कथासरित्सागर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kathasaritsagar
kathasaritsagar
vivaran 'kathasaritsagar' snskrit katha sahity ka shiromani grnth hai. ise gunadhy ki 'brihatkatha' bhi kaha jata hai. mithak aur itihas, yatharth v phntasi, sachchaee aur indrajal ka anootha sngam isamen hua hai.
lekhak somadev bhatt
rachana kal 1063 ee. aur 1082 ee. ke madhy
bhasha snskrit
pady 21,388 pady hain aur ise 124 tarngon men banta gaya hai.
charitr kathasaritsagar ki kahaniyon men anek adbhut nari charitr aur itihas prasiddh nayakon ki kathaen hain.
vishesh kathasaritsagar ka ek doosara snskaran bhi prapt hai, jisamen 18 lnbak hain. lnbak ka mool snskrit roop 'lnbhak' tha.
any janakari somadev bhatt ne saral aur akritrim rahate hue akarshak evn sundar roop men 'kathasaritsagar' ke madhyam se anek kathaen prastut ki hain, jo nishchit hi bharatiy manisha ka ek anyatam udaharan hai.

kathasaritsagar vishvakatha sahity ko bharat ki anoothi den hai. yah snskrit katha sahity ka shiromani grnth hai, jisaki rachana kashmiri pndit somadev bhatt ne ki thi. 'kathasaritsagar' ko gunadhy ki 'brihatkatha' bhi kaha jata hai. yah sabase pahale prakrit bhasha men likha gaya tha. 'vrihatkatha' snskrit sahity ki parnpara ko sarvadhik prabhavit karane vala granth hai. gunadhy ko valmiki aur vyas ke saman hi adaraniy bhi mana hai.

bharatiy katha parnpara ka mahakosh

'brihatkatha' bharatiy katha parnpara ka mahakosh hai. mithak aur itihas, yatharth aur phntasi, sachchaee aur indrajal ka anootha sngam isamen hua hai. kathasaritsagar ki kahaniyon men anek adbhut nari charitr bhi hain aur itihas prasiddh nayakon ki kathaen bhi hain. bharatiy samaj jitani vividhata aur bahurngi chhata men yahan prastut hai, utana any kisi prachin katha grnth men nahin milata. kathasaritsagar kathaon ki aisi mnjoosha prastut karata hai, jisamen ek badi mnjoosha ke bhitar doosari, doosari ko kholane par tisari nikal ati hai. mool katha men anek kathaon ko samet lene ki yah paddhati rochak bhi hai aur jatil bhi.[1]

rachana kal

'kathasaritsagar' katha sahity ka shiromani grnth hai. isaki rachana kashmir men pndit somadev bhatt ne trigart athava kulloo kangada ke raja ki putri, kashmir ke raja annt ki rani sooryamati ke manovinodarth hetu 1063 ee. aur 1082 ee. ke madhy snskrit men ki thi. kathasaritsagar men 21,388 pady hain aur ise 124 tarngon men banta gaya hai. isaka ek doosara snskaran bhi prapt hai, jisamen 18 lnbak hain. lnbak ka mool snskrit roop lnbhak tha. vivah dvara stri ki prapti 'lnbh' kahalati thi aur usi ki katha ke lie lnbhak shabd prayukt hota tha. isilie 'ratnaprabha', 'lnbak', 'madanamnchuka lnbak', 'sooryaprabha lnbak' adi alag-alag kathaon ke adhar par vibhinn shirshak die ge honge.[2]

shiv-parvati prasng

ek samay parvati ne dekha ki aj shiv prasann hain. bahut hns-hns kar bol rahe hain, to unhonne phir vahi anurodh dohara diya, jo ve kee varshon se dohara rahi thin ki "hamen koee sundar si katha sunaiye n bhagavan! aisi katha jo kisi ne na suni ho, kisi ko n ati ho. kitane dinon se kah rahi hoon ap se. ap bas tal dete hain." shiv muskuraye! phir dhyanamagn ho ge.  bat to sach thi. uma kitane hi varshon se kahati a rahi hain. katha aisi ho ki man laga rahe. badi bhi ho, itani badi ki sunate-kahate gananatit samay nikal jae. phir katha aisi bhi ho ki kisi ne kisi se aj tak n kahi ho, n kisi ne kisi se suni ho.[1]

shiv samadhi men doobe aur vidyadharon ki kathaen ek-ek kar unake chitt men prakashit hone lagin. "yah kya? ab to ap sun bhi nahin rahe hain." unhen maun dekhakar parvati ne tunak kar kaha. shiv ki samadhi bhng huee. ve hnse, phir bole- "chalo aj katha suna hi dete hain." "ap jab tab katha jaisi katha suna dete hain, vaisi nahin. hamen apase badi katha sunani hai." "han, han, brihatkatha sunayenge... ab to prasann ho. aur jo kisi ko n ati ho", shiv ne phir hns kar doharaya. "kisi ko nahin sunane doongi. akeli main hi sunoongi." parvati ne hath kiya. parvati ke hath ke age bhala bhagavan shiv ki chal sakati thi? parvati ko sath lekar ve kailash parvat ki apani gufa men baithe to baithe hi rah ge. ve katha sunate ge, sunate ge... parvati sunati rahin. donon ko dhyan hi nahin raha ki kitana samay bit gaya. din par din, mahine par mahine, varsh par varsh. katha aisi ki samapt hone ko na aye. gufa ke dvar par nndi pahara dete rahe. kisi ko bhitar ane ki anumati nahin di gee. is tarah parvati ne shiv se brihatkatha suni. sun kar ve tript hueen, mudit hueen.

ek bar parvati, jaya, vijaya adi ke bich baithi thin. unake ji men aya ki shnkar ke mukh se suni katha in logon ko bhi suna den. ve bolin- "chalo, main tum logon ko aisi katha sunati hoon, jo aj tak mere atirikt kisi ne nahin suni hai." ve brihatkatha sunane lagin. jaya ne bich men tok kar kaha, "devi, yah katha to meri suni huee hai aur vah parvati ko age ki katha batane lagi. parvati pahale to stabdh rah gayin, phir vispharit netron se jaya ko takane lagin. "tujhe yah katha ati hai?" doobate svar men unhonne jaya se poochha. han! yah katha mainne apane pati pushpadnt se suni hai. parvati ki ankhen krodh se lal ho uthin, onth kanpane lage. aisa kyon kiya bhagavan shiv ne? unhonne yahi katha pushpadnt ko kyon suna di? ve uthin aur andhi ki tarah bhagavan shiv ke samane ja pahunchi. krodh aur apaman se runase svar men unhonne bhagavan se kaha, "yah apane kya kiya? apane vah katha apane ganon ko bhi sunaee hai. aisa apane kyon kiya?" mainne to vah katha tumhare atirikt kabhi kisi ko nahin sunaee. vah katha to sabako vidit hai. pushpadnt ne jaya ko vahi katha sunaee. eershya se uma ki bhauhen tedhi ho gayi thin. shiv mugdh ho kar us or takate rah ge. phir hns kar bole, "hamane apane kisi gan ko kabhi bhi brihatkatha nahin sunaee." nndi se kaho sare ganon ko hamare samaksh upasthit karen.

bhay se thar thar kanpate pushpadnt ne sare ganon ki upasthiti men bhagavan ke age apana aparadh svikar kar liya. jab bhagavan devi ko katha sunane ka upakram kar rahe the, tabhi vah unake darshan ke lie pahuncha tha. nndi ne gufa men jane ka nishedh kiya tha. tab vah adbhut katha sunane ke lobh se yogashakti se adrishy ho kar gufa men ja chhipa aur usane poori katha sun li aur phir jaya ko usane vahi katha sunaee. nich tera yah sahas! parvati ke netron se chingariyan chhootane lagin. pushpadnt ki ghigghi bndh gayi. usake mitr malyavan ne sahas kiya aur age badh kar uma bhagavati ke charanon par matha rakh diya phir kaha, is moorkh ne kautuhalavash yah dhrishtata kar dali hai man! isaka pahala aparadh kshama karen." "achchha, to too isaka paksh le raha hai. main tum donon ko shap deti hoon, tum donon manushy yoni men ja giro, jao." shiv chupachap baithe muskurate rahe. parvati aur apane ganon ke bich ve kuchh nahin bole.

pati ko shap milane ki bat sun jaya daudi huee aee aur ro-ro kar parvati se daya ki bhikh mangane lagi. donon shapagrast ganon ne bhi mata ke charanon par matha tek diya. akhir parvati dravit hueen. shapamukti ka upay batate hue unhonne kaha, "supratik namak ek yaksh shapagrast hokar kanabhooti ke nam se vindhy ke van men pishach ban kar rahata hai. suno pushpadnt, jab manushy yoni men tum use yahi katha suna doge, to tumhari shapamukti ho jaegi. yah malyavan us kanabhooti se yah katha sunakar manushyoni men isaka prachar karega, tab isaki bhi mukti hogi.[1]

pushpadnt aur malyavan usi kshan manushy yoni men ja gire. bahut samay bit gaya. parvati ke man men kachot hoti rahati thi ki nahak tanik-si bat par unhonne apane pati ke priy sevakon ko mrityu lok men nirvasit kar diya. ek din unhonne bhagavan shiv se poochh hi liya, "un donon ganon ka kya hua bhagavan. ve laut kar kailash kab ayenge?" shiv phir muskuraye aur kaha, "pahale to shap de diya, ab karuna se dravit ho rahi ho. par hamen achchha laga. dharati par ja kar hamara pushpadnt to bahut bada vyakti ban gaya." achchha! chakit hokar parvati ne vispharit nayanon se unhen niharate hue kaha, "kya ban gaya vah?" vah dekho, shiv ne dharati ki or bahut niche dikhate hue kaha, "vahan vindhy ke van men us vyakti ko dekh rahi ho? parvati ne poochha- "kaun hai vah?" shiv bole- "vah pushpadnt hai. vah pataliputr ke raja nand ka mntri vararuchi ban gaya hai aur vah us shapagrast yaksh ke pas tumhari priy kathaen sunane ja raha hai. yah vararuchi katyayan ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. yah vyakaran ka pndit ban gaya hai."

vararuchi ki katha

vararuchi ke munh se brihatkatha sunakar pishach yoni men vindhy ke bihad men rahane vala yaksh kanabhooti shap se mukt hua aur usane vararuchi ki prashnsa karate hue kaha, "ap to shiv ke avatar pratit hote hain. shiv ke atirikt aisi kathaen aur kaun suna sakata hai! yadi gopaniy n ho, to ap apani katha bhi mujhe sunaie." vararuchi ne kaha, "suno kanabhooti, main tumhen apani ramakahani bhi suna deta hoon."[3]

kaushambi men somadatt namak brahman rahate the. vasudatta unaki patni thi. yah hi mere pita aur mata the. mere shaishav men hi pita ka svargavas ho gaya. mata ne bade kasht uthakar mujhe pala. ek bar ki bat hai. do batohi hamare ghar aye. donon brahman the aur badi door se chalakar a rahe the. thake hone se hamane apane ghar unhen thahara liya. rat ka samay tha. door se mridng ki thap sunaee di. sunate hi meri man ki ankhen ansuon se dabadaba ayin aur usane mujhase kaha, "beta, ye tumhare pita ke mitr nand hain. ye bade achchhe nartak hain. ganv men inaka nartan ho raha hai. main to bachcha hi tha. ullasit hokar bola, "man main nand chacha ka nartan dekhane jata hoon. phir tumako unake abhinay ke sare snvad aksharashah sunaoonga aur unaka nartan bhi vaisa ka vaisa hi karake dikhaoonga." ham donon man-bete ki batachit donon abhyagat sun rahe the. unamen se ek ne bade kautuk se poochha, "mata, yah balak kya kah raha hai?" meri mata ne kaha, "mera beta vararuchi vilakshan buddhi vala hai. ek bar jo bhi dekh aur sun leta hai, vaisa ka vaisa hi yah turat yad kar leta hai." meri pariksha lene ke lie us brahman ne pratishakhy[4] ka ek path mere age bola. mainne suna aur jas ka tas dohara diya. tab to vah brahman meri man ke charanon par gir pada aur bola, "mata, main vyadi hoon. yah mera mitr indradatt hai. ham donon aise hi vilakshan buddhi vale vyakti ko khoj rahe hain. apake ghar akar hamara janm saphal ho gaya." meri man ke poochhane par vyadi ne apana vrittant is prakar bataya-

"vetas namak nagar men devasvami aur karambhak namak do brahman bhaee rahate the, unamen se ek ka putr main vyadi hoon aur doosare ka yah indradatt hai. mere pita to mere janm ke bad hi chal base aur unake du:kh men kuchh samay bad is indradatt ke pita ne bhi deh tyag diya. patiyon ke n rahane par ham donon ki mataen bhi shok men ghul-ghulakar chal basin. ham donon anath ho gaye. idhar-udhar bhatakane lage. dhan hamare pas bahut tha, vidya nahin thi. to ham donon ne kumar kartikey ki aradhana ki. ek din kartikey ne hamen svapn men darshan diye aur bataya ki pataliputr namak nagar men, jahan raja nand rajy karata hai, vahan 'varsh' namak ek brahman rahata hai, usase ham donon ko vidya mil sakati hai. ham donon pataliputr pahunche. bahut poochhatachh karane par logon ne bataya ki varsh nam ka koee moorkh rahata to isi nagar men hai. jis dhng se pataliputr ke logon ne varsh ka nam liya, usase to hamara man hi doob gaya. astu kisi tarah varsh ke ghar ka pata lagakar ham vahan pahunche. varsh ka ghar choohon ke bilon se bhara hua tha. usaki divaren jarjar thin aur chhappar to lagabhag ud hi gaya tha. usi ghar men varsh dhyan lagaye hue baithe the. unaki patni ne hamara atithy kiya. vah moortimati durgati ke saman lagati thi- dhoosar deh, krish kaya aur phate-purane kapade. hamane use apane ane ka prayojan bataya to usane kaha, "tum log mere beton jaise ho.[3] main tumhen apani katha sunati hoon. varsh ki patni ne apani kahani is prakar batayi-

isi pataliputr nagar men shnkarasvami namak brahman rahata tha. usake do putr hue, ek tha mera pati 'varsh' aur doosare 'upavarsh'. mere pati moorkh aur daridr nikal gaye, jabaki chhote bhaee upavarsh bade vidvanh aur dhani the. ek bar varsha ka samay tha. striyan is ritu men gud aur ate ki pithi se guptangon ki moortiyan banakar hnsi-hnsi men moorkh brahmanon ko dan deti hain. yah kutsit riti yahan chali a rahi hai. meri devarani ko aur koee brahman nahin mila, to usane apana jugupsit dan apane jeth arthath mere hi in patidev ko de diya aur ye moorkharaj prasann hokar use ghar bhi le aye.

'devarani ke is apamanajanak vyavahar se to mere tan men ag lag gayi aur mainne apane pati ko khoob phatakara. inhen bhi apani moorkhata aur agyan par bada pachhatava hua aur ye kumar kartikey ki aradhana karane lage. kumar kartikey ne inhen varadan diya ki tumhen sari vidyaen prakashit ho jaengi, par tumhen apana sara gyan kisi shrutadhar[5] ko hi sabase pahale batana hoga.'

itani katha sunakar varsh ki patni ne ham donon[6] se kaha, "to putro, yadi tumhen mere patidev se sara gyan arjit karana hai, to kisi shrutadhar ko khojo. ye apani vidya keval usi ko bata sakate hain, any kisi ko nahin. varsh ki patni ki bat sunakar hamane sabase pahale to use sau svarnamudraen din, jisase usaki daridrata kuchh samay ke lie door ho sake. tab se ham kisi shrutadhar balak ko khoj rahe hain. vararuchi ne kanabhooti se kaha, vyadi tatha indradatt ki itani katha sunakar meri man ne kaha- "putro, mere is bete vararuchi ke janm ke samay akashavani huee thi ki yah varsh namak upadhyay se sari vidyaen prapt karega. itane varshon se main to svayn is chinta men ghuli ja rahi hoon ki varsh nam ke guru mere bete ko kab aur kahan milenge. tum logon ne meri chinta door kar di. tum ise le jao." tab vyadi aur indradatt ne meri man ko bhi prachur dhan diya aur mujhe lekar pataliputr men varsh gurudev ke pas pahunche.

main, vyadi tatha indradatt, tinon upadhyay varsh ke samane pavitr bhoomi par baithe. varsh sare shastr bolate chale gaye aur main ek bar sunakar sab yad karata gaya. vyadi men kisi bhi shastr ko do bar sunakar yad kar lene ki yogyata thi aur indradatt tin bar sunakar yad rakh sakata tha. main ek bar sunakar smaran kiye hue shastr ko bad men un donon ke samane sunata, to ve shastr pahale vyadi ko yad ho jate, phir vyadi unhen indradatt ko sunata, to tisari bar sun lene se indradatt ko bhi ve yad hote jate. phir kya tha, sare pataliputr men varsh ke adbhut shastrgyan aur usake sath hamari yogyata ki bhi dhoom mach gayi. samooh ke samooh brahman mahagyani varsh ke darshan ke lie ane lage aur jab yah sari bat raja nand ko vidit huee, to unhonne varsh ke ghar ko dhan-dhany se bhar diya.[3]

gunadhy ki 'brihatkatha'

'kathasaritsagar' gunadhh‌y krit 'bad katha' (brihatkatha) par adhrit hai, jo paishachi bhasha men thi. somadev ne svayn kathasaritsagar ke arnbh men kaha hai- "main brihatkatha ke sar ka sngrah kar raha hoon." bad katha ki rachana gunadhy ne satavahan rajaon ke shasanakal men ki thi, jinaka samay eesa ki pratham dvitiy shati ke lagabhag mana jata hai. andhr-satavahan yug men bharatiy vyapar unnati ke charam shikhar par tha. sthal tatha jal margon par anek sarthavah naukaen aur pot samooh din rat chalate the. at: vyapariyon aur unake sahakarmiyon ke manornjanarth, desh-deshantar-bhraman men prapt anubhavon ke adhar par anek kathaon ki rachana svabhavik thi. gunadhy ne sarthon, navikon aur sanyatrik vyapariyon men prachalit vividh kathaon ko apani vilakshan pratibha se gunphit kar, bad katha ke roop men prastut kar diya tha.

mool 'bad katha' ab prapy nahin hai, parntu isake jo do roopantar bane, unamen char ab tak prapt hain. inamen sabase purana budhasvami krit 'brihatkatha shlok sngrah' hai. yah snskrit men hai aur isaka pranayan, ek mat se, lagabhag eesa ki panchavin shati men tatha doosare mat se, athavin athava navin shati men hua. moolat: isamen 28 sarg tatha 4,539 shlok the, kintu ab yah khndash: prapt hai. isake karta budhasvami ne 'brihatkatha' ko guptakalin svarnayug ki snskriti ke anuroop dhalane ka yatn kiya hai. 'brihatkatha shlok sngrah' ko viddhanh‌ brihatkatha ki nepali vachana manate hain, kintu isaka keval hastalekh hi nepal men mila hai, any koee nepali prabhav isamen dikhaee nahin padata.

'brihatkatha' ke mool roop ka anuman lagane ke lie snghadasagani krit 'vasudev hindi' ka prapt hona mahatvapoorn ghatana hai. isaki rachana bhi 'brihatkatha shlok sngrah' ke pray: sath hi ya snbhavat: 100 varsh ke bhitar huee. 'vasudev hinddi' ka adhar bhi yadyapi brihatkatha hi hai, to bhi grnth ke that aur uddeshy men kafi pherabadal kar diya gaya hai. brihatkatha matr laukik kamakatha thi, jisamen vatsaraj udayan ke putr naravahanadatt ke vibhinn vivahon ke akhyan the, lekin vasudev hindi men jain dharm snbndhi anek prasng sammilit karake, use dharmakatha ka roop de diya gaya hai. itana hi nahin, isaka nayak naravahanadatt n hokar, andhak vrishni vnsh ke prasiddh purush vasudev hain. 'hindi' shabd ka arth paryatan athava paribhraman hai. vasudev hindi men 29 lnbak hain aur maharashtri prakrit bhasha men gady shaili ke madhyam se lagabhag 11,000 shlok praman ki samagri men vasudev ke 100 varsh ke paribhraman ka vrittant hai, jisamen ve 29 vivah karate hain. sab kuchh milakar lagata hai ki vasudev hindi brihatkatha ka paryapt prachin roopantar hai.[2]

vrihatkathamnjari

'vasudev hindi' ke anntar kshemendr krit 'vrihatkathamnjari' ka sthan hai. kshemendr kashmir naresh annt (1029-1064 ee.) ki sabha ke sabhasad the. unaka mool nam vyasadas tha. 'ramayanamnjari', 'bharatamnjari', 'avadanakalpalata', 'kalavilas', 'deshopadesh', 'narmamala' aur 'samayamatrika' namak grnthon men kshemendr ki pratibha ka utkrisht roop milata hai. kshemendr krit 'brihatkathamnjari' men 18 lnbak hain aur unake nam bhi somadev ke lnbakon se milate hain. isamen lagabhag 7,540 shlok hain aur lekhak ne shabdalaghav ke madhyam se snkshep men suruchipoorn premakathaen prastut ki hain, jinaka mooladhar brihatkatha ki kahaniyan hi hain.

lnbak

'kathasaritsagar' men pahala lnbak kathapith hai. gunadhy snbndhi kathanak usaka vishay hai, jisamen parvati ke shap se shiv ka gan pushpadnt vararuchi katyayan ke roop men janm leta hai aur usaka bhaee malyavan gunadhy ke nam se utpann hota hai. vararuchi vindhy parvatamala men kanabhooti namak pishach ko shnkar dvara parvati ko sunaee gee sat kathaen sunata hai. gunadhy kan bhoomi se ukt kathaen sunakar 'brihatkatha' ki rachana karata hai, jisake chhah bhag ag men nasht ho jate hain aur keval satavan bhag hi shesh bachata hai, jisake adhar par 'kathasaritsagar' ki rachana ki jati hai.

doosara lnbak 'kathamukh' aur tisara 'lavanak' hai, jisamen vatsaraj udayan, usaki rani vasavadatta, mntri yaugndharayan, padmavati adi ki kathaen hain. chauthe lnbak men naravahanadatt ka janm hai. shesh chaturdarika, madanamnchuka, ratnaprabha, sooryaprabha, alnkaravati, shaktiyashash‌, vela, shashankavati, madiravati, pnch, mahabhishek, suratamnjari, padmavati tatha vishamashil ityadi lnbakon men naravahanadatt ke sahasik krityon, yatraon, vivahon adi ki romanchak kathaen hain, jinamen adbhut kanyaon aur unake sahasi premiyon, rajaon tatha nagaron, rajatntr evn shadyntr, jadoo aur tone, chhal evn kapat, hatya aur yuddh, raktapayi vetal, pishach, yaksh aur pret, pashupakshiyon ki sachchi aur gadhi huee kahaniyan evn bhikhamnge, sadhu, piyakkad, juari, veshya, vit tatha kuttani adi ki vividh kahaniyan snkalit hain. itana hi nahin, 'vetal pnchavinshati' ki 25 kahaniyan tatha pnchatntr ki bhi anek kahaniyan isamen mil jati hain. si.ech.tani aur en.em.penjar ne 'kathasaritsagar' ka ek pramanik angrezi anuvad (1924-1928 ee.) 10 bhagon men 'di oshan aauv stori' nam se prakashit karavaya, jisamen anek pad-tippaniyon tatha nibndhon ke madhyam se bharatiy kathaon evn kathanak roodhiyon par bahumooly samagri jutaee gee hai.[2]

bhasha-shaili

somadev ki bhasha saral evn parishkrit hai tatha usamen kshemendr jaisi durbondhata nahin milati. isamen samason ki bahulata ka abhav hai. somadev ki shaili men adbhut akarshan hai. din-pratidin ke vyavahar men ane vali sundar sooktiyon ka prayog kavi ne kiya hai. sthan-sthan par niti vishayak upadeshon ki bharamar hai. 'kathasaritsagar' ki kahaniyon men anek adbhut nari charitr bhi hain aur itihas ke prasiddh nayakon ki kathaen bhi. bharatiy samaj jitani vividhata aur bahurngi chhata men yahan prastut hai, utana any kisi prachin katha grnth men nahin milata. 'kathasaritsagar' kathaon ki aisi mnjoosha prastut karata hai, jisamen ek badi mnjoosha ke bhitar doosari, doosari ko kholane par tisari nikal ati hai. mool katha men anek kathaon ko samet lene ki yah paddhati rochak bhi hai aur jatil bhi.

pustak 'gunadhy evn brihatkatha'

french vidvanh lokat ne 'gunadhy evn brihatkatha' namak apani pustak[7] men likha hai-

"apane do kashmiri roopantaron, 'kathasaritsagar' aur 'brihatkathamnjari' men gunadhy ki mool 'brihatkatha' atynt bhrasht evn avyavasthit roop men upalabdh hai. in grnthon men anek sthalon par mool grnth ka snkshipt saroddhar kar diya gaya hai, aur inamen mool grnth ke kee ansh chhod bhi die ge hain evn kitane hi ne ansh prakshep roop men jod die ge hain. is tarah mool grnth ki vastu aur ayojana men bedhnge pheraphar ho ge. phalasvaroop, in kashmiri kritiyon men kee prakar ki asngatiyan a geen aur jode hue anshon ke karan mool grnth ka svaroop paryapt bhrasht ho gaya. is sthiti men budhasvami ke grnth men vastu ki ayojana dvara mool prachin brihatkatha ka sachcha chitr prapt hota hai. kintu khed hai ki yah chitr poora nahin hai, kyonki budhasvami ke grnth ka keval chaturthansh hi upalabdh hai. isalie keval usi ansh ka kashmiri kritiyon ke sath tulanatmak milan shaky hai."

ant men kaha ja sakata hai ki somadev bhatt ne saral aur akritrim rahate hue akarshak evn sundar roop men 'kathasaritsagar' ke madhyam se anek kathaen prastut ki hain, jo nishchit hi bharatiy manisha ka ek anyatam udaharan hai.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 kathasaritsagar, shiv-parvati prasng (hindi) rajabhasha hindi. abhigaman tithi: 09 navambar, 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 kathasaritsagar (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 01 agast, 2014.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 katha snskriti, khnd 5, kathasaritsagar (bharat) (hindi) hindi samay. abhigaman tithi: 09 navambar, 2014.
  4. vaidik vyakaran
  5. ek bar men sunakar poora yad kar lene vale.
  6. vyadi aur indradatt
  7. 1908 ee. men prakashit

snbndhit lekh

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