जगन्नाथदास 'रत्नाकर'  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jagannathadas 'ratnakar'
jagannathadas 'ratnakar'
poora nam jagannathadas 'ratnakar'
janm sanh 1866
janm bhoomi varanasi, uttar pradesh
mrityu 22 joon, 1932
mrityu sthan haridvar
abhibhavak purushottamadas
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr kavi, lekhak, sampadak
mukhy rachanaen 'gngavataran', 'shrringaralahari', 'gngalahari', 'vishnulahari', 'uddhavashatak', 'hindol' adi.
bhasha brajabhasha
vidyalay kvins kaaulej, kashi
shiksha bi.e.
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari inhonne angrezi kavi pop ki prasiddh rachana ’ese aaun kritisijm‘ ka rola chhnd men anuvad bhi kiya.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

jagannathadas 'ratnakar' (angrezi: Jagannathdas Ratnakar, janm- 1866 ee., kashi, uttar pradesh; mrityu- 22 joon, 1932 ee.) bharat ke prasiddh kaviyon men se ek the. unhen adhunik yug ke shreshth brajabhasha ke kaviyon men gina jata hai. prachin snskriti, madhyakalin hindi kavy, urdoo, farasi, angrezi, hindi, ayurved, sngit, jyotish tatha darshanashastr in sabhi ki achchhi janakari jagannathadas ji ko thi. inhonne prachur sahity seva ki thi. brajabhasha kavyadhara ke antim sarvashreshth kavi jagannathadas ’ratnakar‘ adhunik hindi sahity men anubhootiyon ke sashakt chitrakar, brajabhasha ke samarth kavi aur ek advitiy bhashyakar ke roop men vikhyat hain. unhonne khadiboli ke yug men jivit vyakti ki tarah hriday ke pratyek spndan ko mahasoos karane vali brajabhasha ka adarsh khada kiya, jisake har shabd ki apani gati aur lay hai.[1]

jivan parichay

baboo jagannathadas 'ratnakar' ka janm snvat 1923 (1866 ee.) men bhadrapad shukl paksh pnchami ko kashi (vartaman banaras) ke shivala ghat mohalle men hua tha. inake pita purushottamadas dilli vale agraval vaishy the aur poorvaj panipat ke rahane vale the, jinaka mugal darabaron men bada samman tha. lekin paristhitivash unhen kashi akar rahana pada. purushottamadas farasi bhasha ke achchhe vidvanh the aur hindi farasi kaviyon ka bada samman karate the. bharatendu harishchndr unake mitr the aur inake yahan bahudha aya-jaya karate the. ratnakar ji ne balyavastha men bharatendu harishchndr ka satsng bhi kiya tha. bharatendu ji ne kaha bhi tha ki, "kisi din yah balak hindi ki shobha vriddhi karega".

shiksha

jagannathadas 'ratnakar' ke rahan-sahan men rajasi thath-bat tha. inhen hukka, itr, pan, ghudasavari adi ka bahut shauq tha. hindi ka snskar unhen apane hindi-premi pita se mila tha. skooli shiksha men unhonne kee bhashaon ka gyan arjit kiya. kashi ke kvins kaaulej se ratnakar ji ne san 1891 ee. men bi.e. ki pariksha uttirn ki, jisamen angrezi ke sath doosari bhasha farasi bhi thi. ye farasi men em.e. ki pariksha dena chahate the, par kuchh karanon se n de sake.

jivikoparjan

jagannathadas ji ne 'jaki' upanam se farasi men kavitaen likhana prarnbh kiya. is sambandh men inake ustad muhammad hasan phayaj the. jab ratnakar ji jivikoparjan ki taraf mude to ve abagadh ke khajane ke nirikshak niyukt hue. san 1902 men ve ayodhya naresh ke niji sachiv niyukt hue, kintu san 1906 men maharaja ka svargavas ho gaya. lekin inaki sevaon se prasann hokar maharani jagadnba devi ne inhen apana niji sekretari niyukt kiya tatha mrityuparynt ratnakar ji is pad par rahe. ayodhya men rahate hue jagannathadas ratnakar ki kary-pratibha samay-samay par vikas ke avasar pati rahi. maharani jagadnba devi ki kripa se unaki kavy kriti ’gngavataran‘ samane aee.[1] inhonne hindi kavy ka abhyas prarnbh kiya aur brajabhasha men kavy rachana ki.[2]

lekhan kary

jagannathadas 'ratnakar' hindi lekhan ki or us samay pravritt hue, jab khadi boli hindi ko kavy bhasha ke roop men pratishthapit karane ka vyapak abhiyan chal raha tha. achary mahavir prasad dvivedi, shridhar pathak, pn. nathooram shnkar sharma jaise log khadi boli hindi ko bhari samarthan de rahe the, lekin kavy bhasha ki badalati lahar ratnakar ji ke brajabhasha-prem ko apadasth nahin kar saki. ve brajabhasha ka anchal chhodakar khadi boli ke pale men jane ko kisi bhi tarah taiyar nahin hue. jab unake samakalin khadi boli ke parishkar aur parimarjan men snlagn the, tab ve brajabhasha ki trutiyon ka parishkar kar sahityik brajabhasha ke roop ki saj-snvar kar rahe the. unhonne brajabhasha ka ne shabdon, muhavaron se aisa shrringar kiya ki ve sooradas, padmakar aur ghanannd ki brajabhasha se alag keval unaki brajabhasha ban gee, jisamen urdoo aur farasi ki ravanagi, snskrit ka abhijaty aur lokabhasha ki shakti sama gee. jisake ek-ek varn men ek-ek shabd men aur ek-ek paryay men bhavalok ko chitrit karane ki adamy kshamata hai.

kavitt

jagannathadas 'ratnakar' ki snvedanashilata ne bachapan men hi kavita men dhalana shuroo kar diya tha. vidyarthi jivan men hi unhonne urdoo v farasi ke sath hindi men kavitt likhana shuroo kar diya tha. ve ’jaki‘ upanam se urdoo shayari karate the. bad men unhonne brajabhasha kavy ko hi apana kshetr bana liya. kavy srijan ke sath-sath unhonne apani pathan ruchi ko bhi barabar vikasit kiya. ve sahity, darshan, adhyatm, puran-sab padh dalate.[1] ratnakar ji ka bhavon ka vaibhav hai. unake kavy-vishay vishuddh pauranik hain. apane in kathanakon men navinata bharakar unhen navin roop pradan kiya. unhonne prabndh aur muktak donon prakar ke kavy likhe. ve visheshat: shrringar ke kavi hain; parantu inake shrringar men n to riti kal ki aphimachi madakata hai aur n nayika bhed ki bariki hi hai. inaka shrringar bhakti-parak hokar maryadit roop men samane aya. vishuddh shrringar men bhi hriday ki anubhootipoorn bhavanaon hi ka tivr veg hai. radha-krishn ke hriday men svabhavik prem ke uday par ratnakar ji ki kalam ka ek drishtavy[2]-

avan lagi hai din dvaik te hamare dham,
rahe binu kam kaj aee arujhaee hai.
kahain ratnakar khilaunani samhari rakhi,
bar-bar janani chitavat kanhaee hai.
dekhi sunu gvarini kiti brajavasin pai,
radha si n aur abhiharin lakhaee hai.
herat hi herat harayau tau hai hamaro kachhu,
kahi dhaun hirani pai n parat janaee hai.

  • virah virahirinon ke hriday ko vidirn kar deta hai. virah-vipatti ka jhelana atynt kathin hai. isi ki anubhooti poorn avastha ka ek udaharan nimnalikhit hai-

pir son dhir dharavat vir, kataksh hoon kuntal sel nahin hai.
jval n yaki mite ratnakar, neh kachhoo til tel nahin hai.
janat ang jo jhelat hain, yah rng gulal ki jhel nahin hai.
thame thamen n bahen ansuva, yah royabo hai, hnsi-khel nahin hai.

shrringar ras ke pashchath jagannathadas 'ratnakar' ji ke kavy men vir ras ko pramukh sthan mila hai. karun ras ki sundar vynjana 'harishchndr' men huee hai. isake atirikt vibhats tatha vatsaly adi rason ka yathasthan saphalata se chitran hua hai. ratnakar ji ko bhavon ke chitran men vishesh saphalata mili hai. krodh, harsh, utsah, shok, prem, ghrina adi manaviy vyaparon ki abhivynjana ratnakar ji ne badi saphalata se ki hai. adhunik yug ke hote hue bhi ratnakar ji ne bhakti kal evn riti kal ke adarshon ko apanaya. inake kavy men bhakti kaviyon ke bhav ki si bhavukata, rasamagnata tatha riti kalin kaviyon jaisa shabd-kaushal tatha chamatkar priyata milati hai. inake kavy par adhunik yug ke buddhivad ka bhi prabhav hai. inaki 'uddhavashatak', gngavataran', harishchndr' adi rachanayen prachin yug ka uchchadarsh upasthit karati hain.

bhasha-shaili

ratnakar ji ki kavy bhasha navinata se paripoorn hai. unhonne brajabhasha ko snyat aur parishkrit roop pradan kiya hai. brajabhasha ke aprachalit prayogon ko unhonne sarvatha chhod diya. is prakar brajabhasha ko khadi boli ke saman pratishthit karane ka unaka sarahaniy prayas raha. unaki shabd yojana sarvatha dosh mukt hai. bhasha klisht bhavon ki cheri ban kar chalati hai. isamen itani saralata aur svabhavikata hai ki bhavon ko samajhane men kathinaee nahin padati. bhasha men oj aur madhury gun milata hai. isamen kahin bhi shithilata nahin hai. anupras yojana bhasha ko svabhavikata pradan karati hai. ratnakar ji ki kavita men snskrit ke tatsam shabdon ka prayog khulakar hua hai, parantu isase unaki bhasha men kritrimata aur shithilata nahin ane payi. sahityik svaroop men ghanannd ki bhasha hi ratnakar ji ki bhasha ki samata kar sakati hai. ratnakar ji ko "adhunik brajabhasha ka padmakar" kaha ja sakata hai. unhonne jis shaili ko apanaya, usamen manaviy vyaparon ko saphalatapoorvak chitrit kiya gaya hai. unaki shaili men sarvatr hi kalatmakata aur svabhavikata milati hai.[2]

kritiyan

rajanitik ulajhanon aur kachahari ke mamalon men unake kavy-srijar ko manamana vistar bhale hi n mil paya ho, lekin vyastata ke bavajood unhonne adhunik hindi sahity snpada ki vriddhi karane vali kritiyan rachin. inake dvara rachit, sampadit tatha prakashit kritiyan is prakar hain-

pady rachanaen gady rachanaen sampadit rachanaen prakashit rachanaen
  • harishchndr (khndakavy)
  • gngavataran (purakhyan kavy)
  • uddhavashatak (prabndh kavy)
  • hindola (muktak)
  • kalakashi (muktak)
  • samalochanadarsh (padyanibndh)
  • shrringaralahari
  • gngalahari
  • vishnulahari (muktak)
  • ratnashtak (muktak)
  • virashtak (muktak)
  • prakirnak padyavali (muktak sngrah).
sahityik lekh aitihasik lekh
  • rola chhnd ke lakshan
  • mahakavi biharilal ki jivani
  • bihari satasee snbndhi sahity
  • sahityik brajabhasha tatha usake vyakaran ki samagri
  • bihari satasee ki tikaen
  • bihari par sphut lekh.
  • maharaj shivaji ka ek naya patr
  • shugavnsh ka ek shilalekh
  • shung vnsh ka ek naya shilalekh
  • ek aitihasik papanashv ki prapti
  • ek prachin moorti
  • samudragupt ka pashanashv
  • ghanakshari niy ratnakar
  • varn
  • savaiya
  • chhnd
  • sudhasagar (pratham bhag)
  • kavikul knthabharan
  • dipaprakash
  • sundarashrringar
  • nripashnmukrit nakhashikh
  • hammir hath
  • rasik vinod
  • samasyapoorti (bhag 1)
  • hitatarngini
  • keshavadasakrit nakhashikh
  • sujanasagar
  • bihari ratnakar
  • soorasagar.
  • ’hindol‘
  • ’harishchndr‘
  • ’gngavataran‘
  • ’uddhavashatak‘
  • ’kalakashi‘
  • ’samasyapoorti‘
  • ’jayaprakash‘
  • ’sarvasv‘
  • ’ghanakshari niyam ratnakar‘
  • ’gnga vishnu lahari‘
  • ’ratnashtak‘
  • ’virashtak‘
  • ’prakirn padavali‘.

inhonne angrezi kavi pop ki prasiddh rachana ’ese aaun kritisijm‘ ka rola chhnd men anuvad bhi kiya. in kritiyon men ’uddhavashatak‘ aur ’bihari ratnakar‘ ko vishesh mahatv mila. ’uddhavashatak‘, ’bhramaragit‘ parnpara ka vishisht kavy bana to ’bihari ratnakar‘ ’bihari satasee‘ par likhi gee kavitaon men sarvashreshth mana gaya. inake atirikt 'hamir hat', 'hit tarngini', 'kavikul kanthabharan' namak kritiyon ka bhi sampadan inhonne kiya. ‘sahity sudha’ namak patr ka sampadan bhi apane kiya tha.[1] isake sath hi jagannathadas 'ratnakar' bahut adhik parishram aur apana bahut-sa dhan vyay kar 'soorasagar' ka sampadan bhi kar rahe the, par usaka keval tin chaturthansh hi poorn kar sake. bahut adhik snkhya men inaki sphut rachanaen bhi milati hain. 'nagari pracharini sabha' kashi ne in sphut kavitaon v ukt sabhi kavy kritiyon ka ek sundar sngrah 'ratnakar' namak prakashit kiya hai.

hindi sahity nirmata

hindi sahity men ratnakar ji ek nirmata ke roop men smaran karane yogy hain. ye navin aur prachin ko sath lekar chale hain. inhonne adhunik hindi sahity ke tinon kal dekhe the, par kisi bhi yug vishesh se prabhavit nahin ho sake. dvivedi yug men hone vali khadi boli ke andolan ne inako tanik bhi akarshit nahin kiya aur ye brajabhasha ki upasana-aradhana men lage rahe. ratnakar ji hindi ke svarn-yug (madhy yug) ke pujari the.

sahityik visheshataen

jagannathadas 'ratnakar' ne bhakti kal ki bhav pravanata aur riti kal ki shrngarikata ko apani kavita ke ne bane men sajaya. unhonne bhakti bhavana se samanvit kavitaen bhi likhin, viron ke vrittant bhi likhe, niti ko bhi kavita men utara; lekin unaka man moolatah shrngarikata ki abhivyakti men hi adhik rama hai aur is shrngarikata ki khoobi yah rahi ki isake antargat bhakti, sneh, prem, vatsaly sabhi ka samahar ho gaya. unaka grnth ’uddhavashatak‘ manav man ki adbhut chitrashala banakar samane aya. shrringar ras ke niroopan men unaka koee bhi samakalin unake samaksh khada nahin kiya ja sakata. shrringar ke donon pakshon ke niroopan men jagah-jagah tivr bhavavesh ke kshanon men aisa lagata hai mano kavi svayn hi dravibhoot hokar kavita ban upasthit hua ho. bhav-chitron ke is shilpi ne ’uddhavashatak‘ men anubhavon ki yojana, mook maun vyajnna aur rasasikt marmasparshi sooktiyon ka anokha udaharan prastut kiya hai. is kriti ka tana-bana bhavukata ke atirek se paida hone vale kritim udveg se nahin, balki hriday ki sachchi pukar se buna gaya hai, jahan virahani brajanganaon ke ansuon men prem ki snigdhata, anubhooti ki ardrata unake vishvas men snyam ki dhar bhi hai.

jagannathadas 'ratnakar' ne apani kritiyon se samarthy ka jhnda ooncha kar dikhaya hai, jisamen shabd aur arth ek ho gaye hain, jahan shabd apane ap bolate hain, mano shabd ka arth-vidhan hi apane pat kholata chalata ho. unhonne alnkaron ke bade hi sntulit aur apekshit prayogon dvara bhav-vyajnna ko utkarsh diya hai. unake sangaroopak to hindi men virale hi hain. parnpara ki kee likon se hatakar lokoktiyon aur muhavaron ka alag andaj hai. riti kavy parnpara ka prem aur brajabhasha ko unaki drishti ki sima bhale hi mana jaye, lekin yah brajabhasha ke prati apoorv nishtha thi, jo brajabhasha ko apane sashakt manadndo men surakshit rakhana chahati thi. samayik andolanon se pare rahakar unhonne brajabhasha sahity ka parishkar karane aur manaviy antarman ka kona-kona jhankane men apani shakti laga di. nari man ka koee chhor aisa nahin bacha, jise unake shabdon ke komal aur tivr sparsh ne chhua n ho.[1]

nidhan

san 1930, kalakatta men hue 'akhil bharatiy hindi sahity' ke jagannathaji adhyaksh niyukt hue the. brajabhasha ke kaviyon men adhunik kaviyon ke taur par ye sarvatha vishisht hain. 22 joon, 1932 ko inaki mrityu ke pashchath 'kavivar bihari' shirshak grnth ki rachana ka prakashan inake pautr ramakrin ne kiya tha. maranoparant ‘soorasagar’ sampadit grnth ka prakashan achary nandadulare vajapeyi ke nirikshan men hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 sharma, kumud. jagannathadas ratnakar (hindi) abhivyakti. abhigaman tithi: 21 faravari, 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 baboo jagannathadas 'ratnakar' (hindi) rajabhasha hindi. abhigaman tithi: 4 joon, 2015.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah