गौतम धर्मसूत्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kartta
gautam dharmasootr ke rachayita rishi gautam muni mane jate hain. gautam nam ka ullekh prachin shastron men anekatr paya jata hai. yatha nyay darshan ke praneta bhi akshapad gautam mane jate hain. kathopanishad men gautam ka prayog nachiketa tatha usake pita vajashravash ke lie hua hai. isi prakar chhandogy upanishad[1] men haridrum nam ke achary ka ullekh hua hai. atharvaved[2] men bhi gautam nam hai. rigved[3] ke rishi rahoogan gautam hain. inamen se kisane dharmasootr ka pranayan kiya hai, yah anishchit hai. charanavyooh ki tika ke anusar gautam samaved ki ranayani shakha ke ek vibhag ke achary the.[4]

gautam dharmasootr ka svaroop

gautam dharmasootr men keval tin prashn hain. pratham tatha dvitiy prashn men nau–nau adhyay tatha tritiy prashn men das adhyay hain. is prakar sampoorn gautam dharmasootr 28 adhyayon men vibhakt hai, jisamen ek sahastr sootr hai. yah grnth keval gady men hai tatha sabhi dharmasootron men prachinatam hai. is grnth men vedon ke mantranshon ko sootr roop men uddhrit kiya gaya hai. yadyapi in sootron men yajurved ke mantr bhi uddhrit hain[5] tathapi is grnth ka sambandh samaved se mana jata hai, kyonki isamen n keval samaved ke anek vishayon ko hi grahan kar liya gaya hai, apitu samaved ke kee sookton ka nirdesh bhi hai. sath hi is grnth ke tritiy prashn ke ashtam adhyay men anek sootr samaved ke samavidhan brahman se uddhrit hai. isi prakar tritiy prashnapatr ke pratham adhyay ke barahaven sootr men samaved ke nau mantron ka nirdesh hai. pratham prashn ke pratham adhyay ke sootr 52ven tatha tritiy prashn ke saptam adhyay ke 8ven sootr men panch mahavyahritiyon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai.[6] in vyahritiyon ka sambandh bhi samaved se hi hai. in pramanon ke adhar par gautam dharmasootr ka sambandh samaved se spasht hai. m. m. kane ne gautam dharmasootr ka sambandh gautamakalp se mana hai, kintu sath hi unhonne isaki svatantr rachana ka mat bhi pratipadit kiya hai.[7]

gautam dharmasootr men prakshep

samay samay par gautam dharmasootr men prakshep bhi hote rahe hain. aisa prayah anek grnthon ke sath hua hai. gautam dharmasootr bhi isaka apavad nahin hai. praman roop men kaha ja sakata hai ki baudhayan dharmasootr men gautam ke nam se yah mat uddhrit kiya gaya hai ki brahman ko kshatriy ki vritti svikar nahin karani chahie.[8] kintu vartaman gautam dharmasootr men yah mat upalabdh nahin hota, apitu isake sthan par yah kaha gaya hai ki apatkal men brahman kshatriy tatha vaishy ki vritti ko bhi apana sakata hai.[9] isi prakar vasishth dharmasootr men bhi gautam ke nam se yah vichar vyakt kiya gaya hai ki yadi koee ahitagni yatra men mar jae to usake sapind ghas–phoos ke putale ka punardah karen, kintu vartaman gautam dharmasootr men aisa koee sootr nahin hai.gautam dharmasootr men anek path–bhed bhi upalabdh hote hain tatha kee pandulipiyon men karmavipak par ek poora prakaran jod diya gaya, jis par haradatt ki vyakhya nahin hai. in pramanon ke adhar par vidvanon ki dharana hai ki gautam dharmasootr men samay samay par anek parivartan hote rahe hain. kundalal sharma ji ka vichar haiah– 'is prakar ke path–bhed ya prakshep kumaril se poorv hi kie ge the kyonki 'tantr varttik'[10] men is prakar ke pathabhedon ki charcha ki gee hai. mitakshara, smritichandrika tatha any grnthon men uddhrit is rachana ke anek sootr vartaman snskaranon men upalabdh nahin hain.'

gautam dharmasootr ka kal

gautam dharmasootr ka kal eesa poorv 400–600 ke pahale mana jata hai. is avadharana men hetu yah hai ki anek grnthon men gautam ka ullekh prapt hota hai. jisase svatah siddh hai ki gautam dharmasootr unase poorvavarti hai. isi prakar gautam dharmasootr men bhi any sahity ka ullekh prapt hota hai. atah is sootragrnth ko us sahity se paravarti hi manana hoga. donon paksh is prakar hain–
gautam dharmasootr men kisi bhi dharmasootrakar ke nam ka ullekh prapt nahin hota, apitu 'ityeke', 'ekashamh', 'eke' adi shabdon ke dvara hi apane se poorvavarti acharyon ka ullekh isamen kiya gaya hai. gautam dharmasootr[11] men manu ke nam se ek mat diya gaya hai.[12] gautam dharmasootr ki vyakhya karate samay maskari ne apani vyakhya ki pushti men anek udaharan manusmriti se die hain. shodhakon ne gautam dharmasootr matha manusmriti ke padon men 500 se adhik samanataen khoj lin hain to bhi isase yah siddh nahin hota ki vartaman manusmriti gautam dharmasootr ka mukhy srot hai.[13] gautam dharmasootr[14] men ‘lokavedavedangavith’ kahakar ved–vedang tatha[15] men ‘vakovakyetihasapuranakushalah’ kahakar puran adi ki charcha bhi ki hai. sath hi gautam dharmasootr[16] men upanishadh–vedant adi ka ullekh bhi kiya hai.[17] isi prakar 2–2–28 men nirookt[18] ki or bhi snket hain.[19] in pramanon ke adhar par gautam dharmasootr in grnthon men se paravarti pratit hota hai.

baudhayan dharmasootr men do bar gautam ka ullekh hua hai.[20] samaved ke shrautasootr latyayan[21] evn drahyayan[22] bhi gautam ko uddhrit karate hain. samavediy gobhilagrihyasootr[23] bhi gautam dharmasootr ko pramanik manata hai. vasishth dharmasootr[24] men gautam ko uddhrit kiya gaya hai. gautam dharmasootr ka 19van adhyay hi vasishth dharmasootr men 22ven adhyay ke roop men hai. manusmriti[25] men gautam ko utathy ka putr kaha gaya hai tatha yagyvalky–smriti men[26] gautam ki ganana dharmashastron men ki gee hai. shnkarachary ne vedantasootr–bhashy[27] men gautam dharmasootr[28] ko uddhrit kiya hai.[29]

in pramanon ke adhar par gautam dharmasootr in rachanaon ke pashchath thaharata hai. daau. jaauli gautam dharmasootr ko apastamb dharmasootr se shatabdiyon poorv manate hain.[30] m. m. kane ka vichar hai ki gautam dharmasootr ke samay panini ka vyakaran ya to tha hi nahin aur yadi tha to vah apani mahatta sthapit nahin kar saka tha. nishkarsh svaroop gautam dharmasootr ka rachana kal 600 ee. poo. men rakha ja sakata hai. gautam dharmasootr men varnit vishayon ki soochi is prakar hai–

pratham prashnah

  • pratham adhyay – dharm, upanayan, shuddhi–prakaran, chhatron ke niyam.
  • dvitiy adhyay – brahchari ke niyam, acharan aur nishedh.
  • tritiy adhyay – grihasthashram, sannyas aur vanaprasth ke niyam.
  • chaturth adhyay – grihasth ka dharm, vivah aur putron ke prakar.
  • pncham adhyay – pnch mahaygy aur madhupark.
  • shashtham adhyay – abhivadan ke niyam aur vyaktiyon ke prati acharan.
  • saptam adhyay – guruseva aur brahman ke karttavy.
  • ashtam adhyay – raja aur bahushrut snskar.
  • navam adhyay – vrat aur acharan ke dainik niyam.

dvitiy prashn

  • pratham adhyay – charon varnon ke karttavy.
  • dvitiy adhyay – raja ke karttavy aur dharm–nirnay ki prakriya. \
  • tritiy adhyay – aparadh aur unake dand, byaj, rin.
  • chaturth adhyay – vivad aur unake nirnay, sakshi aur vyavahar, satyabhashan, nyayakartta.
  • pncham adhyay – mrityu aur janmavishayak ashauch.
  • shashtham adhyay – shraddhakarm.
  • saptam adhyay –vedadhyayan ki vidhi aur anadhyay.
  • ashtam adhyay – bhakshy aur pey padarth.
  • navam adhyay – stri ke dharm.

tritiy prashn

  • pratham adhyay – prayashchitt.
  • dvitiy adhyay – tyajy vyakti.
  • tritiy adhyay – patak aur mahapatak.
  • chaturth adhyay se saptam adhyay – prayashchitt.
  • ashtam adhyay – krichchhr vrat.
  • navam adhyay – chandrayan vrat aur
  • dasham adhyay – sampatti ka vibhajan.

pratipady ka vishleshan

prayah sabhi dharmasootron ka pratipady manushy ke vyaktigat tatha samajik achar evn karttavy hain. gautam dharmasootr men bhi inake sambandh men vishad vivechan kiya gaya hai. any dharmasootron ke saman gautam dharmasootr men bhi mukhyatah varnon evn ashramon ke niyamon tatha varnon ke dainik dharmakrityon ka vidhan kiya gaya hai. varnashram–vyavastha ko gautam dharmasootr atynt mahattv pradan karata hai, yahan tak ki isamen varnashram se hin, apavitr tatha patiton ke sath sambhashan ka bhi nishedh hai. brahmachari, grihasth, vaikhanas tatha bhikshu ke roop men gautam ne manushy jivan ko char ashramon men vibhakt karake charon ashramavasiyon ke karttavyon ke vistar se ullekh kiya hai. gautam grihasthashram ko mahattv dete hain, kyonki sabhi ashram isi ke ashrit hain. any ashramon ke angrat bhikshu nam se sannyasashram ko gautam mahattvapoorn manate hain. vanaprasth ya vaikhanas grihasth tatha sannyas ke bich ki kadi hai. gautam ne un sabhi ashramon ke karttavyadi ke vishay men vistar se vichar kiya hai.

atithi–satkar

ashram–vyavastha ke antargat gautam ne atithi–satkar ko bahut mahattv diya hai. gautam dharmasootr[31] ke anusar snnyasi ko bhi atithi seva karani chahie tatha grihasth ko ‘devapitrimanushyarshipoojak’ hona chahie. duahkhi, rogi, nirdhan aur vidyarthi ki sahayata karana grihasth ka param dharm hai. use atithi, balak, rogi, stri, vriddhon, sevakon ko bhojan dekar svayn bhojan karana chahie. grihasth–dharm ke palanarth gautam ne panch mahaygyon ka vidhan kiya hai.[32] isake sath hi is dharm ki shuddhata ke lie anek niyam bhi banae hain. ashram–dharm ke prasng men gautam dharmasootr men daya, kshama, paranindarahity adi manaviy gunon par bal diya gaya hai.[33]

dan

in gunon ke sath dan dene ka vidhan bhi yahan par kiya gaya hai, kintu gautam dharmasootr[34] ke anusar dan patr ki yogyata ke anusar dena chahie. gautam ka satyabhashan tatha saty acharan par bahut bal hai. sabhi ke lie yah anivary hai. isilie saty bhashan ko mahanh tap kaha gaya hai. saty bolane se svarg tatha asaty bhashan se narak prapti ki bat bhi kahi gee hai. in gunon ke sath manushy ko ahinsak, mridu, sahishnu, kshamashil bhi hona chahie.

is prakar gautam dharmasootr men vyaktigat tatha samajik jivan ko shreshth banane ka prayatn kiya gaya hai. isake sath gautam yah bhi janate hain ki vyakti apani svabhavik kamazori ke karan kupath men pravritt ho jata hai. kabhi–kabhi poore samaj men hi anaitikata vyapt ho jati hai, kintu yadi yatn kiya jae to ye durbalataen der ho sakati hain. isalie gautam dharmasootr men dand svaroop anek prakar ke prayashchatton ka vidhan kiya gaya hai jinase vyakti shuddh hokar punah shreshth jivan vyatit kar sakata hai. is grnth men kahin kahin mans–bhakshan ka ullekh bhi milata hai, kintu vah prakshipt pratit hota hai.

charon varn

gautam dharmasootr men ashram–vyavastha ke sath varn–vyavastha par bhi paryapt prakash dala gaya hai. is prasng men brahman ko sarvopari sthan pradan kiya gaya hai. brahman, kshatriy, vaishy tatha shoodr ke roop men charon varnon ke karttavy evn adhikaron ka yahan achchha vivechan kiya gaya hai. varn–vyavastha ke sucharoo snchalanarth yahan par savarn vivah ko hi manyata pradan ki gee hai. yadi koee asavarn vivah karata hai to usaki santan varnasnkar kahalaegi. yahan par yah bhi kaha gaya hai ki nirantar sat pidhiyon tak chalane vali varnasnkar santan bhi apane apane karyon ke adhar par utkrisht varn ya nishkrit varn ki ho jati hai. prayashchitt, aparadh, dand, mrityu tatha janmavishayak ashauch bhi varnanusar hi nirdharit kie ge hain.

sambhavatah brahman ko usaki vidvata tatha shreshth acharan ke karan hi bndhanon se mukt rakha gaya hoga. isalie gautam dharmasootr[35] men ‘tadapekshastadvrittiah’ kaha gaya hai. gautam dharmasootr men shoodron ki sthiti achchhi nahin dikhaee deti hai. unake lie dharmik snskar vihit nahin hain tatha keval grihasthashram hi unake lie vihit hai. shoodr ka yahi dharm batalaya gaya hai ki vah uchch varn ke logon ki seva kare.

nari ko mahattv

gautam dharmasootr men nari ko paryapt mahattv diya gaya hai, kyonki vah santan ki janani hai. use shreshth achary kaha gaya hai. yadyapi grihasambandhi tatha dharmik karyon men grihini tatha sahadharmini ke roop men vah pratishthit pad par asin hai tathapi use dharm ke vishay men asvatantr kaha hai. kanya ka vivah mata–pita ke adhin hai kintu yadi ve samay par kanya ka vivah nahin karate, to vah svayn anukool yuvak se vivah kar sakati hai. stri ke lie pativraty dharm anivary hai. apane pati ke atirikt use kisi aur ke vishay men sochana bhi nahin chahie. anaitik yaun sambandhon ke lie kathoratam dand ka vidhan kiya gaya hai. gautam dharmasootr men dasi ke roop men nari ka nimn svaroop hi drishtigochar hota hai. ek sootr[36] men to yahan tak kah diya gaya ki dasi yadi kisi purush ke pas bandhak rakhi gee hai to vah usaka upabhog kar sakata hai. is kathan ka auchity gautam dharmasootr ke tikakar haradatt ne yah kahakar batalaya hai ki pas rakhi upabhogy vastu par koee vyakti kab tak snyam rakh sakata hai? haradatt ka yah kathan naitikata ki sima ka ullnghan karata hai. karan kuchh bhi ho, yah sthiti samaj ki hin avastha ki soochak hai.

rajy–vyavastha

gautam dharmasootr men rajy–vyavastha par bhi prakash dala gaya hai. gautam[37] ke anusar pranimatr ki raksha karana tatha nyayapoorvak dand dekar praja ko supath men rakhana raja ka karttavy hai. raja vidvanh tatha sadachari brahman ki sahayata se rajakary karata hai. dharmasootron men raja nirnkush nahin hai. usake nyay ki prakriya bhi jan–tantrik hai. rajy men brahman dharm ka vidhan karane vala tatha raja usaka palan karane vala hai.[38]

is prakar gautam dharmasootr men ek bahut hi samanvayapoorn lok–vyavastha ka pratipadan kiya gaya hai. samaj ke vibhinn vargon ke prayah sabhi prakar ke karttavyon ka nirdharan karake samaj ko sahi disha dene ka prayatn yahan par kiya gaya hai jisase samaj unnati kar sake tatha logon men prem, nyay, daya, paropakar adi gunon ki vriddhi ho. snkshep men kaha jae to gautam ne apane dharmasootr ke madhyam se sampoorn samaj ko hi naitik evn samajik drishti se niyantrit karane ka prayatn kiya hai.

vyakhyakar

  • haradatt – is dharmasootr par haradatt ne mitakshara nam ki tika likhi hai jo upalabdh hai haradatt ka samay 1100–1300 ee. ke madhy svikar kiya jata hai.
  • bharttriygy – ye gautam dharmasootr ke prachin vyakhyakar hain jinaka ullekh kee logon ne kiya hai. inaki vyakhya is samay par upalabdh nahin hai. inaka kal 800 ee. se poorv ka mana jata hai.
  • asahay – adbhut sagar ke lekhak aniruddh tatha bhashyakar vishvaroop ne soochit kiya hai ki asahay ne bhi gau. dh. soo. par bhashy likha tha. medhatithi ne vishvaroop ka ullekh kiya hai. atah inaka kal 750 ee. se uttaravarti nahin hai.
  • maskari – kalpataroo ke moksh kand men maskari ko gau. dh. soo. ka vyakhyata kaha gaya hai. venkatanath ki shatadooshani (pri. 64) men bhi aisa hi kaha gaya hai. vahan ise ‘sarvasmriti nibandhan’ ka nam diya gaya hai.

snskaran

  • isake kee snskaran prakashit ho chuke hain. sarvapratham daau. e. eph. stentslar ne ‘snskrit teksat sosayati’ ke lie landan se 1876 ee. men ‘di instityoots aauph gautam’ nam se prakashit kiya.
  • 1876 ee. men jivanand vidya sagar ne kalakatta se ek snskaran prakashit kiya jisamen 19ven adhyay ke ant men ‘karmavipak’ namak prakaran jod diya gaya.
  • kalakatta se hi 1908 ee. men em. en. datt ne ek snskaran prakashit karaya, isamen bhi karmavipak joda gaya hai.
  • ‘smritisndarbh’ namak smriti–sngrah ke chaturth bhag men kalakatta se 1879–1918 ee. men ise prakashit kiya gaya.
  • poona se 1910 ee. men anandashram granthamala ke antargat bhi ek snskaran nikala jo dosh poorn tha. 1931 ee. men ise punah haradatt ki mitakshara sahit prakashit keya gaya. isamen kul 991 sootr hain. isi snskaran ka telugu aksharon men bhi sampadan hua hai.
  • el. shri nivas achary ne maskari ki vyakhya sahit 1917 ee. men gavarnament oriyantal laibreri, maisoor se prakashit kiya. isamen 1016 sootr hain. yah snskaran bhi doshapoorn hai.
  • 1966 ee. men kashi snskrit granthamala ke antargat chaukhamba snskrit sirij aauphis, varanasi se haradatt ki mitakshara sahit gautam dharmasootr ko prakashit kiya gaya, jisamen daau. umesh chandr pandeyakrit hindi vyakhya bhi hai.
  • 1969 ee. men vedamitr ne neshanal pablishing haus se navin snskaran nikala.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. chhandogy upanishad, 4.4–3
  2. atharvaved , 4.29.6 tatha 18.3.16
  3. rigved , 1.78.5
  4. gautam dharmasootr, chaukhamba 1966, bhoomika, pri. 13
  5. 1-agnaye svaha, somay svaha – gautam dharmasootr 3816 tatha yaju. 22.6.
    2-apo hishtha. – gautam dharmasootr 3.8 tatha yaju. 11.50.
  6. 1-gautam dharmasootr 1.1.51.
    2-gautam dharmasootr 3.8.7.
  7. hi. dh. sha. bhag 1 prishth 13
  8. baudhayan dharmasootr 2.2.4.17
  9. tadalabhe kshatravrittiah– gautam dharmasootr 1.7.6
  10. gautam dharmasootr 1–45 par kumaril bhatt ka mat
  11. gautam dharmasootr, 3–3–7
  12. trini prathamanyanirdishyanmanuah – gautam dharmasootr 3.3–7
  13. vedamitr, indiya aauph dharmasootraj bhoomika, pri. 36
  14. gautam dharmasootr, 1–8–5
  15. gautam dharmasootr, 1.8.6
  16. gautam dharmasootr, 3.1.12
  17. trayyamanvikshyan vaabhivinitah gautam dharmasootr 2–2.3
  18. nirookt, 11.3
  19. gautam dharmasootr 2.2.28 dando damanadityahustenadantandamayeth
  20. baudhayan dharmasootr 1.1.7 tatha 2.2.17
  21. shrautasootr latyayan, 1.3.3 tatha 1.4.17
  22. drahyayan, 1.4.17 tatha 9.3.15
  23. gobhilagrihyasootr, 3.10.6
  24. vasishth dharmasootr, 4.34 tatha 4.36
  25. manusmriti, 2.16
  26. yagyvalky–smriti 1.5
  27. vedantasootr–bhashy 3.1.8
  28. gautam dharmasootr 2.2.29
  29. baudhayan dharmasootr 2.2–17
  30. indiyan la end kastam pri. 9
  31. gautam dharmasootr 1.3–28
  32. pnchanan ygyanamanushthann devapitrimanushyabhootabrahmanamh –gautam dharmasootr 1.8.17
  33. daya sarvabhooteshu kshantiranasooya shauchamanayaso mngalamakarpanyamaspriheti –gautam dharmasootr 1–8–24
  34. gautam dharmasootr, 1–5–18
  35. gautam dharmasootr 1–3–7
  36. 2.3.36
  37. gautam dharmasootr 2.1.7–8
  38. gautam dharmasootr 2.20.14

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