}

कठोपनिषद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kathopanishad

krishn yajurved shakha ka yah upanishad atyant mahattvapoorn upanishadon men hai. is upanishad ke rachayita kath nam ke tapasvi achary the. ve muni vaishampayan ke shishy tatha yajurved ki kathashakha ke pravrirttak the. isamen do adhyay hain aur pratyek adhyay men tin-tin valliyan hain, jinamen vajashrava ke putr nachiketa aur yam ke bich snvad hain. bhartu prapnch ne kath aur brihadaranyak upanishadon par bhi bhashy rachana ki thi.

pratham adhyay

is adhyay men nachiket apane pita dvara pratadit kiye jane par yam ke yahan pahunchata hai aur yam ki anupasthiti men tin din tak bhookha-pyas yam ke dvar par baitha rahata hai. tin din bad jab yam lautakar ate hain, tab unaki patni unhen brahman balak atithi ke vishay men batati hai. yamaraj balak ke pas pahunchakar apani anupasthiti ke lie nachiketa se kshama mangate hain aur use isake lie tin varadan dene ki bat kahate hain. ve use uchit samman dekar v bhojan adi karake bhi santusht karane ka prayatn karate hain. taduparant nachiketa dvara varadan mangane par 'adhyatm' ke vishay men usaki jigyasa shant karate hain.
pratham valli
katha is prakar hai ki kisi samay vajashrava rishi ke putr vajashravas uddalak muni ne vishvajit ygy karake apana sampoorn dhan aur gauen dan kar din. jis samay ritvijon dvara dakshina men prapt ve gauen le jaee ja rahi thin, tab unhen dekhakar vajashravas uddalak muni ka putr nachiketa soch men pad gaya; kyonki ve gauen atyadhik jarjar ho chuki thin. ve n to doodh dene yogy thin, n prajanan ke lie upayukt thin. usane socha ki is prakar ki gauon ko dan karana doosaron par bhar ladana hai. isase to pap hi lagega.
aisa vichar kar nachiketa ne apane pita se kaha-'he tat! isase achchha to tha ki ap mujhe hi dan kar dete.'
bar-bar aisa kahane par pita ne krodhit hokar kah diya-'main tujhe mrityu ko deta hoon.'
pita ki agya ka palan karane ke lie nachiketa yam ke dvar par ja pahuncha aur tin din tak bhookha-pyasa pada raha. jab yam ne use varadan dene ki bat kahi, to usane pahala varadan manga.

pahala varadan

'he mrityudev! jab main apake pas se lautakar ghar jaoon, to mere pita krodh chhod, shant chitt hokar, mujhase premapoorvak vyavahar karen aur apani shesh ayu men unhen koee chinta n sataye tatha ve sukh se so saken.' yamaraj ne 'tathastu, 'arthath 'aisa hi ho' kahakar pahala varadan diya.

doosara varadan

'he mrityudev! ap mujhe svarg ke sadhanabhoot us 'agnigyan' ko pradan karen, jisake dvara svargalok ko prapt hue purush amaratv ko prapt karate hain.' yamaraj ne nachiketa ko upadesh dete hue kaha-'he nachiketa! tum is 'agnividya' ko ekagr man se suno. svargalok ko prapt karane vali yah vidya atyant gopaniy hai.' taduparant yamaraj ne nachiketa ko samajhaya ki aisa ygy karane ke lie kitani eenton ki vedi banani chahie aur ygy kis vidhi se kiya jaye tatha kaun-kaun se mantr usamen bole jayen. ant men nachiketa ki pariksha lene ke lie yamaraj ne usase apane dvara bataye ygy ka vivaran poochha, to balak nachiketa ne aksharash: us vidhi ko dohara diya. use sunakar yamaraj balak ki smaranashakti aur pratibha ko dekhakar bahut prasann hue. unhonne kaha-'he nachiketa! tere mange gaye tin varadanon ke atirikt main tumhen ek varadan apani or se yah deta hoon ki mere dvara kahi gayi yah 'agnividya' aj se tumhare nam se jani jayegi. tum is anek roopon vali, gyan-tattvamayi mala ko svakar karo.'


nachiketa ko divy 'agnividya' prapt huee. isalie us vidya ka nam 'nachiketagni' (lipt n hone vale ki vidya) pada. is prakar ki trividh 'nachiket' vidya ka gyata, tin sandhiyon ko prapt kar, tin karm sampann karake janm-mrityu se par ho jata hai aur param shanti prapt karata hai. acharyon ne nachiket vidya ko 'prapti,' 'adhyayan' aur 'anushthan' tin vidhiyon se yukt kaha hai. sadhak ko in tinon ke sath atm-chetana ki sandhi karani padati hai, arthath sthool, sookshm evn karan sharir ko is vidya se anupranit karana padata hai. is prakriya ko 'trisandhi' prapti kaha jata hai. kuchh achary mata-pita aur guru se yukt hone ko trisandhi' kahate hain. in sabhi ko divyagni ke anuroop dhalate hue sadhak janm-maran ke chakr se mukt ho jata hai. ab usane yamaraj se tisara var manga.

tisara varadan

'he mrityudev! manushy ke mrit ho jane par atma ka astittv rahata hai, aisa gyaniyon ka kathan hai, parantu kuchh ki manyata hai ki mrityu ke bad atma ka astitv nahin rahata. ap mujhe is sandeh se mukt karake batayen ki mrityu ke pashchath atma ka kya hota hai?' nachiketa ke tisare varadan ko sunakar yamaraj ne use samajhaya ki yah vishay atyant goodh hain isake badale ve use samast vishv ki sampada aur samrajy tak de sakate hain, kintu vah yah n poochhe ki mrityu ke bad atma ka kya hota hai; kyonki ise janana aur samajhana atyant agamy hai, parantu nachiketa kisi bhi roop men yamaraj ke pralobhan men nahin aya aur apane mange hue varadan par hi ada raha.
dvitiy valli

  • yamaraj ne nachiketa ke hath ho dekha, to kaha-'he nachiketa!'kalyan' aur 'sansarik bhogy padarthon' ka marg alag-alag hai. ye donon hi marg manushy ke sammukh upasthit hote hain, kintu buddhiman jan donon ko bhali-bhanti samajhakar unamen se ek apane lie chun lete hain. jo agyani hote hain, ve bhog-vilas ka marg chunate hain aur jo gyani hote hain, ve kalyan ka marg chunate hain. priy nachiketa! shreshth atmgyan ko janane ka suavasar badi kathinaee se prapt hota hai. ise shushk tarkavitark se nahin jana ja sakata.'
  • yamaraj ne bataya-'priy nachiketa! 'Om' hi vah paramapad hai. 'Om' hi aksharabrahm hai. is aksharabrahm ko janana hi 'atmagyan' hai. sadhak apani atma se sakshatkar karake hi ise jan pata hai; kyonki atma hi 'brahm' ko janane ka pramukh adhar hai. ek sadhak manav-sharir men sthit is atma ko hi janane ka prayatn karata hai.'

'n jayate mriyate va vipashchinnayn kutashchinn babhoov kashchith.
ajo nity: shashvatoayn puranon n hanyate hanyamane sharire॥' 1/2/18॥ arthath yah nity gyan-svaroop atma n to utpann hota hai aur n mrityu ko hi prapt hota hai. yah atma n to kisi any ke dvara janm leta hai aur n koee isase utpann hota hai. yah atma ajanma, nity, shashvat au kshay tatha vriddhi se rahit hai. sharir ke nasht hone par bhi yah vinasht nahin hota.

  • 'he nachiketa! paramatma is jivatma ke hriday-roopi gufa men anu se bhi atisookshm aur mahanh se bhi atimahan roop men virajaman hain. nishkam karm karane vala tatha shok-rahit koee virala sadhak hi, paramatma ko kripa se use dekh pata hai. dushkarmon se yukt, indriyasakt aur sansarik moh men phnsa gyani vyakti bhi atmatattv ko nahin jan sakata.'

tritiy valli

  • 'he nachiketa! jo vivekashil hai, jisane man sahit apani samast indriyon ko vash men kar liya hai, jo sadaiv pavitr bhavon ko dharan karane vala hai, vahi us atm-tattv ko jan pata hai; kyonki—

'esh sarveshu bhooteshu goodhatma n prakashate. drishyate tvagrayya buddhiya sookshmaya sookshmadarshibhi:॥' 1/3/12॥ arthath samast praniyon men chhipa hua yah atmatattv prakashit nahin hota, varanh yah sookshm drishti rakhane vale tattvadarshiyon ko hi sookshm buddhi se dikhaee deta hai.

doosara adhyay

doosare adhyay men parameshvar ki prapti men jo badhaen ati hain, unake nivaran aur hriday men unaki sthiti ka varnan kiya gaya hai. paramatma ki sarvavyapakata aur snsar-roopi ulate pipal ke vriksh ka vivechan, yog-sadhana, eeshvar-vishvas aur mokshadi ka varnan hai. ant men brahmavidya ke prabhav se nachiketa ko brahm-prapti ka ullekh hai.
pratham valli

  • paramatma ne samast indriyon ka mukh bahar ki or kiya hai, jisase jivatma bahari padarthon ko dekhata hai aur sansarik bhog-vilas men hi usaka dhyan rama rahata hai. vah antaratma ki or nahin dekhata, kintu moksh ki ichchha rakhane vala sadhak apani samast indriyon par niyantran karake antaratma ko dekhata hai. yah antaratma hi brahm tak pahunchane ka marg hai. jahan se sooryadev udit hote hain aur jahan tak jakar ast hote hain, vahan tak samast dev shaktiyan virajaman hain. unhen koee bhi nahin langh pata. yahi eeshvar hai. is eeshvar ko janane ke lie saty aur shuddh man ki avashyakata hoti hai.
  • yamaraj nachiketa ko batate hain-'he nachiketa! shuddh jal ko jis patr men bhi dalo, vah usi ke anusar roop grahan kar leta hai. paudhon men vah ras, praniyon men rakt aur gyaniyon men chetana ka roop dharan kar leta hai. usamen koee vikar utpann nahin hota. vah shuddh roop se kisi ke sath bhi ekaroop ho jata hain jo sadhak sabhi padarthon se alipt hokar paramatmatattv se lipt hone ka prayas karata hai, us sadhak ko hi saty path ka pathik janakar 'atmatattv' ka upadesh diya jata hai.'

dvitiy valli

  • 'he nachiketa! us chaitany aur ajanma parabrahm ka nagar gyarah dvaron vala hai- do netr, do kan, do nasika randhr, ek mukh, nabhi, guda, jananendriy aur brahmarandhr. ye sabhi dvar sharir men sthit hain. karm-bandhanon se mukt hokar, jo sadhak dvaron ke moh se sarvatha alipt rahakar nagar men pravesh karata hai, vah nishchay hi paramatma tak pahuchata hain sharir men sthit ek deh se doosari deh men gaman karane ke svabhav vala yah jivatma, jab mrityu ke uparant doosare sharir men chala jata hai, tab kuchh bhi shesh nahin rahata. yah gamanashil tattv hi brahm hai. yahi jivan ka adhar hai. pran aur apan isi ke ashray men rahate hain. ab main tumhen bataoonga ki mrityu ke uparant atma ka kya hota hai, arthath vah kahan chala jata hai.'yamaraj ne age kaha-

'yonimanye prapadyante shariratvay dehin:.
sthanumanyeanusnyanti yathakarm yathashrutamh॥2/2/7॥'arthath apane-apane karm aur shastradhyayan ke anusar prapt bhavon ke karan kuchh jivatma to sharir dharan karane ke lie vibhinn yoniyon ko prapt karate hain aur any apane-apane karmanusar jad yoniyon, arthath vriksh, lata, parvat adi ko prapt karate hain.

  • 'he nachiketa! samast jivon ke karmanusar unaki bhog-vyavastha karane vala paramapurush paramatma, sabake so jane ke uparant bhi jagata rahata hai. vahi vishuddh tattv parabrahm avinashi kahalata hai, jise koee langh nahin sakata. samast lok usi ka ashray grahan karate hain. jis prakar ek hi agnitattv sampoorn brahmand men pravesh karake pratyek adharabhoot vastu ke anuroop ho jata hai, usi prakar samast praniyon men sthit antaratma(brahm) ek hone par bhi anek roopon men pratibhasit hota hai. vahi bhitar hai aur vahi bahar hai.

'ekovashi sarvabhootantaratma ekn roopn bahudha y: karoti.'
tritiy valli

  • is valli men yamaraj brahm ki upama pipal ke us vriksh se karate hain, jo is brahmand ke madhy ulata lataka hua hai. jisaki jade oopar ki or hain aur shakhaen niche ki or lataki hain ya phaili huee hain. yah vriksh srishti ka sanatan vriksh hai. yah vishuddh, avinashi aur nirvikalp brahm ka hi roop hai.
  • yamaraj batate hain ki yah sampoorn vishv us pran-roop brahm se hi prakat hota hai aur nirantar gatishil rahata hai. jo aise brahm ko janate hain, ve hi amrity, arthath moksh ko prapt karate hain is parabrahm ke bhay se hi agnidev tapate hain, sooryadev tapate hain. indr, vayu aur mrityudevata bhi inhin ke bhay se gatishil rahate hain.
  • 'he nachiketa ! mrityu se poorv, jo vyakti brahm ka gyan prapt kar leta hai, vah jiv samast bandhanon se mukt ho jata hai, anyatha vibhinn yoniyon men bhatakata hua apane karmon ka phal prapt karata rahata hai. yah ant:karan vishuddh darpan ke saman hai. isamen hi brahm ke darshan kiye ja sakate hain. jab man ke sath sabhi indriyan atmatattv men lin ho jati hain aur buddhi bhi cheshtarahit ho jati he, tab ise jiv ki 'paramagati' kaha jata hai. indriyon ka snyam karake atma men lin hona hi 'yog' hai. hriday ki samast granthiyon ke khul jane se maranadharma manushy amritv, arthath 'moksh' ko prapt kar leta hai.' aisi vidya ko janakar nachiketa bandhanamukt hokar moksh ko prapt ho gaya.


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