भक्ति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bhakti shabd ki vyutpatti 'bhajh' dhatu se huee hai, jisaka arth 'seva karana' ya 'bhajana' hai, arthath shraddha aur premapoorvak isht devata ke prati asakti. naradabhaktisootr men bhakti ko param premaroop aur amritasvaroop kaha gaya hai. isako prapt kar manushy kritakrity, sntript aur amar ho jata hai. vyas ne pooja men anurag ko bhakti kaha hai. garg ke anusar katha shravan men anurakti hi bhakti hai. bharatiy dharmik sahity men bhakti ka uday vaidik kal se hi dikhaee padata hai. devon ke roopadarshan, unaki stuti ke gayan, unake sahachary ke lie utsukata, unake prati samarpan adi men anand ka anubhav-ye sabhi upadan vedon men yatr-tatr bikhare pade hain. rigved ke vishnusookt aur varunasookt men bhakti ke mool tattv prachur matra men vidyaman hain.

bhakti ki vyapakata

vaishnav bhakti ki gngottari vishnusookt hi hai. brahman sahity men karmakand ke prasar ke karan bhakti ka svar kuchh mand pad jata hai, kintu upanishadon men upasana ki pradhanata se nirgun bhakti aur kahin-kahin pratikopasana pun: jagrit ho uthati hai. chhandogy upanishad, shvetashvataropanishad, mundakopanishad adi men vishnu, shiv, rudr, achyut, narayan, soory adi ki bhakti aur upasana ke paryapt snket paye jate hain. vaidik bhakti ki payasvini mahabharat kal tak ate-ate vistrit hone lagi. vaishnav bhakti ki bhagavatadhara ka vikas isi kal men hua. yadavon ki satvat shakha men pravrittipradhan bhagavat dharm ka utkarsh hua. satvaton ne hi mathura-vrindavan se lekar madhy bharat, rajasthan, gujarat, maharashtr, karnatak hote hue tamil pradesh tak pravrittimoolak, ragatmak bhagavat dharm ka prachar kiya. abhi tak vaishnav athava shaiv bhakti ke upasak devagan athava parameshvar hi the. mahabharat kal men vaishnav bhagavat dharm ko ek aitihasik upasy ka adhar krishn vasudev ke vyaktitv men mila. krishn vishnu ke avatar mane gaye aur dhire-dhire brahma se unaka tadatmy ho gaya. is prakar nar dehadhari vishnu ki bhakti janasadharan ke lie sulabh ho gee.

prachar-prasar

isase poorv yah dharm aikantik, narayaniy, satvat adi namon se pukara jata tha. krishn-vasudev bhakti ke uday ke pashchath yah bhagavat dharm kahalane laga. bhagavat dharm ke is roop ke uday ka kal lagabhag 1400 ee. poo. hai. tab se lekar lagabhag chhathi satavin shatabdi tak yah avichchhinn roop se chalata raha. bich men shaiv shakt sampradayon tatha shankar vedant ke prachar se bhagavat dharm ka prachar kuchh mnd sa pad gaya. parantu poorv madhy yug men isaka punarutthan hua. ramanuj, madhvachary adi ne bhagavat dharm ko aur pallavit kiya aur age chalakar ekanath, ramanand, chaitany mahaprabhu, vallabhachary adi ne bhakti andolan ke madhyam se bhaktimarg ka janasamany tak vyapak prasar kiya. madhyayug men sabhi pradeshon ke snt aur bhakt kaviyon ne bhakti ke sarvajanik prachar men prabhoot yog diya.

char mukhy sampraday

madhyayug men bhagavat bhakti ke char pramukh sampraday pravartit hue-

  1. shrisampraday - (ramanujachary ke dvara prachalit)
  2. brahmasampraday - (madhvachary ke dvara prachalit)
  3. rudrasampraday - (vishnusvami ke dvara prachalit) aur
  4. sanakadikasampraday - (nimbarkachary ke dvara sthapit).

in sabhi sampradayon ne advaitavad, mayavad tatha karmasannyas ka khandan kar bhagavan ki sagun upasana ka prachar kiya. yah bhi dhyan dene ki bat hai ki is ragatmika bhakti ke pravartak sabhi achary sudoor dakshin desh men hi prakat hue. madhyayugin bhakti ki utpatti aur vikas ka itihas bhagavatapuran ke mahatmy men is prakar se diya hua hai- 

utpanna dravide sahn vriddhi karnatak ke gata.
kvachith kvachinh maharashtre gurjare jirnatan gata..
tatr dhorakaleryogath padhandai: khanditangaka.
durbalahn chirn jata putrabhyan sah mandatamh..
vrindavann pun: prapy navinev suroopini.
jatahn yuvati samyakh preshtharoopa tu sampratamh..

"main vahi (jo moolat: yadavon ki ek shakha ke vnshaj satvaton dvara laee gee thi) dravid pradesh men (ragatmak bhakti ke roop men) utpann huee. karnatak men badi huee. maharashtr men kuchh-kuchh (poshan) hua. gujarat men vriddha ho gee. vahan ghor kaliyug (mlechchh akraman) ke sampark se pakhandon dvara khandit angavali main durbal hokar bahut dinon tak putron (gyan-vairagy) ke sath mandata ko prapt ho gee. phir vrindavan (krishn ki lilabhoomi) pahunchakar samprati navina, suroopini, yuvati aur samyakh prakar se sundar ho gee."

isamen sndeh nahin ki madhyayugin ragatmika bhakti ka uday tamil pradesh men hua. parantu usake poorn snskrit roop ka vikas bhagavat dharm ke mool sthal vrindavan men hi hua, jisako dakshin ke kee snt acharyon ne apani upasanabhoomi banaya.

moksh ka sadhan

bhagavat dharm ke mukhy siddhant is prakar hain-srishti ke utpadak ek matr bhagavan hain. inake anek nam hain, jinamen vishnu, narayan, vasudev, janardan adi mukhy hain. ve apani yogamaya prakriti se samast jagath ki utpatti karate hain. unhin se brahma, shiv adi any devata pradurbhoot hote hain. jivatma unhin ka ansh hai, jisako bhagavan ka sayujy athava tadatmy hone par poornata prapt hoti hai. samay-samay par jab snsar par snkat ata hai, tab bhagavan avatar dharan karake use door karate hain. unake das pramukh avatar hain, jinamen ram aur krishn pradhan hain. mahabharat men bhagavan ke chaturvyooh ki kalpana ka vikas hua. vasudev, snkarshan, pradyumn aur aniruddh char tattv chaturvyooh hain, jinaki upasana bhakt kramash: karata hai. vah aniruddh, pradyumn, snkarshan aur vasudev nahin banata; unhin ka ansh hone ke nate unake sayujy men sukh manata hai. nishkam karm se chitt ki shuddhi aur usase bhav ki shuddhi hoti hai. bhakti hi ek matr moksh ka sadhan hai. bhagavan ke sammukh poorn prapatti hi moksh hai.

bhakti ke prakar

bhagavat upasanapaddhati ka pratham ullekh brahmasootr ke shankar bhashy[1] men paya jata hai. isake anusar abhigaman, upadan, ijya, svadhyay aur yog se upasana karate hue bhakt bhagavan ko prapt karata hai. 'gyanamritasar' men chh: prakar ki bhakti batalaee gee hain-(1) smaran, (2) kirtan, (3) vandan, (4) padasevan, (5) archan aur (6) atmanivedan. bhagavat puran[2] men navadha bhakti ka varnan hai. uparyukt chh: men tin-shravan, dasy aur sakhy aur jod diye gaye hain. pancharatr snhitaon ke anusar sampoorn bhagavat dharm char khandon men vibhakt hai: (1) gyanapad (darshan aur dharm vigyan), (2) yogapad (yogasiddhant aur abhyas), (3) kriyapad (mandir nirman aur moortisthapana), (4) charyapad (dharmik kriyaen).

bhakti granth

bhakti ke oopar vishal sahity ka nirman hua hai. is par sabase prasiddh granth hain- bhagavatapuran. isake atirikt mahabharat ka shantiparv, shrimadbhagavadagita, pancharatrasnhita, satvatasnhita, shandilyasootr, naradiy bhaktisootr, naradapncharatr, harivnsh, padmasnhita, vishnutattvasnhita; ramanujachary, madhvachary, nimbarkachary, vallabhachary adi ke granth drashtavy hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 2.42
  2. 7.5,23-24

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