, jyotish aur vaidyak sabhi vishayon ka inhonne gambhir adhyayan kiya tha.

rachanaen

keshavadas ki prapt pramanik rachanaen rachanakram ke anusar ye hain- 'rasikapriya' (1591 ee.), 'kavipriya' aur 'ramachandrika' (1601 ee.), 'vigyanagita' (1610 ee.) aur 'jahangirajasachandrika' (1612 ee.). 'ratanavali' ka rachanakal agyat hai, par yah inaki sarvapratham rachana hai. nakhashikh, shikhanakh aur barahamasa pahale 'kavipriya' ke hi antargat the. age chalakar ye prithakh pracharit hue. sambhav hai inaki rachana 'kavipriya' ke poorv huee ho aur bad men in sabaka ya kisi ka usamen samavesh kiya gaya ho. 'chhandamala' rachanakal bhi agyat hai. 'ramalnkritamnjari' granth kuchh vidvanon ne chhandashastr ka granth anumanit kiya hai. 'jaimuni ki katha', 'balacharitr', 'hanumanajanmalila', 'rasalalit' aur 'amighoont' namak rachanaen prasiddh kavi keshav dvara pranit nahin hain. 'jaimuni ki katha' jaiminikrit 'ashvamedh' ka hindi roopantar hai. keshav ki chhap se bhinn isamen 'pradhan kesaurai' chhap milati hai. isaka rachanakal vikram ki atharavin shatabdi ka uttarardh hai. 'balacharitr' aur 'hanumanajanmalila' ki rachana ati shithil hai. isamen braj tatha avadhi ka mishran tatha bundeli ka abhav hai. 'rasalalit' men krishnalila varnit hai tatha 'amighoont' kisi nirgunamargi kavi kesav ki rachana hai. 'amighoont' ki bhasha, shaili aur vishay tinon sant-parampara ke anuroop hain. keshav nimbark sampraday men dikshit the, at: ye rachanaen inaki siddh nahin hotin.

Blockquote-open.gif hindi men sarv pratham keshavadas ji ne hi kavy ke vibhinn angon ka shastriy paddhati se vivechan kiya. yah thik hai ki unake kavy men bhav paksh ki apeksha kala paksh ki pradhanata hai aur pandity pradarshan ke karan unhen kathin kavy ke pret kah kar pukara jata hai kintu unaka mahattv bilkul samapt nahin ho jata. Blockquote-close.gif

rachanaon ka snkshipt varnan

'rasikapriya' men nayikabhed aur ras ka niroopan hai. isamen priyaju ki prashasti varnit hai. rasasvadiyon ke lie nirmit hone ke karan isamen udaharanon par vishesh drishti hai. 'kavipriya' kavishiksha ki pustak hai, isilie isamen shastrapravah aur janapravah ke atirikt videshi sahityapravah ka bhi niyojan hai. 'ramachandrika' men ramakatha varnit hai. 'chhandamala' men do khand hain. pahale men varnavritton ka aur doosare men matravritton ka vichar kiya gaya hai tatha udaharan adhikatar 'ramachandrika' men hi rakhe ge hain. 'viracharitr' men virasinh dev ka charitr chitrit hai. snskrit ke 'prabodhachandroday natak' ke adhar par 'vigyanagita' nirmit huee, jisamen apani or se bahut si samagri pauranik vrittivale pnndit kavi ne jod rakhi hai. 'jahangirarajasachandrika' men jahangir ke darabar ka varnan hai. 'ratnavali' men ratnasen ke virotsah ka varnan hai. mool ke mudrit snskaranon ka ullekh unake svatntr vivaran ke sath yathasthan hai tatha keshav granthavali ke roop men keshav ke sabhi pramanik granth vishvanathaprasad mishr ke dvara sampadit hokar hindustani akadami, prayag se sanh 1959 men prakashit kar diye gaye hain. mahattv aur prasiddhi ki drishti se keshav ki tin rachanaen ullekhaniy hai:-

ramachandrika

yah keshav ki prasiddh rachana hai. kavi ne isamen snkshep men ram-katha prastut ki hai kintu ise bhakti-pradhan grnth manana kathin hai. kavi ne katha varnan ki apeksha apane pandity ka chamatkar dikhane ka prayas adhik kiya hai. ras, chhand aur alnkaron ke udaharan prastut karane men kavi ki ruchi adhik rahi hai.

keshav krit 'rasikapriya'

rasikapriya

jaisa ki nam se dhvanit hota hai, keshav ne yah grnth rasik janon ke pramod ke lie racha hai. yah ek riti-grnth hai jisamen kavyangon ke lakshan prastut kie ge hain. kavi ki rasik manasikata is rachana men poornat: mukharit huee hai. 'rasik-priya' men kavi ne ghane badalon dvara phailae ge andhakar ki atyant sundar aur marmik vynjana ki hai:

rati hai aee chale ghar kon, dasahoon disi meh maha madhi ao.
doosaro bol hi ten samujhai kavi “kesav’ yon chhiti men tam chhayo..

kavipriya

yah kavi janon ka margadarshak grnth kaha ja sakata hai. isamen kavi-karttavyon tatha alnkaron ka vivechan hai. isake atirikt 'vigyan-gita' men kavi ne jagat, jiv aur brahm adi adhyatmik vishayon par rachana ki hai. 'virasinhadev-charit', 'jahangir-jasachandrika' tatha 'ratn bavani' adi kritiyan inaki charanakalin manovritti ka parichay karati hain.

jahangirajasachandrika

keshav ki is rachana ka kal 1612 ee. hai. isaka mudran 'keshavagrnthavali' ke tritiy khand men 'hindustani akadami', ilahabad se san 1959 ee. men hua tha. yah keshavadas ki sabase antim prapt rachana hai. isamen 201 chhandon men mugal badashah jahangir ke darabar ka varnan hai. darabar men abdurrahim khanakhana ke putr elachashah ne keshav se poochha ki- "udyam bada hai ya karm." is par udyam aur karm (bhagy) ke snvad roop men katha ka vikas hota hai.

kavyagat visheshataen

keshav ko apane pandity ke pradarshan ki atyadhik lalasa thi, parinamasvaroop vah apane kavy ke kala-paksh ko hi snvarane men snlagn rahe. unaka bhav-paksh upekshit raha. apake kavy ki pramukh visheshataen is prakar hain-

bhav paksh

chamatkar-pradarshan aur pandity ki dhak jamane ki ichchha ke karan keshav apane kavy ke bhavapaksh ko samriddhi pradan nahin kar sake. ramakatha ke anek marmik prasngon ko jis prakar kavi tulasi ne mahattv pradan kiya hai, keshav unako keval chhookar age badh ge hain kintu kuchh sthalon par kavi ne apani snvedanashilata ka parichay avashy diya hai. udaharanarth, hanuman dvara ram ki mudrika girae jane par sita ki ukti darshaniy hai-

shri pur men van madhy haun, too mag kari aniti.
kahu mundari ab toyan ki, ko karihain paratiti॥

keshav 'kathin kavy ke pret' kahe jate hain. bhav aur ras kavitv ki atma hai. keshav ne keval sharir ka shrringar kiya hai, atma ki hridayahinata se upeksha ki hai. vah apane rachana-chamatkar dvara shrota aur pathakon ko chamatkrit karane ke prayas men rahe hain. keval manasik vyayam men ruchi lene vale pathak hi unake kavy ka anand uthate hain.

kala paksh

keval snkhyapoorti ke lie hi keshav ne sabhi rason ko kavy men sthan diya hai kintu unake ras-varnan men bhi sarasata ke sthan par pandity pradarshan ki hi pravritti hai. 'rasikapriya' tatha 'kavipriya' men avashy sarasata ke yatr-tatr darshan ho jate hain.

prakrati-chitran

keshav ka prakriti varnan parinam men to adhik hai kintu vah chittakarshan aur sajivata se rahit hai. paramparagat nam pariganana hi unake prakriti-varnan men prapt hoti hai. har prakar ke vriksh, ve ek hi sthan men uga sakate hain. ugata soory unako lal mukh vala vanar pratit hota hai. pnchavati ko dhoorjati (shiv) bana dene ke prayas men unhonne prakriti ke manoram drishyon ko upekshit-sa kar diya hai. keshav ke kavy ki prashnsaniy visheshata unaki snvad-yojana hai. unake snvad satik aur sajiv hote hain. snvadon men natakiyata tatha vyutpannamatitv bhi upasthit rahata hai; yatha-

ram kau kam kaha? "ripu jitahin" 'kaun kabai ripu jityau kahan?'

lakshan grnth

keshavadas ne lakshan-granth hi nahin, lakshy-granth bhi likhe hain. shrringar ki hi nahin, any rason ki bhi rachanaen ki hain. muktak hi nahin, prabandh bhi pranit kie hain. inake lakshan-granth tin hain-'rasikapriya', 'kavipriya', aur 'chhandamala'. 'rasikapriya' ka adhar granth rudrabhatt ka 'shrringaratilak' hai. isamen snskrit ke tadvishayak bahuprachalit granthon se kuchh vibhinnata hai. inhonne isamen kuchh baten 'kamatntr' ki bhi jod di hain. keshav ne 'kavyakalpalatavritti', 'kavyadarsh' adi ke adhar par kavi shiksha ki pustak 'kavipriya' prastut ki. 'kavipriya' men inhonne 'alnkar' shabd ko usi vyapak arth men grahan kiya hai, jisamen dandi, vaman adi acharyon ne. isi se paribhashik arth ke anusar visheshalnkar ke atirikt inhonne samanyalnkar ke antargat kavy ki shobha badhane vali sabhi samagri juta di hai. 'chhandamala' ka adhar snskrit ke 'vrittaratnakar' adi pingalagranth hain. isamen lakshan dene ki pranali keshav ne apani rakhi hai. vastut: is kshetr men keshav ne koee nayi udabhavana nahin ki hai.

Blockquote-open.gif keshavadas ki rachanaon ke arth ki kathinaee ka arth lagaya gaya ki inaki kavita men 'ras nahin, 'sahridayata' nahin. inake hriday men prakriti ke prati utana rag nahin tha, jitana kavi ke lie apekshit hai, par ye hi nahin, hindi ka sara madhyakal prakriti ke prati udasin hai. Blockquote-close.gif


keshav ke lakshy-granthon men poorn avadhanata nahin dikhayi deti. inake prasiddh mahakavy 'ramachandrika' men katha ke kramabaddh roop aur avasar ke anukool vistar-snkoch ka apekshit dhyan nahin rakha gaya hai. ye vastut: darabari jiv the, isilie isamen darabar ke anukool baton ka hi varnan vistar se kiya gaya hai. 'ramachandrika' ke chhandon ka parivartan itana shighr aur itane adhik roopon men kiya gaya hai ki pravah a hi nahin pata. keshav ne isamen natyatattv ka achchha niyojan kiya hai, jisase yah lila ke upayukt ho gayi hai. 'viracharitr' prabandh kavy hai, kintu isamen prabandh ke gun matra men nahin paye jate. 'jahangirajasachandrika' prashasti kavy hai. chamatkar ke chakkar men adhik rahane se inaki rachanaon men bhavapaksh ki apeksha kalapaksh pradhan ho gaya hai. keshav ne apane granth, sahity ki samany kavyabhasha, braj men likhi hain. bundelakhand nivasi hone ke karan usake kuchh shabd aur prayog inaki rachana men a gaye hain. snskrit granthon ka anuvadan aur unaki chhaya ka grahan keshav ne snskrit varn-vritton men adhik kiya hai. isilie aise sthalon ki bhasha men, vishesh roop se, 'ramachandrika' aur 'vigyanagita' men, snskrit prabhav adhik hai. keshav ki duroohata ka karan snskrit ke prayogon ya shabdon ka hindi men rakhana hai. 'rasikapriya' men inhonne hindi-kavy-pravah ke anuroop sashakt, samarth aur pranjal bhasha rakhi hai. vah sabase adhik vagyogapoorn hai. usamen braj ka poorn vaibhav dikhaee deta hai. 'ratanabavani' ki bhasha men puranapan adhik hai. vah batalati hai ki apabhrnsh ke roop hindi men paramparik pravah ke karan chalate rahe hain. inhonne sab prakar ki bhasha men rachana karane ka abhyas kiya hoga. keshav ne apane sahityik navayauvan men apabhrnsh ya purani hindi men hath manja, phir inhonne braj men rachana ki aur use kavy ke anuroop parishkrit kiya. ant men ye snskrit pradhan bhasha ki or mude. yahi mod ye sambhal n sake.

rachanaon ka vishay aur roop ki drishti se vargikaran
virabhav ratanabavani muktakaprabandh prabndhakavy
prashastimoolak virasinhadevacharit charitakavy (prabandhakal)
jahangirajasachandrika
ramabhakti ramachandrika mahakavy
shrringar rasarajatv rasikapriya
alnkarashasr lakshanagranth achamitv snbndhi
kavishiksha kavipriya
chhandashasr chhandamala
gyan vairagy vigyanagita prabodhachandrodayashaili

keshavadas ke tin roop

keshav ki rachana men inake tin roop dikhaee dete hain- achary, mahakavi aur itihasakar. ye paramarthat: hindi ke pratham achary hain. achary ka asan grahan karane par inhen snskrit ki shastriy paddhati ko hindi men prachalit karane ki chinta huee, jo ki jivan ke ant tak bani rahi. inhonne hi hindi bhasha men snskrit ki parampara ki vyavasthapoorvak sthapana ki thi. adhunik yug ke poorv tak usaka anuman hota aya hai. inake pahale bhi ritigranth likhe gaye, par vyavasthit aur sarvangapoorn granth sabase pahale inhonne hi prastut kie. yadyapi kavi shiksha ki pustaken bad men likhi gayin, tathapi unaka sahity men pathan-pathan utana nahin hua. hindi ki sari parampara ko inhonne prabhavit kar rakha hai, 'kavipriya' ke madhyam se. inaki sabase adabhut kalpana alnkar sambndhi hai. shlesh ke aur shleshanupranit alnkaron ke ye vishesh premi the. inake shlesh snskrit-padavali ke hain. hindi men shlesh ke doosare pandit senapati ke shlesh hindi padavali ke hain. donon ki shlesh yojana men yahi bhed hai. inaka kaviroop, inaki prabandh evn muktak donon prakar ki rachanaon men spasht drishtigochar hota hai. hindi ke paravarti pray: sabhi shrringari kavi inaki uktiyon evn bhavavynjakata se prabhavit hain. bihari ne inase bhav, roopak adi grahan kie tatha dev ne upama aur ukti tak lene men snkoch nahin kiya. inamen ek vishisht gun hai, samvadon ke upayukt vidhan ka. manav manobhavon ki inhonne sundar vynjana ki hai. snvadon men inaki uktiyan vishesh marmik hain, par prabandh ke bich anavashyak upadeshatmak prasngon ka niyojan usake vaishishty men vyavadhan upasthit karata hai. inake prashasti kavyon men itihas ki prachur samagri bhari hai. orachha rajy ka vistrit itihas prastut karane men ve bade sahayak siddh ho sakate hain.

keshav ka mahatmy

prachin kavy jagath men keshav ka jo mahatmy tha, usaki kalpana aj nahin ki ja sakati. madhyakal men inaka kavy-pravah men jaisa man tha, vaisa any ka nahin, prachin yug men surati mishr aise pandit aur kavi saradar ne inaki kritiyon ki tikaen likhin. yah is bat ka praman hai ki inake kavy ka manan karane vale jigyasu ki snkhya paryapt thi. naishadh ka hindi men ultha karane vale guman ne inaki 'ramachandrika' ke jodatod men 'krishnachandrika' likhi. inaka loha sabhi manate the aur inaki rachana ka adhyayan nirantar hota raha. inaki kritsa kavyapandity ke skhalan ke karan nahin thi. madhyakal men to kisi ke pandity ya vidagdhata ki janch ki kasauti thi, inaki kavita. 'kavi ko din n chahai bidaee, poochhe kesav ki kabitaee' yah ukti isaka praman hai. inaki rachanaon ke arth ki kathinaee ka arth lagaya gaya ki inaki kavita men 'ras nahin, 'sahridayata' nahin. inake hriday men prakriti ke prati utana rag nahin tha, jitana kavi ke lie apekshit hai, par ye hi nahin, hindi ka sara madhyakal prakriti ke prati udasin hai. 'kesav arth gambhirakon' ki charcha ab koee nahin karata. yadi keshav 'rasikapriyao ki si bhasha likhate rahate to inaka itana virodh n hota. prasng-kalpanashakti-sampann tatha kavy-bhasha-pravin hone par bhi keshav pandity pradarshan ka lobh snvaran nahin kar sake, anyatha ye 'kathin kavy ke pret' hone se bach jate.

sahity men sthan

keshavadas ji hindi sahity ke pratham achary hain.[1] hindi men sarvapratham keshavadas ji ne hi kavy ke vibhinn angon ka shastriy paddhati se vivechan kiya. yah thik hai ki unake kavy men bhav paksh ki apeksha kala paksh ki pradhanata hai aur pandity pradarshan ke karan unhen kathin kavy ke pret kah kar pukara jata hai kintu unaka mahattv bilkul samapt nahin ho jata. achary ramachndr shukl ke shabdon men keshav ki rachana men sooradas, tulasi adi ki si saralata aur tanmayata chahe n ho par kavyangon ka vistrit parichay kara kar unhonne age ke lie marg khola. keshavadas ji vastutah ek shreshth kavi the. soor aur tulasi ke pashchath hindi-kavy-jagat men unhin ki hi ganana ki jati hai-

soor soor tulasi sasi udugan keshavadas.
abake kavi khadyot sam jah-tah karat prakash..

nidhan

mishrabandhu aur ramachandr shukl 1617 ee. (sn. 1624) men tatha lala bhagavanadin aur gaurishnkar dvivedi 1623 ee. (sn. 1680) men inaka nidhan manate hain. tulasidas dvara keshav ke pret-yoni se uddhar kiye jane ki kinvadanti ke adhar par inaka nidhan sanh 1623 ee. ke poorv thaharata hai. inaki antim rachana 'jahangirajasachandrika' ka rachanakal 1612 ee. (sn. 1669) hai. inhonne vriddhavastha ka marmik varnan kiya hai. at: 1561 men inaka janm hua to mrityu sanh 1621 ee. (sn. 1678) ke nikat ja sakati hai.

sahayak granth

  1. keshav ki kavyakala: krishnashnkar shukl
  2. achary keshavadas: hiralal dikshit
  3. keshavadas: chandravali pandey
  4. keshavadas: ramaratan bhatanagar
  5. achary kavi keshav: krishnachandr varma
  6. bundel-vaibhav (bha. 1):gaurishnkar dvivedi
  7. sukavi-saroj pratham bhag: gaurishnkar dvivedi
  8. hindi sahity ka itihas: ramachndr shukl
  9. hi. sa. bri. i. (bha. 6): sn. nagendr,
  10. hi. ka. sha. i.: bhagirath mir.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
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madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. kavita kosh (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 23 aktoobar, 2010.

snbndhit lekh

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