मुण्डकोपनिषद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mundakopanishad atharvaved ki shaunakiy shakha se sambandhit hai. isamen akshar-brahm 'Om: ka vishad vivechan kiya gaya hai. ise 'mantropanishad' nam se bhi pukara jata hai. isamen tin mundak hain aur pratyek mundak ke do-do khand hain tatha kul chaunsath mantr hain. 'mundak' ka arth hai- mastishk ko atyadhik shakti pradan karane vala aur use avidya-roopi andhakar se mukt karane vala. is upanishad men maharshi angira ne shaunak ko 'para-apara' vidya ka gyan karaya hai. bharat ke rashtriy chihn men ankit shabd 'satyamev jayate' mundakopanishad se hi liye ge hain.

pratham mundak

is mundak men 'brahmavidya', 'para-apara vidya' tatha 'brahm se jagath ki utpatti', 'ygy aur usake phal', 'bhogon se virakti' tatha 'brahmabodh' ke lie brahmanishth guru aur adhikari shishy ka ullekh kiya gaya hai.
pratham khand

  • is khand men angira rishi brahmavidya ki parampara ka prarambh men ullekh karate hain. 'brahma' sabhi devon men pratham dev hai. unhonne apane jyeshth putr atharva ko brahmavidya ka upadesh diya. atharva ne angir ko, angir ne satyavah ko, satyavah ne angiras ko var angiras ne shaunak ko yah vidya pradan ki.
  • shaunak sadgrihasth tha. usane maharshi angiras se jakar poochha ki vah kaun hai, jisake jan lene par sab kuchh jan liya jata hai?
  • para-apara vidya— maharshi angiras ne shaunak ko upadesh dete hue 'para-apara' vidya ko janane ka mahattv bataya ki inhen janane ke bad kisi any ko janane ki avashyakata nahin rahati hai.
  • para yaugik sadhana hai aur apara adhyatmik gyan hai. jis vidya se 'aksharabrahm' ka gyan hota hai, vah 'para' vidya hai aur jisase righ yajush, sam, atharv, shiksha, kalp, vyakaran, nirookt, chhand aur jyotish ka gyan hota hai, vah 'apara' vidya hai.
  • 'para' vidya men yog-sadhana dvara manav avinashi paramatma tak pahunchata hai aur 'apara' vidya dvara adhyatmik v adhibhautik gyan ko shabdik roop men jana jata hai.
  • prarambh men karanabhoot 'aksharabrahm' hi tha, jisane is jagath ko apani ichchha se utpann kiya. nana yoniyan banayin, manushy banaya, usake karm nirdharit kiye, ann banaya, ann se pranon ki pratishtha ki, pranon se man banaya, man se us parabrahm tak pahunchane ki jigyasa utpann ki. jo sarvgy hai, sarvavidh hai, usaka tap bhi gyan-yukt hota hai; kyonki usi ne is charachar tatha nanaroopani srishti ki rachana ki hai.

dvitiy khand

  • is khand men 'ygy,' arthat agnihotr ko manyata di gayi hai. ygy men do ahutiyan dene ki unhonne bat ki hai- 'Om prajapate svaha' aur 'Om indray svaha, arthat samast prajaon ke param aishvaryavan prabhu ke prati ham atm-samarpan karate hain.
  • mahan chaitanyatattv 'agni' (brahm), jo ham sabhi ka upasy hai, shraddhapoorvak use di gayi ahuti atyant kalyanakari hoti hai. jis agnihotr men atm-samarpan ki bhavana nihit hoti hai aur jo nishkam bhav se kiya jata hai, usase samast laukik vasanaon ka nash ho jata hai aur ahutiyan pradan karane vala sadhak brahmalok men anandaghan paramatma ka sannidhy prapt karata hai, parantu jo avidya-roopi andhakar se grasit hokar karmakand karate hain, ve moorkhon ki bhanti anek kashton ko sahan karate hain.
  • jisane yam-niyamon adi ki sadhana se, apane chitt ko tamasik v rajasik vrittiyon se door kar liya ho, aise gyanavan shishy ke pas ane par, guru ko use 'brahmavidya' ka upadesh avashy dena chahie.

dvitiy mundak

is mundak men 'aksharabrahm' ki sarvavyapakata aur usaka samast brahmand ke sath sambandh sthapit kiya gaya hai.
pratham khand
is khand men maharshi 'brahm' aur 'jagat' ki satyata ko prakat karate hain. jaise pradipt agni se sahastron chinagariyan prakat hoti hain aur phir usi men lin ho jati hain, usi prakar us 'brahm' se anek prakar ke bhav prakat hote hain aur phir usi men lin ho jate hain. vah prakashaman, amoortaroop brahm bhitar-bahar sarvatr vidyaman hai. vah ajanma, pran-rahit, man-rahit evn ujjval hai aur avinashi atma se bhi utkrisht hai-
divyo hyamoort: purush: sabahyabhyantaro hyaj:.
aprano hyamana: shubhro hyaksharatparat: par:॥2॥
vastut: isi avinashi brahm se pran, man evn samast indriyan utpann hoti hain. isi se jal, vayu, agni, akash aur vishv ko dharan karane vali prithivi utpann hoti hai.
age ke shlokon men rishivar us parabrahm ka atyant alnkarik varnan karate hue kahate hain ki agni brahm ka mastak hai, soory-chandr usake netr hain, dishane aur ved-vaniyan usake kan hain, vayu usake pran hain, sampoorn vishv usaka hriday hai,prithvi usake pair hain. vah brahm sampoorn praniyon men antaratma roop men pratishthit hai. at: yah sara snsar us paramapurush men hi sthit hai.
dvitiy khand
yah 'aksharabrahm' sabhi men vyapt hai aur hriday-roopi gufa men sthit hai. yah divy prakash vala hai. yah paramanuon aur sookshmatam jivon se bhi sookshm hai. samast lok-lokantar isamen nivas karate hain. yah avinashi brahm, jivan ka adhar, vani ka sar aur manasik sadhana ka lakshy hai. yah saty, amrit-tuly hai, param anand ka data hai. ise pana hi manav-jivan ka lakshy hai. yah 'pranav,' arthat 'Omkar' ka jap dhanush hai aur jivatma tir hai. is tir se hi us lakshy ka sandhan kiya jata hai. vah lakshy, jise bedhana hai, 'brahm' hai. usaka sandhan poori ekagrata ke sath kiya jana chahie.

  • is akhil brahmand men sarvatr ek vahi hai. usi ka chetan svaroop amrit ka divy sarovar, anand ki aganit hiloron se yukt hai. jo sadhak is amrit-sindhu men gota lagaya hai, vah nishchit roop se amar ho jata hai.

tritiy mundak

is mundak men 'jivatma' aur 'paramatma' ke sambandhon ki vyapak charcha ki gayi hai. unaki upama ek hi vriksh par rahane vale do pakshiyon se ki gayi hai. yah vriksh ki sharir hai, jisamen atma aur paramatma donon nivas karate hain. ek apane karmon ka phal khata hai aur doosara use dekhata rahata hai.
pratham khand
'atma' aur 'paramatma' ki upama vala yah mantr atyant prasiddh hai—
dva suparna sayuja sakhaya samann vrikshn parishasvajate.
tayorany: pippaln svadvattyanashnannanyo abhichakashiti॥1॥ arthat sath-sath rahane tatha sakhya-bhav vale do pakshi ek hi vriksh (sharir) par rahate hain. unamen se ek us vriksh ke pippal (karmaphal) ka svad leta hai aur doosara (paramatma) nirahar rahate hue keval dekhata rahata hai.

  • sharir men rahane vala 'jivatma' mohavash sabhi indriyon ka upabhog karata hai, jabaki doosara keval drishta matr hai. jab sadhak us pran-rooph paramatma ko jan leta hai, tab vah apani atma ko bhi un sabhi moh-bandhanon tatha upabhogon se alag karake, paramatma ke sath hi yog sthapit karata hai aur moksh ko prapt karata hai. saty ki hi sada jit hoti hai-

satyamev jayate nanritn satyen pantha vitato devayan:.
yenakramantyrishayo hyaptakama yatr satsatyasy paramn nidhanamh॥6॥ arthat saty ki hi vijay hoti hai, jhooth ki nahin. saty se hi devayan marg paripoorn hai. isake dvara hi kamana rahit rishigan use (paramapad ko) prapt karate hain, jahan saty ke shreshth bhandar-roop paramatma ka nivas hai.
vah brahm (paramatma) atyant mahanh hai aur divy anubhootiyon vala hai. vah sahaj chintan ki simao se pare hai. usake lie nishkam aur satat sadhana karani padati hai. vah kahin door nahin, hamare hriday men virajaman hai. use man aur atma ke dvara hi paya ja sakata hai. nirmal ant:karan vala atmgyani use jis lok aur jis roop men chahata hai, vah usi lok aur usi roop men use prapt ho jata hai.
dvitiy khand

  • brahmgyani hone ki ichchha rakhane vale sadhak ko sarvapratham apani sampoorn indriyon ka niyantran karana padata hai. indriy-nigrah ke uparant use apane sarvadhik chalayaman 'man' ko vash men karana padata hai. tabhi use atma ka sakshatkar hota hai. atmgyan hone ke uparant hi sadhak brahmgyan ke path par agrasar hota hai.
  • jab atmgyani sadhak us nirmal aur jyotirmay brahm ke paramadham ko pahachan leta hai, to use usamen sampoorn vishv samahit hota hua dikhaee padane lagata hai. nishkam bhav se paramatma ki sadhana karane vale viveki purush hi is nashvar sharir ke bandhan se mukt ho pate hain.
  • 'atma' ko n to pravachanon ke shravan se paya ja sakata hai, n kisi vishesh buddhi se. isaka arth yahi hai ki laukik gyan prapt karake, atmgyan prapt nahin hota. atmgyan chetanayukt hai. vah sadhak ki patrata dekhakar svayn hi apane svaroop ko prakat kar deta hai. kamana-rahit, vishuddh aur sahaj ant:karan vale sadhak hi param shant rahate hue paramatma ko prapt karane ki kshamata rakhate hain. viveki purush us sarvavyapi, sarvaroop parameshvar ko sarvatr prapt kar usi men samahit ho jate hain.
  • jis prakar pravahaman nadiyan apane nam-roop ko chhodakar samudr men vilin ho jati hain, vaise hi gyani purush nam-roop se vimukt hokar us divy paramatma men lin ho jate hain. use janane vala svayn hi brahm-roop ho jata hai. vah samast laukik-alaukik granthiyon se mukt ho jata hai. use amaratv prapt ho jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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