ब्राह्मण साहित्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

any sambndhit lekh


ygyon evn karmakandon ke vidhan evn inaki kriyaon ko bhali-bhanti samajhane ke lie hi is brahman grnth ki rachana huee. yahan par 'brahm' ka shabdik arth hain- ygy arthath ygy ke vishayon ka achchhi tarah se pratipadan karane vale grnth hi 'brahman grnth' kahe gaye. brahman granthon men sarvatha ygyon ki vaigyanik, adhibhautik tatha adhyatmik mimansa prastut ki gayi hai. yah grnth adhikatar gady men likhe hue hain. inamen uttarakalin samaj tatha snskriti ke sambandh ka gyan prapt hota hai. pratyek ved (snhita) ke apane-apane brahman hote hain. brahman grantho se hamen parikshit ke bad aur bimbisar ke poorv ki ghatanaon ka gyan prapt hota hai. 'aitarey brahman' men 'rajyabhishek' ke niyam diye gaye hain. prachin itihas ke sadhan ke roop men 'vaidik sahity' men 'rigved' ke bad 'shatapath brahman' ka sthan hai. shatapath brahman men gndhar, shaly, kaikey, kuroo, panchal, koshal, videsh adi rajaon ke nam ka ullekh hai.

ved aur snbndhit brahman

ved sambandhit brahman

1- rigved

aitarey brahman, shankhayan ya kaushitaki brahman

2- shukl yajurved

shatapath brahman

3- krishn yajurved

taittiriy brahman

4- samaved

pnchavinsh ya tandy brahman, shadavinsh brahman, samavidhan brahman, vnsh brahman, mntr brahman, jaiminiy brahman

5- atharvaved

gopath brahman

prishthabhoomi

uttar vaidikakal men, jab vaidik snhitaen dhire-dhire durbodh hoti chali geen, mantrarth-gyan keval kuchh vishisht vyaktiyon tak simit rah gaya, us samay yah avashyakata gaharaee se anubhav ki gee ki ved-mantron ki vishad vyakhya ki jayh. yahi sthiti vaidik-ygyon ke karmakand ki bhi thi. sudirghakal tak yagon ka anushthan maukhik gyan ke adhar par hi hota raha, lekin shanai:shanai ygy-vidhan jab jatil aur snshlisht pratit hone laga tatha sthan-sthan par sandeh aur shnkaon ka pradurbhav hone laga, tab is sandarbh men sthayi adhar ki avashyakata anubhav huee. brahmavadiyon (ygyvettaon) ke madhy yagiy visngatiyon ke nirakaran ke lie sampann charcha-goshthiyon, parisnvadon tatha saghan vichar-vimarsh ne brahman-granthon ke pranayan ka marg vishesh roop se prashast kiya. kisi bhi yug ke sahity ke mool men, tatkalin sanskritik vicharadhara, rajanitik aur samajik sakriyata, asthaon, adarshon evn moolyon ki abhivyakti ka durnivary agrah svabhavat: satrihit rahata hai. brahman-sahity ke antardarshan ki prishthabhoomi men bhi, nishchit hi yah akanksha nihit rahi hai. snkshep men kaha ja sakata hai ki ved-mantron ki sugam vyakhya karane, ygyiy vidhi-vidhan ke sookshmatisookshm pakshon ko niroopit karane tatha samakalin vaicharik andolan ko disha dene ki bhavana mukhy roop se brahman granthon ke sakshatkar ki prishthabhoomi men nihit rahi hai.

brahman shabd ka arth

mantr-bhag se atirikt shesh ved-bhag brahman hai, jaisa ki jaimini ka kathan hai-'sheshe brahmanashabd'.[1] madhavachary tatha sayanachary ne bhi isi lakshan se sahamati vyakt ki hai.[2] kosh granthon ke anusar ved-bhag ka gyapak 'brahman' shabd napunsak ling men vyavahary hai.[3] isaka apavad keval mahabharat ka ek sthal hai, jahan pulling men bhi yah prayukt hai.[4] granth ke arth men 'brahman' shabd ka prachin prayog taittiriy snhita men hai.[5] paniniy ashtadhyayi[6], nirukt[7] tatha svayn brahman granthon men to etadvishayak pushkal prayog drishtigochar hote hain.[8] vyutpatti ki drishti se yah 'brahm' shabd se 'anh' pratyay lagakar nishpann hua hai. is sandarbh men satyavrat samashrami ka abhimat hai ki 'brahman' shabd se hi prokt arth men 'anh' pratyay lagakar 'brahman' shabd bana hai.[9] 'brahm' shabd ke do arth hain- mantr tatha ygy.[10] is prakar brahman ve granth vishesh hain, jinamen yagyik drishti se mantron ki viniyogatmika vyakhya ki gee hai.[11] jin manishiyon ne brahmanon ka mantravath pramany svikar nahin kiya hai, ve bhi inhen ved-vyakhyan roop manate hain.[12]

shrutiroopata

achary apasamb ne mantrabhag ke sath hi brahmanabhag ko bhi ved hi mana hai-mantrabrahmanayorvedanamadheyamh (ygyparibhasha). isi ka anusaran karate hue shabarasvami pitribhooti, shnkarachary, bhatt kumaril, bhavasvami, devasvami, vishvaroop, medhatithi, kark, dhoortasvami, devatrat, vachaspati mishr, rajashekhar, ramanuj, uvat, maskari aur sayanachary sahit bahusnkhyak mahanh acharyon aur bhashyakaron ne mantr-snhitaon ke sath hi brahmanon ki bhi shrutiroopata par bal diya hai.[13] panini aur patanjali ki bhi yahi avadharana hai. is astha ka ek pramukh hetu yah bhi hai ki aranyak aur adhikansh upanishad-granth brahman-granthon ke hi antim bhag hain aur bharatiy darshanon ka vishal prasad upanishadon ki hi adharabhitti par nirmit hai. brahmasootr, gita aur any darshanik sootragranth pag-pag par inake pramany par avalambit hain. aisi sthiti men bhashyakar shnkarachary dvara tandy brahman ke uddharan ko 'tandinan shruti:' roop men upasthapit karana svabhavik hi tha. aj bhi vedgyon ka ek vishal varg is manyata par shraddhavanh dikhalaee deta hai.[14]

svaroop aur unake pravachanakarta

brahman-granthon ka vartaman svaroop pravachanatmak aur vyakhyatmak hai. vidhiyon aur unake hetu prabhriti ka niroopan pravachanatmak anshon men hai tatha viniyukt mantron ke auchity ka pradarshan vyakhyatmak dhag se hai. dirghakal tak maukhik parampara se prachalit ygyiy karmakand ka snkalan to inamen hai hi, brahmavadiyon ke madhy vidyaman vad-vivad ke anshon ki jhalak bhi yatr-tatr mil jati hai. adhunik yug men, svami dayanand sarasvati aur unake ary samaj men dikshit vidvanon ne, brahman-granthon ko ved n manakar vedavyakhyan granth bhar mana hai. in vicharakon ki drishti men, pashu-hinsa aur kahin-kahin yagagat ashlil krityon ka ullekh brahman granthon ko apaurushey ved ki shreni men sammilit karane men badhak hai. is vivad men ulajhe bina bhi, yah svikar karane men koee apatti nahin honi chahie ki mantr-snhitaon ki tulana men ye ved nahin, to 'vedakalp' to hain hi. brahman-granthon ko shrutisvaroop svikar karane vale manishiyon ne snhitavath inhen bhi apaurushey hi mana hai. unaki manyata hai ki inaka bhi sakshatkar kiya gaya. jin vyaktiyon ke nam inase sambaddh hain, ve inake rachayita n hokar pravachanakarta rishi athava achary hain, jinhonne inhen snpreshit kiya. bhinn-bhinn brahman-granthon ke pravakta bhi prithakh-prithakh hain, jinaka parichay un brahman granthon ke vishisht vivaran ke sath pradey hai. yon snkshep men itana hi kaha ja sakata hai ki pravachanakartaon men se kuchh rishi shreni ke hain aur any achary-parampara ke. shatapath ke pravachanakarta yagyvalky rishi hain to aitarey brahman ke pravakta mahidas achary mane jate hain.

pratipady vishay

uparyukt vivaran se spasht hai ki brahmanagranthon ka mukhy vishay ygy ka sarvangapoorn niroopan hai. is yag-mimansa ke do pramukh bhag hain- vidhi tatha arthavad. 'vidhi' se abhipray hai ygyanushthan kab, kahan aur kin adhikariyon ke dvara hona chahie. yag-vidhiyan apravritt karmadi men pravritt karane vali tatha agyatarth ka gyapan karane vali hoti hain. inhin ke madhyam se brahmanagranth karmanushthanon men prerit karate hain, jaisa ki apastamb ka ygyparibhasha[15] men kathan hai-'karmachodana brahmanani'. vidhi ka stuti aur nindaroop men poshan tatha nirvah karane vale brahmanagat any vishay arthavad kahalate hain arthavadaparak vakyon men ygynishiddh vastuon ki ninda tatha ygyopayogi vastuon ki prashnsa rahati hai. is prakar ke vakyon ki vidhi-vakyon ke sath 'ekavakyata' ka upapadan mimansakon ne kiya hai-vidhina tu ekavakyatvath stutyarthen vidhinan syu:[16] unake anusar vidhi aur arthavad vachanon ke madhy paraspar sheshasheshibhav athava anganigabhav hai. at: shabarasvami ke matanusar vastut: vidhiyan hi arthavadadi ke roop men brahman granthon men das prakar se vyavahrat huee hain-
heturnirvachann ninda prashnsa snshayo vidhi:.
parakriya purakalpo vyavadharanakalpana॥
upamann dashaivaite vidhayo brahmanasy tu.
etadvai sarvavedeshu niyatn vidhilakshanamh[17]
inaka sodaharan spashtikaran is prakar hai-

hetu

karmakand sambandhi kisi vishisht vidhi ki prishthabhoomi men nihit karanavatta ka nirdesh, yatha 'ten hyannn kriyate'[18], arthath soop se hom karana chahie, kyonki usase ann ko taiyar kiya jata hai.

nirvachan

vyutpatti ke madhyam se yag men prayojy padarth ki sarthakata ka niroopan, yatha-taddadhno dadhitvamh[19] yahi dahi ka dahipan hai.

ninda

kisi aprashast vastu ki ninda kar yag men usaki anupadeyata ka pratipadan karana; yatha-'amedhya vai masha:'[20] udad ygy ki drishti se anupadey hai.

prashnsa

vayu ke nimitt kyon yaganushthan kiya jay, isaka pratipadan is roop men kiya gaya hai ki vayu shighragami devata hai-vayurvai kshepishtha devata.[21]

snshay

isaka tatpary hai sandeh, jaise yajaman ke bhitar yah sandeh utpann ho jae ki main hom karoon ki nahin? tadavyachikitsajjuhuvani ima haushadoomh.[22]

vidhi

audumbari (goolar ki vah shakha, jisake niche baithakar udagatrimandal samagan karata hai) kitani badi honi chahie, is vishay men yah vidhan milata hai ki vah yajaman ke pariman (nap) ki honi chahie-yajamanen sammita audumbari bhavati.[23]

parakriti

isaka abhipray hai doosare ka kary, yatha-mashanev mahyn pachati[24] vah mere lie udad hi pakata hai.

purakalp

tatpary hai purana akhyan, jaise-pura brahmana abhaishu:[25] prachin kal men brahman dar gaye.

vyavadharanakalpana

abhipray hai vishesh prakar ka nishchay karana. isaka udaharan hai ki jitane ghodon ka pratigrah kare, utane hi varunadevatak chatushkapalon se yag kare-yavatoashvanh pratigrihniyattavato varunanh chatushkapalarnnivapeth.[26]

upaman

shabarasvami ne yadyapi isaka udaharan nahin diya hai, tathapi chhandogy upanishad[27] ke is ansh ko prastut kiya ja sakata hai-
s yatha shakuni: sootren prabaddho dishn dishn patitva anyatrayatanamalabdhva bandhanamevopashrayate, evamev khalu somy! tanmano dishn dishn patitvaanyatrayatanmalabdhva pranamevopashrayate, pranabandhann hi somy! man iti.
-he somy! jaise dhage se bndha hua pakshi har disha ki or jakar aur anyatr ashray n pakar bandhan ka avalamb leta hai; isi prakar se hai somy! yah man vibhinn dishaon men bhatakane ke bad vahan, ashray n pakar is pran ka avalamban grahan karata hai. he somy! man ka bandhan pran hai.


vidhi aur arthavad-vakyon ki ekavakyata ko spasht karane ke lie tandy mahabrahman se ek udaharan prastut hai- shashth adhyay ke saptam khand men agnishtomanushthan ki prakriya men bahishpavaman stotr ke nimitt adhvaryu ki pramukhata men udgata prabhriti panch ritvijon ke sadomandap se chatval-sthan tak prasarpan ka vidhan hai-bahishpavamann prasarpanti. is prasarpan ke sandarbh men do niyam vihit hain- kvan (mridupadanyasapoorvak) prasarpan tatha vananiyamanh. sath hi panchon ritvijon-adhvaryu, prastota, udgata, pratiharta tatha brahma ke ek doosare ke pichhe isi kram se pnktibaddh hokar chalane ka vidhan hai, kyonki yah pnkti hai.[28] vahin in niyamon ke palan se ygy ki shanti bani rahane, aur any labhon tatha hetuon ka ullekh hai. niyamon ka palan n karane se anekavidh anarthon ki sambhavana bhi ullikhit hai. is prakar brahman-granthon men yaganushthan ki vibhinn vidhiyon ke niroopan men prashnsa aur ninda hi nahin, unake auchity-bodhak hetu bhi diye gaye hain. udaharanarth agnishtom yag ke hi prasng men tandy-brahman men udgata ke dvara sadomandap men audumbari[29] ke uchchhrayan ka vidhan karate samay kaha gaya hai ki prajapati ne devon ke nimitt arkh ka jo vibhajan kiya, usi se udumbar ki utpatti huee. at: udumbar vriksh prajapati se sambaddh hai aur udgata ka bhi usase sambandh hai, isalie jab vah audumbari ka uchchhrayan roop pratham krity karata hai, tab vah usi prajapati namni adhishthatri daivi shakti ke dvara apane ko artvijy-hetu varan kar leta hai. isi prasng men dronakalashaprohan, jis krity ke antargat dronakalash men som ras churakar rath ke niche rakha jata hai, ka samarthan ek akhyayika ke dvara kiya gaya hai. tadanusar prajapati ne anek hone ke lie srishti-kamana ki. srishtivishayak vichar karate hi unake mastak se adity ki utpatti huee. adity ne svayn utpann hone ke lie prajapati ke shir ko chhinn kar diya. vah chhinn-bhinn moorddha hi dronakalash ho gaya, jisamen devon ne shubhravarn ke chamakate hue somaras ko grahan kiya.[30] is akhyayika ke madhyam se dronakalash aur tatrasth somaras men sarjanashakti se otaprot shreshth manasik samarthy ke astitv ka upapadan kiya gaya hai.

is prakar vidhi-nirdesh ke samanantar hi brahman-granth unaki upayuktata bhi vibhinn prakar se batala dete hain. is sandarbh men yagon, unaki anushthan-vidhiyon, dravyon, sambaddh devon aur viniyukt mantron ka chhand adi ke dvara auchity-niroopan karate samay brahman-granthon ke rachayita manaviy bhavanaon aur manovigyan ka sadaiv dhyan rakhate hue yajaman ke sammukh us krity vishesh ke anushthan se hone vali labh-hani ka yathavath vivaran prastut karane ka prayatn karate hain. agnishtom yag ka anushthan vyakti kyon karen? usase kya labh ho sakata hai? ise jane bina vyakti manaviy svabhav ke anusar ygy men pravritt hi nahin ho sakata. is bindu par brahmanagranth use ashvast kar dete hain ki yah vastut: samast phalon ka sadhan hone ke karan mukhy hai, isake viparit any yag ek-ek phal dene vale hain, isalie agnishtom ke anushthan se samast phal prapt hote hain.[31] is samany nirdesh ke anantar vistar se yah batalaya gaya hai ki isake anushthan se pashu-samriddhi, brahmavarchash-prapti adi prithakh-prithakh phalon ki prapti bhi ho sakati hai.

jahan tak vibhinn ygy-krityon men viniyukt mantron ke auchityapradarshan ki bat hai, brahmanagranth us bindu ke anavaran ka poorn prayatn karate hain, jisake karan us mantravishesh ka kisi krityavishesh men viniyog kiya gaya hai. brahman-granthon ki paribhashik shabdavali men yah roop-samriddhi kahalati hai. roop-samriddhi, jisaka sthool abhipray kriyaman karm ke sath viniyukt mantr ka atyant ghanishth sambandh hai, se svayn ygy samriddh hota hai.[32] is prakar roop-smriddhi ka vastavik tatpary tattath vishisht krity ke sandarbh men viniyukt mantr ki sarthakata ka pradarshan hai. jahan sidhe viniyukt stotriya ke arth se auchity ki pratiti nahin ho pati, vahan brahmanagranth mantragat devon se krity ko sambaddh karate hain. udaharan ke lie kisi dirgharogi ki rog-nivritti ke lie[33] men 'a no mitravaruna ghritairgavyootimukshatamh. madhva rajansi sukratoo'[34] mantr ka viniyog hai. apatat: is rikh ke arth se rog-nivritti ka sambandh pratit nahin hota hai, kintu yahan bhi prakarantar se sambandh niroopit hai. tandy brahmanakar ka kathan hai ki dirgharogi ke pran aur apan apakrant ho jate hain, jabaki pran aur apan ki saman sthiti par hi arogy nirbhar hai. pran aur apan ki tathakathit samasthiti mitr aur varun ki anukoolata par avalambit hai, kyonki in donon se unaka ghanishth sambandh hai. pranapan vastut: ahoratraroop hai aur din ke dev mitr hai tatha ratri ke varun. in donon ke anukooly arjun se sharir men pran aur apan ki yathavath sthiti bani rahati hai. at: dirgharogi ki rog-nivritti ke sandarbh men uparyukt rikh ka gan sarvatha upayukt hai. inake sath hi brahmanagranthon men niruktiyan aur akhyayikaen bhi pushkal pariman men prapt hoti hain.



tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jaimaniy mimansa sootr, 2.1.33
  2. mantrashch brahmanashcheti dvau bhagau ten mantrat:. anyadh brahmanamityetadh bhavedh brahmanalakshanamh. jaimini nyayamala, 2.1, 'avashishto vedabhago brahmanamh' rigved bhashy bhoomika prishth 37
  3. brahmann brahmasnghate vedabhage napunsakamh medinikosh.
  4. y ime brahmana: prokta mantra vai prokshane gavamh. ete pramann utaho neti vasavh. mahabharat, udyog parv mahabharat, bhandarakar-snskaran.
  5. etadh brahmananyev panch harvishi, taittiriy snhita, 3.7.1.1
  6. paniniy, 3.4.3.6
  7. nirukt, 4.27
  8. brahm vai mantr:-shatapath brahman, 7.1.1.5; vedon brahm-jaimini upanishad brahman, 4.11.3
  9. aitareyalochan, prishth 2
  10. brahmann nam karmanastanmantranan ch vyakhyanagranth:. bhattabhaskar, taittiriy snhita 1.5.1 par bhashy
  11. nairuktyn yasy mantrasy viniyog: prayojanamh. pratishthann vidhishchaiv brahmann tadihochyate. 'vachaspati mishr'
  12. svami dayanand sarasvati, anubhramochchhedan, satyarthaprakash, prishth 288 (bahalagadh snskaran, sn 2029), 'tattanmantranan tattadyagadyupayogitvn varnayitun samasatastatpayryamanvakhyatun va vyakhyanani ch kritani. tatashch vidhyarthavadakhyanapoorvakamadimn mantr-bhashyn brahmanamityev paryavasyate brahmanalakshanamh. 'aitareyalochan', prishth 11
  13. is sandarbh men kuchh kathan ye hain-
    (k) mantrabrahmanayorved iti namadheyn shadngameke. 'tantravartik' 1.3.10
    (kh) vedon mantrabrahmanakhyo mantrarashi:.
    (g) tatr brahnanatmako ved:. 'taittiriy snhita, sayan-bhashyopakramanika.
  14. brahman granthon ki shrutiroopata par achary pnndit baladev upadhyay ne vaidik sahity aur snskriti men vistar se vichar kiya hai. isamen unhonne manusmriti, darshanik sootrakaron, paniniy ashtadhyayi, vyakaran mahabhashy aur any acharyon ke maton ki vishad mimansa karate hue brahmanon ki vedaroopata ka yuktiyukt upapadan kiya hai.
  15. sootr 35
  16. jaimaniy mimansasootr 1.2.27
  17. shabarabhashy 2.1.11
  18. shatapath brahman 2.5.2.23
  19. taittiriy snhita 5.3.3
  20. taittiriy snhita 5.1.8.1
  21. taittiriy snhita 2.1.1.1
  22. taittiriy snhita 6.5.9.1
  23. taittiriy snhita 6.2.10.3
  24. taittiriy snhita 6.2.10.3
  25. taittiriy snhita 1.5.7.5
  26. taittiriy snhita 2.3.12.1
  27. chhandogy upanishad 6.8.2
  28. panchartvij: snrabdha sarpanti pankto ygyo yavanh ygystamev santanvanti. taittiriy brahman, 6.7.12
  29. udumbar vriksh ki shakha
  30. tanday brahman, 6.5.1- men varnit yah akhyayika kinchith parivartit roop men jaiminiy brahman tatha shatapath brahman men bhi milati hai. jaiminiy brahman men adity ke sthan par agni ka ullekh hai aur shatapath brahman men devon ke dvara vrit ka shir katane ka nirdesh hai: vritro vai som asith. tn yatr deva apaghnanh tasy mooddhodvavart, s dronakalashoabhavath, shatapath brahman 4.4.3.4
  31. esh vav ygyo yadagnishtom:. ekasma anyo ygy: kamayahriyate sarvebhyoagnishtom:. tanday brahman, 6.3.1-2
  32. etadvai ygysy samriddhn yadroopasamriddhn yatkarmakriyamanamrigyajurvaabhivadati. -gopathabrahman 2.4.2
  33. tannday brahman (6.10.4
  34. sam. 220

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