दिवस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(दिन se punarnirdeshit)

divas / var / din
hinduon ke sat var aur unake pray: vahi nam samast vishv men prachalit hain. ravivar ko apani-apani bhasha men sab kahenge soory var hi. is din ko hi ravivar kyon kaha jata hai aur usake pashchath somavar (chandrama ka din) is kram se hi kyon din ate hai? kaise anadikal se sab deshon men usi din ko ravivar kaha jata hai? kyon koee use chandr ka din nahin kahata? to vishv ke kisi doosare desh ka jyotishi keval yah kahega ki 'dinon ke nam aur unake kram ka prachar bharat se hi vishv men hua, chahe jab hua ho. at: sab kahin ye nam aur kram ek-se hain.' anukaran ke atirikt koee vaigyanik karan kisi doosare ke pas nahin hain. kal madhav, brahm puran, siddhant-shiromani, jyotirvidabharanadi bharatiy shastriy granth isaka spasht karan batalate hain ki

  • chaitr shukl pratipada ko jab sab grah mesh rashi ke adi men the, us samay is kalp ka prarambh hua. kal-ganana srishti ke adi se hi chali. usi din sarvapratham sooryoday hua.
  • ek sooryonday se doosare sooryoday tak ka kal ahoratr kaha jata hai. isaka pratham bhag din aur dvitiy bhag ratri kahalati hai.
  • kal ki sookshm ganana ke liye din aur ratri men se pratyek ke chh:-chh: bhag mane gaye hai, jinhen lagn kahate hain. is prakar 12 lagnon ka ek ahoratr hua. lagn ke adhe bhag ko 'hora' kaha jata hai.
  • 'ahoratr' shabd ke madhy ke donon aksharon se hi yah shabd bana hai. isi ko pashchaty-pranali men ghnta kahate hain. 'ghnta' jaise nirarthak shabd ki apeksha 'hora' sarthak evn prachin shabd hai. apane tejomay roop ke karan srishti ke pratham 'hora' ka svami soory mana gaya. isake pashchath apani kaksha ke anusar grah 'hora' adhipati mane gaye. grah-kaksha ke sambandh men jyautish-shastr ka kahana hai- 'brahmand ke madhy men akash hai. usamen sabase oopar nakshatr-kaksha hai. phir kram se shani, brihaspati, mngal, soory, shukr, budh aur chandrama hain. unase niche siddh, vidyadhar aur megh hain. oopar ke grahon-ki kaksha niche ke grahon ki apeksha kramash: badi hai. jab pratham 'hora' ke svami soory hue, tab kramash: shukr, budh, chandrama, shani, brihaspati, mngal- ye chh: grah agali chh: horaon ke svami hue. athavin 'hora' ke svami phir kramanupoorvak soory hue. is prakar kramash: ye grah ek-ek 'hora' ke svami hote gaye. is kram se chaubisavin hora ka svami budh hota hai. aur yahin pratham ahoratr samapt ho jata hai. pachisavin hora ka svami kram ke anusar chandrama hai. yah pachisavin hora doosare ahoratr ke din ki pratham hora hai; at: pratham hora ke adhishthata chandrama hone se is ahoratr ka nam chandrama ka din-somavar pada. isi kram se ahoratr ki pratham 'hora' ke adhishthata grah ke nam par ahoratr ke nam padate gaye aur phalat: saptah ke dinon ke nam vartaman kram se hue. yahi kram srishti ke prarambh se ab tak chala a raha hai. jis din ke pratham hora ka jo adhishthata grah hai, us din ka vahi nam hai. hora ko 'kshanavar' bhi kahate hain. jo karm jis din karane ka vidhan hai, us karm ko kisi bhi din ke us 'kshanavar' men bhi kiya ja sakata hai. jaise yadi somavar ko ravivar ka koee karm karana hai, to somavar men jis hora ke adhishthata soory hai, us hora men us karm ko kiya ja sakata hai.
  • din-ratri men kisi bhi samay kaun-si hora, kaun-sa kshanavar hai, yah janane ka niyam jyautish shastr ne is prakar bataya hai- mesh, vrishchik, kumbh, min ki snkranti men saynkal se vrish, dhanu, kark, tula ki snkranti men ardharatri se aur mithun, makar, sinh, kanya ki snkranti men prat:kal se var pravesh manakar us din ki ganana karake 'kshanavar' nikalana chahiye.

uparyukt niyam men snkranti ke hisab se var-pravesh (din ke arambh) ka samay badalata rahata hai.

  • musalaman log din ka prarambh saynkal se manate hain; kintu hindoo-shastron men uparyukt niyam ko chhodakar aur kahin saynkal se var-pravesh (dinarambh) ka varnan nahin hai.
  • isi prakar vyakaranashastr men adyatan kal ka prayog madhyaratri se doosari madhyaratri tak ke liye hota hai. jyautishashastr ke granth 'siddhant-shiromani' tatha 'keshavark' ke anusar devataon ka ahoratr bhi madhyaratri se badalata hai; kyonki uttarayan devataon ka din aur dakshinayan devataon ki ratri hain mesh snkranti ke samay devataon ka var-pravesh (dinarambh) mana jata hai. isi prakar pitri-ahoratr bhi madhyaratri se badalata hai. 'poornima ko pitaron ki ardharatri, amavasya ko madhyahn, krishn paksh ki ashtami ko prat:kal aur shukl paksh ki ashtami ko saynkal hota hai.' yah 'siddhant shiromani' ka mat hai. sooryoday se poorv sandhyadi karmon ke liye sooryoday ke samay ane vali tithi snkalp men bolane ka vidhan hai. aise karmon men var-pravesh ardharatri se mana jata hain. nimbark snpraday men ekadashi yadi dashami ki ardharatri ke samay n akar kuchh bad men aye to vah dashami viddha mani jati hai. yahan bhi madhyaratri se hi var-pravesh mana gaya hai. doosare vaishnav-sampraday ekadashi vrat ke sambandh men brahm muhoort se var pravesh manate hain.

sooryoday se var-pravesh (dinarambh)

sanyakal, madhyaratri evn brahmamuhoort se var-pravesh keval vishesh karyon ke sambandh men vishesh avasaron par hi manane ki pratha aur shastriy vidhan prapt hote hain. janmapatradi sabhi karyon men sooryoday se hi var-pravesh mana jata hai. janmapatr men to sooryoday men 1 pal ka bhi vilamb raha ho to poorv din ki tithi, var hi liye jate hain. samast bharatiy pnchangon men sooryoday se hi tithi, var, nakshatr, yog adi ka kal ankit hota hai. ishtakal bhi sooryoday se hi banata hai. ishtakal se hi lagn, muhoortadi sab nirnit hote hain. smart mat se sooryoday ke pashchath 1 pal bhi dashami ho to ekadashi dashami-viddha mani jati hai. yah niyam bhi sooryoday se var-pravesh manakar hi sthir hua hai. kalamadhav, brahmasphut siddhant, jyotirvidabharan prabhriti shastriy granthon men spasht kaha gaya hai ki 'vishv ki utpatti sooryoday ke samay hoti hai. at: var-pravesh bhi sooryoday se hi hota hai.' siddhant-shiromani, pulastisiddhant tatha vashishthasnhita ka asndigdh mat hai ki 'soory ke darshan ka nam din aur adarshan ka nam ratri hai; at: din ka arambh sooryoday se hi hota hai.' is pramanon se siddh hai ki sooryaday se poorv tatha ardharatri ke pashchath hone vale sandhyadi dharmik krityon men to ardharatri se var-pravesh mana jata hai, baqi samast karmon men sooryoday se var-pravesh ka vidhan hai.

sooryoday

sooryoday akshansh aur kranti bhed se bhinn-bhinn sthanon men bhinn-bhinn samay men hota hai aur varsh men din tatha ratri ke man men kshay-briddhi bhi hote rahate hain; parntu ahoratr 60 ghatiyon ka hi rahata hai. atev din-ratri ke kshay-briddhi ki kathinaee se bachane ke liye ganana men 'var-pravritti' se kam liya jata hai. jab poorn arthath shoony kranti ke din sayan man se soory vishuvat rekha arthath mesh aur tula rashiyon par ata hai, us din vishv men sab kahin din aur ratri barabar hote hain. atev is din ke sooryoday ke samay ko sthir manakar usi samay ko 'var-pravritti' nam diya gaya hai. jyautishashastr men isaka achchha spashtikaran hai- usaka saransh yah hai ki apane nagar ya gram ke sooryoday samay se 6 hora par (6 baje) 'var-pravritti' hoti hai. dughadiya muhoort, kal hora, nakshatr hora, kshan-var adi men yahi 6 hora par var-pravritti mani jati hai. isake anusar bharat men var-pravritti ka samay bharatiy vishuvat rekha, jo ujjain se jati he, usake anusar nishchit hona chahiye.

pashchaty vidhi

  • briten ke grinavich nagar ki vishuvat rekha se mana jata hai. arntarashtriy sthir samay se sambandh rakhane ke liye bharatiy sthir samay aur grinavich ke samay men 5 ghnte, 30 minat ka antar hai.
  • briten ke grinavich nagar men var-pravritti ek baje se hoti hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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