ऋतुसंहार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ritusnhar
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kavi mahakavi kalidas
mool shirshak ritusnhar
desh bharat
bhasha snskrit
vishay rituon ka varnan
vidha kavy-grnth
vishesh sampoorn snskrit sahity men ritusnhar hi pahali aisi rachana hai, jisamen bharatavarsh men prapt samast chh: rituon ka svatntr roop se tatha kramash: niroopan kiya gaya hai.

ritusnhar mahakavi kalidas ki pratham rachana hai. nishchit roop se jo audaty tatha saundary mahakavi ke any kavyon se prapt hota hai, usaka yahan abhav hai. sampoorn snskrit sahity men ritusnhar hi pahali aisi rachana hai, jisamen bharatavarsh men prapt samast chh: rituon ka svatntr roop se tatha kramash: niroopan kiya gaya hai. alochakon ka kahana hai ki kavi ne vikramadity ka rajyashray prapt hone ke poorv hi isaki rachana ho hogi aur yah navayauvan ki avastha men racha gaya hoga.

vivad

kuchh vidvanh ritusnhar ko kalidas ki kriti nahin manate. is paksh men pray: tin tark diye jate hain-

  1. ritusnhar men kalidas ki kamaniy shaili nahin hai.
  2. kavyashastriy grnthon men isake uddharan prapt nahin hote aur
  3. mallinath ne is par tika nahin likhi hai.

kalidas ki pratham rachana

ritusnhar ko kalidas ki pratham rachana svikar kiya gaya hai. at: pratham sopan hone ke karan raghuvnsh athava shakuntalam jaisi paripakvata ka abhav svabhavik hai. kavyashastriy grnthon men ritusnhar ke uddharan alankarikon ne isalie nahin diye ki mahakavi kalidas ke hi adhik praudh udaharan vidyaman the. mallinath ne bhi saral grnth hone ke karan is par tika nahin likhi hogi. is prakar ye tark kamazor hai. vastut: ritusnhar ke paryalochan se yah spasht pratit hota hai ki isamen kalidasiy pratibha bij-roop men vidyaman hai. ritusnhar men chh: sarg hain. in sargon men kramash: chh: rituon -

  1. grishm
  2. varsha
  3. sharad
  4. hemnt
  5. shishir tatha
  6. basnt ka chitran kiya gaya hai.
yatharth drishti-

ritusnhar men kavikalpana ki manoharita bhi akarshit karati hai tatha kavi ka yatharthabodh bhi. pahala hi pady grishm ki prakharata tatha sntap ke varnan se arambh hota hai. isake age kavi kahata hai ki dhool ke bavndar uth rahe hain, kadi dhoop se dharati darak rahi hai, priya ke viyog se dagth manas vale pravasi to is drishy ko dekh tak nahin pa rahe hain [1] pyas se chatakate kanth vale mrig ek jngal se doosare jngal ki or bhag rahe hain.[2] grishm ne van ke praniyon ko aisa akul kar diya hai ki sanp mayoor ke pichchh ke niche dhoop se bachane ko a baitha hai aur mayoor ko usaki khabar nahin. pyas se sinh ka mrigaya ka udyam thnda pad gaya hai, jibh latakaye hanphata hua vah pas se nikalate hiranon par bhi akraman nahin kar raha. trisha se vyakul hathiyon ne bhi sinh se bhay khana chhod diya hai. shookar bhadramusta se yukt sookhate kichad matr bache sarovar ki dharati men dhnse se ja rahe hain[3] grishmavarnan ke is pahale sarg men vanaprant ki bhishanata ka vastavik chitr kavi ne atynt vishad roop men ankit kar diya hai. davagni se jal kar kashth matr bache vriksh, sookhate patton ka jahan-tahan dher aur sookhe hue sarovar-in sabaka vistar dekhane par chitt ko bhayabhit kar dalana hai[4] davagni ka varnan bhi kalidas ne isi yatharth drishti se kiya hai.

ritusnhar ka bhaugolik parivesh

ritusnhar ki rachana ke samay kavi vindhy ke asapas ke kshetr men ram raha tha, aisa is rachana ke varnanon se spasht hota hai. pahale sarg men bhishan aur durgam kantaron ka ullekh banabhatt ke 'vindhyatavi varnan' ka smarak hai. jin pashu-pakshiyon tatha vanaspatiyon ka varnan kiya gaya hai, ve bhi vindhy kshetr men bahutayat se paye jate hain. yadi grishm varnan men kavi vindhy ke vanon ki manoharita se akarshit hai-

vanani vaindhyani harnti manasn
vibhooshitanyudgatapallavairdrumai:॥[5]

  • badalon ne vindhy ka abhishek kar dala hain, jo abhi tak davagni se jhulas raha tha. ab vah ahladit ho utha hai-

atishayaparushabhirdavavahne: shikhabhi:
samupajanitatapn hladayntiv vindhyam ॥[6]

vishayavastu

ritusnhar kalidas ki kavyayatra ka pahala padav lagata hai. kishoravastha men hone vale saundary ke prati akarshan ki yahan pradhanata hai. kavi ne rituon ke varnan men prakriti.chitran karane ke sath-sath kamijanon ki vilasita ka bhi niroopan kiya hai. yah kahana upayukt hoga ki ritusnhar men prakriti-saundary ka chitran gaun hai aur shrringarit varnan pradhan. pray:pratyek sarg men kuchh padyon men kavi ne apani priya ko sambodhit kiya hai. grishm, varsha, shishir aur vasnt rituon ka varnan to priya ke sambodhan se hi prarambh hota hai. kahin-kahin rasik sahridayon ko bhi sambodhit kiya gaya hai. kavi pratyek sarg men rituon ka chitran karane ke sath-sath rituon ka stri-purushon par kya prabhav hota hai, isaka bhi varnan kiya hai. ritusnhar men kathanak ka abhav hai. grishm, varsha tatha sharadh ka varnan prastut karane vale pratham tin sargo men naisargik sushama ke anuroop atishay manohar kalpanaon ke sath nayanabhiram chitr hain.

hemnt ke varnan

hemnt ke varnan men kavi ne prakritik drishyon ka niroopan kam aur bhog-vilas ka varnan adhik kiya hai. yahan sambhog shringar ka chitran adhik hai, prakriti ka varnan kam. vastut: antim tin sargon men kavi ne uddipan samagri ka sambhar prastut kar diya hai.

shashth sarg

shashth sarg sabase bada hai. is sarg men kalidas ne apekshakrit adhik sundar chitran kiya hai. kuchhek padyon men to prakriti ka varnan hai, kintu adhinkash padyon men vasantik vatavaran se prabhavit manav-man ka chitran hai. is prakar vasnt ka chitran pray: kamoddipak roop men kiya gaya hai. prastut padyon men vasntik sushama ka bahut hi sundar niroopan hai-

druma: sapushpa: salit sapadmn striy: sakaya: pavan:sugandhi:.
sukha: pradosha divasashch ramya: sarv priye! charutarn vasnte॥[7]
vapijalanan manimekhalana shashankabhasan pramadajananamh.
chootadrumanan kusumanvitatanan dadati saubhagyamayn vasnt:॥[8]

vriksh phoolon se lad gaye hain. jal men kamal khil uthe hain, striyon ke man men kam jag utha hai. pavan sugandh se bhar gaya hai. sandhyayen sukhad hone lagi hain aur din achchhe lagane lagen hain. priye! vasnt ritu men pratyek vastu pahale se adhik sundar ho gayi hai. basnt ne bavaliyon ke jalon ko, maniyon se nirmit mekhalaon ko chandrama ki chandani ko, pramadaon ko, am ke vrikshon ko saubhagy pradan kar diya hai. is prakar vah kaun si vastu hai jo vasnt men ramaniy nahin ho jati.

ritusnhar ka kavyasaundary

ritusnhar ek mahanh kavi ki pratibha ke pratham parispand ki shreshth aur saras abhivyakti hai. tikakar maniram ka yah kathan saty hai ki is kavy ki upeksha hoti hai.[9] is upeksha ka karan yahi pratit hota hai ki ritusnhar ke pashchath rachi gayi kavyakritiyon men kavi ki jivanadrishti vikasit huee hai, snvedana aur manovigyan ke gyan men praudhata ayi hai tatha in kritiyon men parishkrit saundary. chetana ke sath udatt jivanamoolyon tatha sanskritik bodh ko bhi abhivyakti mili hai. svabhavat: hi kavi ki paravarti shreshth kritiyon ki tulana men ritusnhar jaisi laghukay aur arambhik kriti upekshit hoti chali ayi hai, tathapi kalpanaon ki kamaniyata, bhasha ki praudhata aur saralata ki drishti se yah yah kriti mahattvapoorn hai. meghadoot, kumarasambhav tatha raghuvnsh ke parinati prgy tatha paripakv pratibha sampann kavi ka kamaniy kishor roop yahan milata hai. grishm aur varsha ke varnanon men ojogun ki durlabh abhivyakti ritusnhar ke kavi ne ki hai. raja ke saman ghanagam (varsha) ke agaman ka roopak tadanuroop ojasvi bandh men bandha gaya hai-

sasikarambhodharamattakunjarastaditpatakashanishabdamardal:.
samagato rajavaduddhatadyutirghanagam: kamijanapriy: priye॥[10]

megh hi is raja ke matavale hathi hain, bijaliyan usaki patakaen hai, megh ka garjan usaka mardal[11] hai. paravarti kavyon men prapt kalidas ki anek abhivyaktiyon ka poorvabhas bhi ritusnhar men hai. megh ke lie garbhavati pramada ke uroj ka upaman [12] meghadoot tatha raghuvnsh men prakarantar se punaravritt hua hai. isi prakar bijali ki kaundh men abhisarikaon ka marg dekh pane ke drishy ko bhi[13] kavi meghadoot men phir se bandha hai. sharad varnan men kovidar vriksh ke chitran men yamak ka bandh raghuvnsh ke navam sarg ke yamak-bandhon ki smriti kara deta hai-

mattadvirephaparipitamadhuprasekashchittn vidarayati kasy n kovidar:॥[14]

sharad ritu ke varnan men to kavikalpanaon ki ujjvalata dekhate hi banati hai. sharad ritu ka padarpan ramaniy navavadhu ke saman hota hai. pake hue dhan se sundar evn jhuke hue sharir vali tatha khile hue kamalon ke mukhavali sharad ritu kash-pushpn ka ujjval vastr dharan kiye hue, matavale hnson ke kalaravon ka noopur pahane hue avatarit hoti hai-

kashanshuka vikachapadmamanogyvaktra sonmadahnsaravanoopuranadaramya.
apakvashaliruchiranatagatrayashti: prapta sharannavavadhooriv rooparamya॥[15]

kavi ne yahan roopak (kashanshuka adi pratham tin visheshan) utpreksha tatha upama ki utkrisht snsrishti prastut ki hai. isi prakar naisargik saundary ko kritrim ya manaviy saundary se adhik manohar batate hue vyatirek ke prayog ke sath vah kahata hai ki ramaniyon ki manoram chal ko hnson ne, unake chandrama jaise mukh ki shobha ko khile hue kamalon ne, madabhari madhur chitavan ko nil kamalon ne aur bhaunho ke vilas ko sookshm laharoyon ne jit liya hai

hnsairjita sulalita gatirarangananamambhoruhairvikasitairmukhachandrakanti:.
nilotpalairmadakalani vilokitani bhroovibhramashch ruchirastanubhistarangai:॥[16]

ritusnhar mahakavi kalidas ki pratham kavy rachana mani jati hai, jisake chhah sargo men grishm se arnbh kar vasnt tak ki chhah rituon ka sundar prakritichitran prastut kiya gaya hai. ritusnhar ka kalashilp mahakavi ki any kritiyon ki tarah udatt n hone ke karan isake kalidas ki kriti hone ke vishay men sndeh kiya jata raha hai.

tika

mallinath ne is kavy ki tika nahin ki hai tatha any kisi prasiddh tikakar ki bhi isaki tika nahin milati hai. je. nobul tatha pro.e.bi. kith ne apane lekhon men ritusnhar ko kalidas ki hi 'pramanik evn pratham rachana' siddh kiya hai. is khndakavy men kavi ne apani priya ko snbodhit kar chhahon rituon ka varnan kiya hai. prakriti ke alnbanaparak tatha uddipanaparak donon tarah ke ramaniy chitr kavy ki vastavik atma hain.

sarvapratham snpadan

ritusnhar ka sarvapratham snpadan kalakatta se sanh 1792 men 'sar viliyam jons' ne kiya tha. sanh 1840 men isaka ek any snskaran pi.phaaun bolen dvara latini tatha jarman padyanuvad sahit prakashit kiya gaya tha. 1906 men 'nirnayasagar pres' se yah rachana maniram ki snskrit tika ke sath chhapi thi, jisake ab tak anek snskaran ho chuke hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ritusnhar, 1.10
  2. ritusnhar, 1.11
  3. ritusnhar, 1|13-15
  4. ritusnhar, 1.22
  5. ritusnhar, 2.8
  6. ritusnhar, 2.27
  7. ritusnhar, 6.2
  8. ritusnhar,6.4
  9. apracharatamomagna kalidasakritiryat: ritusnhar, maniramakritatika, nirnayasagar, 1931 ee., pri.1
  10. ritusnhar, 2.1
  11. vadyavishesh
  12. ritusnhar, 2.1
  13. ritusnhar,2.10
  14. ritusnhar,3.6
  15. ritusnhar,3.1..
  16. ritusnhar,3.17

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