वेद का स्वरूप  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatiy manyata ke anusar ved srishtikram ki pratham vani hai.[1] phalat: bharatiy snskritika mool granth ved siddh hota hai. pashchaty vicharakon ne aitihasik drishti apanate hue ved ko vishv ka adi granth siddh kiya. at: yadi vishvasnskriti ka udgam stotr ved ko mana jay to koee atyukti nahin hai.

ved shabd aur usaka lakshanatmak svaroop

shabdik vidha se vishleshan karane par ved shabd ki nishpatti 'vid-gyane' dhatu se 'ghanh' pratyay karane par hoti hai.

  • vicharakon ne kaha hai ki-jisake dvara dharmadi purusharth-chatushtay-siddhi ke upay batalaye jayn, vah ved hai.[2]
  • achary sayan ne ved ke gyanatmak aishvary ko dhyan men rakhakar lakshit kiya ki- abhilashit padarth ki prapti aur anisht-parihar ke alaukik upayako jo granth bodhit karata hai, vah ved hai.[3] yahan yah dhyatavy hai ki achary sayanane ved ke lakshan men 'alaukikamupayamh' yah visheshan dekar vedon ki ygymoolakata prakashit ki hai.
  • achary laugakshi bhaskar ne darshanik drishti rakhate hue- apaurushey vaky ko ved kaha hai.[4]
  • achary udayan ne bhi kaha hai ki- jisaka doosara mool kahin upalabdh nahin hai aur mahajanon arthath astik logon ne ved ke roop men manyata di ho, un anupoorvi vishisht vakyon ko ved kahate hain.[5]
  • apastambadi sootrakaron ne ved ka svaroopavabodhak lakshan karate hue kaha hai ki- ved mantr aur brahmanatmak hain.[6]
  • acharyacharan svami shrikarapatri ji maharaj ne darshanik evn yagyik donon drishtiyon ka samanvay karate hue ved ka adbhut lakshan is prakar upasthapit kiya hai-' shabdatiriktn shabdopajivipramanatiriktn ch yatpramann tajjanyapramitivishayanatiriktarthako yo yastadanyatve sati amushmikasukhajanakochcharanakatve sati janygyanajanyo yo pramanashabdastattvn vedatvamh.'[7]
  • uparyukt lakshanon ki vivechana karane par yah tathy samane ata hai ki- aihakamushmik phalaprapti ke alaukik upay ka nidarshan karane vala apaurushey vishishtanupoorvik mantr-brahmanatmak shabdarashi ved hai.

ved ke bhag

ved ke do bhag mantr aur brahman-

  • acharyon ne samanyataya mantr aur brahman-roop se vedon ka vibhajan kiya hai.[8]
  • isamen mantratmak vaidik shabdarashi ka mukhy snkalan snhita ke nam se prachin kal se vyavahrit hota aya hai.
  • snhitatmak vaidik shabdarashi par hi padapath, kramapath evn any vikritipath hote hain.
  • ygyon men snhitagat mantron ka hi pradhan roop se prayog hota hai.[9]
  • achary yask ke anusar 'mantr' shabd mananarthak 'manh' dhatu se nishpann hai.[10]
  • pancharatr-snhita ke anusar manan karane se jo tran karate hain, ve mantr hain.[11]athava mat- abhimat padarth ke jo data hain, ve mantr kahalate hain.
  • maharshi jaimini ne mantr ka lakshan karate hue kaha hai- 'tachchodakeshu mantrakhya.'
  • isi ko spasht karate hue achary madhav ka kathan hai ki-yagyik vidvanon ka 'yah vaky mantr hai'-aisa samakhyan(- nam nirdesh) mantr ka lakshan hai. tatpary yah hai ki yagyik log jise mantr kahen, vahi mantr hai. ve yagyik log anushthan ke smarak adi vakyon ke liye mantr shabd ka prayog karate hain.[12]
  • achary laugakshi bhaskarane, anushthan (prayog)- se sambaddh (samavet) dravy-devatadi (arth) ka jo smaran karate hain, unhen mantr kaha hai. [13] is prakar tattath vaidik karmon ke anushthan kal men anushthey kriya evn usake angabhoot dravy devatadika prakashan (smaran) hi mantr ka prayojan hai. yahan yah bhi dhyatavy hai ki shastrakaron ke anusar 'prayogasamavetarthasmarakatv' mantron ka drisht prayojan hai, at: ygykal men mantron ka uchcharan adrisht prayojak hai- yah kalpana nahin karani chahiye; kyonki drisht phal ki sambhavana ke vidyaman rahane par adrisht phal ki kalpana anuchit hoti hai.[14] yahan yah prashn uthata hai ki mantron ka jo arth-smaran-roop drisht prayojan batalaya gaya hai, vah prakarantar se arthath brahman-vakyon se bhi prapt ho jata hai; phir to mantrochcharan vyarth hua? is akshep ka samadhan shastrakaron ne niyam- vidhi ke ashrayan se kiya hai. unaka paksh hai ki 'smritva karmani kurvit' is vidhayak vaky se tattatkarmon ke anushthanakal men vihit smaran ke liye upayantar ke avalamban se tattatprakaranapathit mantron ka vaiyarthy apatit hota, at: 'mantrairev smritva karmani kurvit' (mantron se hi smaran karake karm karana chahiye,)- yah niyam vidhi dvara svikrit kiya jata hai.isi prasng ko achary yask ne apane nirookt granth men uthakar usake samadhan men ek vyavaharik yukti prastut ki hai. unaka tark hai ki manushyon ki vidya (gyan) anity hai, at: avigun karm ke dvara phalasamprapti –hetu vedon men mantr- vyavastha hai.[15] tatpary yah hai ki is srishti men pratyek manushy buddhi gyan, shabdochcharan evn svabhavadi men ek-doosare se nitant bhinn evn nyoonadhik hai. aisi sthiti men yah sarvatha sambhav hai ki sabhi manushy vishuddhataya ek-jaisa karmanushthan nahin kar sakate. yadi karmanushthan ek-roop men nahin kiya gaya to vah phaladayak nahin hoga- is duravastha ko mitane ke liye vaidik mantron ke dvara karmanushthan ka vidhan kiya gaya. choonki vedon men niyatanupoorvi hain evn svar varnadi ki nishchit uchcharan-vidhi hai, at: buddhi, gyan evn svabhav men bhinn rahane par bhi pratyek manushy use ekaroopataya gurumukhochcharananuchcharan vidhi se adhigat kar usi tarah karm men prayog karega, jisake phalasvaroop sabhi ko nishchit phal ki prapti hogi. is prakar mantron ke dvara hi karmanushthan kiya jana sarvatha tarkasngat evn samyavadi vyavastha hai. yagyik drishti se mantr char prakar ke hote hain-
  1. karan mantr,
  2. kriyamananuvadi mantr,
  3. anumantran mantr aur
  4. japamantr.

inamen jis mantr ke uchcharananantar hi karm kiya jata hai, vah karan mantr' hai. yatha-yajya puroanuvakh adi. karmanushthan ke sath-sath jo mantr padha jata hai, vah 'kriyamananuvadi mantr' hota hai. yatha-yuva suvasa0 adi. jab ygy men yoop-snskar kiya jata hai tabhi yah mantr padha jata hai. karm ke thik bad jo mantr padha jata hai, vah 'anumantran mantr' kahalata hai. yatha- eko mam eka tasy yoasmanh dveshti0 adi. yah mantr dravyatyag roop yag kiye jane ke thik bad yajaman dvara padha jata hai. inake atirikt jo 'mayidamiti yajamano japati'[16] ityadi vakyon dvara vihit sannipatyopakarak[17]

mantron ken lakshan

  • mantron ken lakshan ke sambandh men vastu-sthiti ka vichar kiya jay to gyat hota hai. ki koee bhi lakshan satik nahin hai. aisa isaliye hai ki vaidik mantr nanavidh hain. [18]
  • hi karan hai ki apastambadi acharyon ne brahman bhag evn arthavad ka lakshan karane ke anantar kah diya- 'atoantaye mantra:'[19] arthat inake atirikt sabhi mantr hain.
  • vidhibhag-mantratirikt ved-bhag 'brahman' pad se abhihit kiya jata hai. brahman shabd 'brahmanh' shabd se 'anh' pratyay karane par napunsak ling men vedarashi ke abhidhayak arth men siddh hota hai.
  • achary jaimini ne brahman ka lakshan karate hue kaha hai ki – mantr se bache hue bhag men 'brahman' shabd ka vyavahar janana chahiye.[20] *achary bhatt-bhaskar ke anusar karm aur karm men prayukt hone vale mantron ke vyakhyan- granth brahman hain. [21]
  • m0m0 vidyadhar sharma ji ke anusar- charon vedon ke mantron ke karmon men viniyojak, karmavidhayak, nanavidhanadi itihas- akhyanabahul gyan- vigyanapoorn vedabhag brahman hai [22]

brahman ke do bhed hain

  1. vidhi aur
  2. arthavad.
  • achary apastambane donon ka bhed pradarshit karate hue kaha hai- karm ki or prerit karane vali vidhiyan brahman hai tatha brahman ka shesh bhag arthavad hai.[23]
  • achary laugakshi bhaskar ke anusar agyat arth ko avabodhit karanevale vedabhag ko vidhi kahate hain. [24] yatha- 'agnihotrn juhuyath svargakam:' arthat svargaroopi phal ki prapti karane ke liye agnihotr karana chahiye-yah vidhivaky, any praman se aprapt svarg phalayut hom ka vidhan karata hai, at: agyatarth-gyapak hai.
  • achary sayan ne vidhi ke do bhed batalaye hain- 1- apravrittapravartan-vidhi aur 2- agyatarth-gyapan-vidhi. inamen 'agnavaishnavn purodashn nirvarnanadikshaniyamh' ityadi karmakandagat vidhiyan apravritt ki or pravritt karane vali hain. 'atma va idamek evagr asith' ityadi brahmakandagat vidhiyan pratyakshadi any pramanon se agyat vishay ka gyan karane vali hain.
  • yahan yah dhyatavy hai ki achary laugakshi bhaskar karmakand evn brahmakandagat sabhi vidhiyon ko agyatarth gyapan manate hain, kintu achary sayan ne sookshm drishti apanate hue karmakandagat vidhiyon ko 'apravrittavartan-vidhi' kaha aur brahmakandagat vidhiyon ko 'agyatarth-gyapan-vidhi' mana.[25]
  • mimansadarshan men yagyik vichar ki drishti se vidhi- bhag ke char bhed mane gaye hain-
  1. utpattividhi,
  2. gunavidhi ya viniyog vidhi,
  3. adhikaravidhi aur
  4. prayogavidhi. inamen jo vaky 'yah karm is prakar karana chahiye' evnvidh karmasvaroop-matr ke avabodhan men pravritt hain, ve 'utpattividhi' kahe jate hain, yatha-'agnihotrn juhoti'. jo utpattividhi se vihit karmasambandhi dravy aur devata ke vidhayak hain, ve 'gunavidhi' ('viniyogavidhi') kahe jate hain. yatha- 'dadhra juhoti'. jo un-un karmon men kis ka adhikar hai tatha kis phal ke uddeshy se karm karana chahiye- yah batalate hain, ve 'adhikaravidhi' kahe jate hain. yatha- 'yasyahitagneragnirgrihanh daheth soagnaye kshmavateashtakapaln nirvapeth'. jo karmon ke anushthanakramadika bodhan karate hain, ve 'prayogavidhi' hain. yahan yah gyatavy hai ki prayogavidhi ke vaky sakshat upalabdh nahin hote, apitu pradhan vaky (darshapoornamasabhyamh)- ke sath ang-vakyon (samadheyajati0)- ki ekavakyata hokar kalpit vaky (pramananuyajadibhiroopakritavadbhyan darshapoornamasabhyan svargakamo yajet) hi prayogavidhi ka parichayak hota hai.

arthavad

  • achary apastamb ne brahman (karm ki or pravritt karane vali vidhiyon)- se atirikt ko shesh avashisht arthavad kaha hain.[26]
  • arthasngrahakar ne arthavad ka lakshan karate hue kaha hai- prashnsa athava nindaparak vaky ko arthavad kahate hain.[27] yatha- vayurvain kshepishtha devata. stenn man: anritavadini vakh, adi.
  • arthavad-vakyon ko lekar pashchaty ved-vichar kon evn katipay bharatiy vicharakon ne ved ke pramany evn usaki mahatta par tikhe prahar kiye hain. isake mool men alochakon ka bharatiy chintan-drishti se asamparkit rahana hai. bharatiy chintan-drishti (mimansa)- men arthavad vidhey arth ki prashnsa karata hai. tatha nishiddh arth ki ninda. kintu is kary (prashnsa aur ninda)- men arthavad mukhyarthadvara apane tatparyarth ki abhivyakti nahin karata, apitu shabd ki lakshana shakti ka ashray grahan karata hai. yahan yah bhi dhyatavy hai ki mimansak-drishti se samast ved kriyaparak hai[28] tatha yagadi kriya dvara hi abhisht-prapti evn anishtaka parihar kiya ja sakata hai. yat: 'svadhyayoadhyetavy:' is vidhan se ved ke antargat hi arthavad bhi hai, at: unako bhi kriyaparak manana uchit hai. jaisa ki pahale kaha gaya hai ki arthavad ka prayojan vidheyaki prashnsa evn nishiddh ki ninda men prakat hota hai. vidhan evn nishedh kriya ka hi hota hai, at: paramparaya arthavad-vaky kriya (yag ya dharm) parak hote hain, atev unaka pramany evn upadeyata sarvatha siddh hai. isi bat ko achary jaimini ne in shabdon men kaha hai- vidhina tvekavakyatvath stutyarthen vidhinan syu:.[29] unnisavin shati ke poorvardh ke bad se pashchaty navy vedarth- vichar kon- bargain adi ne bharatiy chintan ki is drishti ko samajha tatha usake alok men naye sire se vedarth-vichar men drishti dali.
  • prashasty aur ninda se sambandhit arthavad-vaky kramash: vidhishesh evn nishedhashesh-roop se abhihit kiye gaye hain.[30] vidhi arthat vidhayak vaky, shesh- arthavad-vaky donon milakar ek samagr vaky ki rachana karate hain, jo ki vishisht prabhavotpadak banata hai. udaharanarth-'vayavyn shvetamalabhet bhootikam:' yah vidhi-vaky hai. isaka shesh- arthavad vaky hai- 'vayurvai kshepishtha devata'. yahan vayu ki prashnsa vidhisheshatmak arthavad se gayi hai. uparyukt donon vakyon ki ekavakyata karake lakshana dvara yah vidit hota hai ki vayudevata shighragami hain, at: ve aishvary bhi shighr pradan karate hain. ab is vishisht prabhavotpadak arth ko sunakar adhikari vyakti ki pravritti hona svabhavik hai. isi prakar nishedh-sheshatmak arthavad ka bhi saphaly janana chahiye.
  • arthavad dvara pratipadit vishay-parikshan ki drishti se shastr men isake tin bhed mane gaye hain-
  1. gunavad,
  2. anuvad aur
  3. bhootarthavad.
  • gunavad namak arthavad men pratipady arth ka pramanantar se virodh hota hai. yatha- 'adityo yoop:'. yahan yoop ka adity ke sath abhed pratipadit hai, jo ki pratyakshataya badhit hai. at: arth siddhi ke liye aise sthalon par lakshana ka ashray lekar yoop ka 'ujjvalavadigunayogenadityatmakatvamh' arth kiya jata hai.
  • anuvad-sngyk arthavad men poorvaparigyat ya poorvanubhoot praman se arth ka bodh hota hai, jabaki pratipady vishay men keval usaka 'anuvad' matr rahata hai. udaranarth- 'agnirhimasy bheshajamh' is vaky men pratyakshataya siddh hai ki agni shaity ka aushadh hai. is poorvaparigyat ya poorvanubhoot vishay (yatr yatragnistatr tatr himanirodh:)- ka prakashan is drishtant men hai, at: yah anuvad hai.
  • tritiy bhootarthavad men bhootarth ka arth poorvaghatit kisi yatharth vastu ke gyapan se hai. yahan gunavad arthavad ki bhanti n to kisi pramanantar se virodh hota hai aur n hi anuvad arthavad ki bhanti pramanantaravadharan hota hai. atev shastr men isaka lakshan kiya gaya hai- 'pramanantar virodhatatpraptirahitarthabodhakoarthavado bhootarthavad:.' isaka drishtant hai-'indro vritray vajramudayachchhath.' kahin bhi aisa praman upalabdh nahin hota jisase is kathan ka virodh ho, at: pramanantar-avirodh hai, sath hi aisa bhi praman nahin hai jisase isaka samarthan ho, at: pramanantaravadharan bhi nahin hai. is prakar ubhay paksh ke abhav men yah vaky bhootarthavad ka udaharan hai.
  • arthavad- bhag ko achary paraskarane 'tark' shabd se abhihit kiya hai.[31] achary karkane 'tark' pad ki vyakhya karate hue kaha ki jisake dvara sndigdh arth ka nishchay kiya ja sake, vah tark arthat arthavad hai.[32] isaka udaharan dete hue kaha ki-'akta sharkara upadadhati tejo vai ghritamh' is vaky men prapt anjan, tail tatha vasa adi dravyon se bhi sambhav hai, kintu 'tejo vai ghritamh' is ghritasnstavak arthavad-vaky se sndeh nirakrit hokar ghrit se anjan karana yah sthir hota hai. is prakar arthavad bhag mahadupakarak hai.

apastamb, paraskar adi acharyon ne ved ke tin hi bhag mane hain- vidhi, mantr aur arthavad. arth- sngrahakarane ved ke panch bhag mane hain- vidhi, mantr, namadhey, nishedh aur arthavad.[33] namadhey- jaisa ki sngya se spasht hain, namadhey-prakaran men katipay namon se jude hue vishesh bhagon ki alochana hoti hai. inamen 'udbhida yajet pashukam:','chitraya yajet pashukam:','agnihotrn juhoti', 'shyenenabhicharanh yajet'- ye char vaky hi pramukh hain. namadhey vijatiy ki nivrittipoorvak vidheyarth ka nishchay karata hai.[34] yatha- 'udbhida yajet pashukam:' is vaky men pashu-roop phal ke liye yag ka vidhan kiya gaya hai. yah yag vakyantar se aprapt hai aur is vaky dvara vihit kiya ja raha hai. yadi is vaky se 'udbhidh' shabd hata diya jay to 'yajet pashukam:' yah vaky hoga, jisaka arth hai-'yagen pashun bhavayeth', kintu isase yag-samany ka vidhan hoga jo ki avidhey hai, kyonki yag vishesh ka nam abhihit kiye bina anushthan sambhav nahin hai. 'udbhida' padadvara is prayojan ki poorti hoti hai, at: 'udbhidh' yag ka nam hua tatha yag-vishesh ka nirdeshak hone se vidheyarth-parichchhed bhi hua. namadheyatv char karanon se hota hai-

  1. matvarth-lakshana ke bhay se,
  2. vaky bhed ke bhay se,
  3. tatprakhyashastr se aur
  4. tadvyapadesh se.
  • nishedh- jo vaky purush ko kisi kriya ko karane se nivritt karata hai, use 'nishedh' kahate hain.[35] shastron ne narakadiko anarth mana hai. is narak-prapti ka hetu kalanjabhakshanadi hai, at: purush ko aise karyon se 'nishedh-vaky' nivartit karate hain is prakar anarth utpann karane vali kriyaon se purush ka nivartan karana hi nishedh-vakyon ka prayojan hai. mantr-brahmanatmak (vidhimantr-namadhey-nishedharthavad-roop) ved men katipay vicharakon ne brahmanabhag ko ved nahin mana hai. unake pradhan tark ye hain-
  1. brahman-granth ved nahin ho sakate, kyonki unhin ka nam itihas, puran, kalp, gatha aur narashnsi bhi hai.
  2. ek katyayan ko chhodakar kisi any rishi ne unake ved hone men sakshi nahin di hai.
  3. brahman-bhag ko bhi yadi ved mana jay to 'chhandobrahmanani ch tadvishayani'[36] ityadi panini-sootr men 'chhand:' shabd ke grahan se hi brahmanon ka bhi grahan ho jane se alag se 'brahman' shabd ka ullekh karana vyarth hoga.
  4. brahman-granth choonki mantron ke vyakhyan hain, at: eeshvarokt nahin hain, apitu maharshi logon dvara prokt hain.

isake samadhan men yah kahana atyant sngat hai ki aitarey, shatapath adi brahmanon ko puran athava itihas nahin kaha jata; ramayan, mahabharat, vishnu puran adi ko hi itihas, puran kaha jata hai. yadi puratan arth ke pratipadak hone se tatha aitihasik arth ke pratipadak hone se inako puran-itihas kaha jayaga to is tarah ki sngya se 'ved' sngya ka koee virodh nahin hai, 'ved' sngya ke rahate hue bhi brahman-bhag ki puran-itihas sngya bhi ho sakati hai. bharatiy drishti se-bhoot, bhavishy aur vartaman sab kuchh ved se gyat hota hai.[37] at: jis prakar kambu-grivadi se yukt ek hi padarth ke ghat, kalash adi anek namadhey hone se koee virodh upasthit nahin hota, usi tarah ek hi brahman-granth ke ved hone men aur puran-itihas hone men koee virodh nahin hai.[38]

  • katyayanako chhodakar kisi any rishi ne brahmanabhag ke ved hone men praman nahin diya hai- yah kathan bhi adhar rahit hai, kyonki bharatiy drishti se kisi bhi apt rishi ka pramany avyahat hai. phir aisi bat bhi nahin hai ki any rishiyon ne brahman-bhag ke vedatv ko nahin svikara hai. apastamb shrautasootr, satyashadh shrautasootr, baudhayan grihyasootr adi granthon men tattath acharyon ne mantr aur brahman donon ko ved mana hai. at: yah shnka nirmool siddh hoti hai.
  • panini ke 'chhandobrahmanani0' ityadi sootron men 'chhand:' shabd se hi brahman ka grahan manane par 'brahmanani' yah pad vyarth hoga, at: yah kathan bhi tark-sngat nahin hai. achary panini ne 'chhandash' pad se mantr aur brahman donon ka grahan kiya hai, kyonki 'chhandash' is adhikar men jo-jo adesh, pratyay, svar adi ka vidhan kiya gaya hai, ve donon men paye jate hain. jo kary keval mantr-bhag men isht tha, unake liye sootron men 'mantre' pad tatha jo brahman men isht tha unake liye 'brahman' pad diya hai. yah bhi dhyatavy hai ki 'chhand:' par yadyapi mantr-brahmanatmak ved ka bodhak hai, kintu kabhi-kabhi ve inamen se kisi ek avayav ke bhi bodhak hote hain. mahabhashy paspashahnik evn brahmasootr shankarabhashy men yah spasht kiya gaya hai ki samudayarthak shabdon ki kabhi-kabhi unake avayavon ke liye bhi pravritti dekhi jati hai. yatha-'poorvapanchal, uttarapanchal adi ka prayog.' at: shastr men chhand athava ved shabd keval mantrabhag, keval brahman-bhag athava donon bhagon ke liye prasnganusar prayukt hote hain.
  • brahman-bhag mantron ke vyakhyan hain, at: ve vedantargat nahin ho sakate- yah kathan bhi sarvatha asngat hai. mimansa evn nyayashastr men ved ke jo vishay-vibhag kiye gaye hain- vidhi, arthavad, namadhey aur nishedh, ve sabhi mukhyataya brahman men hi ghatit hote hain. krishnayajurved ki taittiriy-snhita adi men to mantr aur brahman sammilit-roop men hi hain. yahan yah bhi gyatavy hai ki mahabhashyakar patanchali ne yah vichar uthaya hai ki vyakaran keval sootron ko kahana chahiye ya vyakhyasahit sootron ko? isaka siddhant yahi diya gaya hai ki vyakhyasahit sootr hi vyakaran hai. isi prakar vyakhya (brahman)-sahit mantr ved hai. isake atirikt brahman-bhag matr mantron ka vyakhyan nahin karata; apitu ygyadi karmon ki vidhi, itikartavyata, stuti tatha brahmavidya adi ka svatantrataya vidhan karata hai. at: brahman-bhag ka vedatv sarvatha avyahat hai.
  • mantr-brahmanatmak ved ke vishay-sambandhi tin bhed parampara se chale a rahe hain. inamen karmakand ke pratipadak bhag ka nam 'brahman', upasanakand ke pratipadak bhag ka nam 'aranyak' tatha gyanakand ke pratipadak bhag ka nam 'upanishad' hai.

ved ka vibhajan

bharatiy vadmay men batalaya gaya hai ki srishti ke prarambh men rigyaju:sam-atharvatmak ved ekatr snkalit tha. sat yug, treta yug tatha dvapar yug ki lagabhag samapti tak ekaroop ved ka hi adhyayan-adhyapan yathakram chalata raha.

dvapar yug ki samapti ke kuchh varshon-poorv maharshi vyas ne bhavi kali yug ke vyaktiyon ki buddhi, shakti aur ayushy ke hras ki sthiti ko divy-drishti se janakar brahmaparampara se prapt ekatmak ved ka ygy-kriyanuroop char vibhajan kiya. in char vibhajanon men unhonne hotr karm ke upayogi mantr evn kriyaon ka snkalan rigved ke nam se, ygy ke adhvaryav karm (antarik moolasvaroop-nirman) ke upayogi mantr evn kriyaon ka snkalan yajurved ke nam se, audgatr karm ke upayogi mantr evn kriyaon ka snkalan samaved ke nam se aur shantik-paushtik abhilashaon (jatavidya)- ke upayogi mantr evn kriyaon ka snkalan atharvaved ke nam se kiya. is vibhajan men bhagavati shruti ke vachan ko hi adhar rakha gaya. yahan yah gyatavy hai ki samprati pravartaman ved-shabdarashi ka vaivasvat manvantar men krishn dvaipayan maharshi vyas dvara yah 28van vibhajan hai. arthath

  • pauranik manyata ke anusar ikahattar chaturyugi ka ek manvantar hota hai. pratyek chaturyugi ke antargat dvaparayug ki samapti men vishisht tap:sampann maharshi ke dvara ekatmak ved ka char vibhajan anavarat hota rahata hai. yah vibhajan kali yug ke liye hota hai aur kali yug ke ant tak hi rahata hai. samprati manvantaron men saptam vaivasvat namak manvantar ka yah 28van kali yug hai. isake poorv 27 kaliyug evn 27 hi ved vibhag karta vedavyas (vibhinn namon ke) ho chuke hain. vedon ka yah 28van upalabdh vibhajan maharshi parashar ke putr krishnadvaipayan ke dvara kiya gaya hai. vedon ka vibhajan karane ke karan hi un maharshi ko 'vedavyas' shabd se jana jata hai.

char ved aur unaki ygyparakata

vedavibhagakarta vyasopadhi-vibhooshit maharshi krishnadvaipayan ne ygy-prayojan ki drishti se ved ka rigved-yajurved, samaved aur atharvaved-yah vibhajan prasarit kiya; kyonki bharatiy chintan men vedon ka abhipravartan hi ygy evn usake madhyam se samast aihikamushmik phalasiddhi ke liye hua hai. vaidik ygyon ka rahasyatmak svaroop kya hai evn sakshatkritadharma rishiyon ne kin bijon dvara prakriti se abhilashit padarthon ka dohan is bhautik ygy ke madhyam se avishkrit kiya, yah prithakh vivechaniy vishay hai. yahan sthooladrishtaya yah janana hai ki pratyek chhote (ishti) aur bade (som, agnichayan) ygyon men mukhy char ritvikh- hota, adhvaryu, udgata aur brahma hote hain. bade ygyon men ek-ek ke tin sahayak aur hokar solah ritvikh ho jate hain, kintu ve tin sahayak usi mukhy ke antargat man liye jate hain. inamen 'adhvaryu' namak ritvikh dravy-devatatyagatmak ygysvaroop ka nirman yajurved se karata hai. 'hota' namak ritvikh ygy ke apekshit shastr (apragit mantrasadhy stuti) evn any angakalapon ka anushthan rigved dvara tatha 'udgata' namak ritvikh stotr (gey mantrasadhy stuti) aur usake angakalapon ka anushthan samaved dvara karata hai.'brahma' namak chaturth ritvikh ygyiy karmon ke nyoonadi doshon ka parihar evn shantik-paushtik-abhicharikadi sarvavidh abhilasha-sampoorak karm atharvaved dvara sampadit karata hai. ved-trayi- katipay arvachin vedarth-vicharak 'saisha trayyev vidya tapati' [39], 'trayi vai vidya' [40], 'iti vedastrayastrayi' ityadi vachanon ke dvara ved vastut: tin hain tatha kalantar men atharvaved ko chaturth ved ke roop men manyata di gayi-aisi kalpana karate hain, kintu yah kalpana bharatiy parampara se sarvatha viparit hai. bharatiy acharyon ne rachana-bhed ki drishti se vedachatushtayi ka tritvamen antarbhav kar use lakshit kiya hai.

rachana-shaili

rachana-shaili tin hi prakar ki hoti hai-

  1. gady,
  2. pady aur
  3. gan. is drishti se-chhand men abaddh, padavyavastha se yukt mantr 'rikh' kahalate hain; ve hi giti-roop hokar 'sam' kahalate hain tatha vritt evn giti se rahit prashlishtapathit (-gadyatmak) mantr 'chajushh' kahalate hain.[41] yahan yah dhyatavy hai ki chhandobaddh rigvishesh mantr hi atharvaginras hain, at: unaka rigroopa (padyatmika) rachana-shaili men hi antarbhav ho jata hai aur is prakar vedatrayi ki anvarthata hoti hai.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. yo brahmann vidadhati poorvn yo vai vedanshch prahinoti tasmai (shvetashvataropanishad 6.18).
  2. vedyante gyapyante dharmadipurusharthachatushtayopaya yen s ved: (ka0 shrau0 bhoo0, pri0 4).
  3. ishtapraptyanishtapariharayoralaukikamupayn yo grantho vedayati s ved: (ka0 bha0 bhoo0).
  4. apaurusheyn vakyn ved: (arthasngrah, pri0 36).
  5. anupalabhyamanamoolantaratve sati mahajanaparigrihitavakyatvn vedatvamh.
  6. mantrabrahmanayorvedanamadheyamh.
  7. vedarthaparijat, pri0 20.
  8. amray: punarmantrashch brahmanani (kau0 soo0 1.3).
  9. api ch ygykarmani snhitayaiv viniyujyante mantra: (ni0 1.17 par durg).
  10. mantra mananath.
  11. manananmanushardool trann kurvanti vai yat:. dadate padamatmiyn tasmanmantra: prakirtita:॥ (ee. s0, 3.7.9).
  12. yagyikanan samakhyann lakshann doshavarjitamh. teanushthanasmarakadau mantrashabdn prayujyate॥ (jai0nya0ma0, 2.1.7).
  13. prayogasamavetarthasmaraka mantra: (a0 s0, pri0 157).
  14. n tu taduchcharanamadrishtarthatvamh, sambhavati drishtaphalakatveadrishtakalpanaya anyarooyatvath (an0 sn0, mantr-vichar-prakaran).
  15. purushavidyaanityatvath karmasampattirmantro vede (ni0 1.2.7
  16. ka0 shrau0, 3. 4.12
  17. mimansadarshan ke anusar ang do prakar ke hote hain-1-siddharoop aur 2-kriyaroop. inamen jati, dravy evn snkhya adi 'siddharoop' hain, kyonki in sabaka prayojan pratyaksh (dikhayi denevala) hai. kriyaroop ang ke do bhed hain- (1) gunakarm aur (2) pradhan karm. inamen gunakarm ko' sannipatyopakarak' kahate hain. 'sannipaty dravyadishu sambadhy upakurvanti tani' arthat jo sakshat n hokar kisi ke madhyam se mukhy bhag ke upakarak hote hain. yatha- 'vrihyavaghat evn sechanadi.' jo sakshat roop men pradhan kriya ke upakarak hote hain, unhen 'pradhanakarm' ya 'aradupakarak' kahate hain. hote hain, ve 'japamantr' hain. inamen pratham trividh mantron ka anushtheyasmarakatv-roop drishha prayojan hai. japamantron ka adrisht matr prayojan hai, aisa yagyikon evn mimansakon ka siddhant hai.
  18. brihaddevata- (1 .34).
  19. ap0 shrau0 soo0, (24 . 1 .34).
  20. 'sheshe brahmanashabd:'. (mi0 2.1.33).
  21. 'brahmananam karmanastanmantrananch vyakhyagranth:' (tai0 sn0 1.5.1 par bhashy).
  22. 'vedachatushtayamantranan karmasu viniyojak: karmavidhayako nanavidhanaditihasakhyanabahulo gyanavigyanapoorno bhago brahmanabhag:. (sh0bra0bhoo0, pri0 2
  23. karmachodana brahmanani. brahmanasheshoarthavad: (ap0 pari0 34.35) 'chodaneti kriyaya: pravartakavachanamahu:' (bhashy).
  24. tatragyatarthgyapako vedabhago vidhi: (a0 sn0, pri0 36
  25. ri0 bha0 bhoo0 vidhipramany-vichar.
  26. brahmanasheshoarthavad:.
  27. prashastyanindanyataraparn vakyamarthavad: (a0 sn0).
  28. amnayasy kriyarthatvath0 (jai0 soo0).
  29. jai0 soo0 (1.2.7
  30. s dvividh:- vidhishesho nishedhasheshashcheti.
  31. vidhirvidheyastarkashch ved: (pa0 gri0 soo0 2.6.6).
  32. tarkashabdenarthavadoabhidhiyate. tarkyate hyanen sndigdhoarth: (pa0 gri0 soo0 2.6.5 par kark).
  33. s ch vidhimantranamadheyanishedharthavadabhedath panchavidh:.
  34. namadheyanan ch vidheyarthaparichchhedakatayarthavattvamh (a0 s0).
  35. purushasy nivartakn vakyn nishedh: (a0 s0).
  36. pa0 soo0 (4.2.66).
  37. bhoont bhavyn bhavishyn ch sarvn vedath prasidhyati॥ (manu0 12.97).
  38. vedarthaparijat.
  39. sh0 bra0 10.3.6.2
  40. sh0 bra0 4.6.7.1
  41. padenarthen chopeta vrittabaddha mantra rich:. gitiroopa mantra: samani. vrittagitivarjitatven prashlishtapathita mantra: yajoonshi.

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