अब्द  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

abd (snvat) ka arth varsh hai. yah varsh, snvat evn sanh‌ ke arth men ajakal prachalit hai, kyonki hindi men is shabd ka prayog sapekshik drishti se kam ho gaya hai. anek viron, mahapurushon, snpradayon evn ghatanaon ke jivan aur itihas ke arnbh ki smriti men anek abd ya snvat ya sanh‌ snsar men chalae ge hain, yatha-

1. saptarshi snvat - saptarshi (sat taron) ki kalpit gati ke sath isaka snbndh mana gaya hai. ise laukik, shastr, pahadi ya kachcha snvat bhi kahate hain. isamen 24 varsh jodane se saptarshi-snvat-chakr ka vartaman varsh ata hai.

2. kaliyug snvat - ise mahabharat ya yudhishthir snvat kahate hain. jyotish grnthon men isaka upayog hota hai. shilalekhon men bhi isaka upayog hua hai. ee.poo. 3102 se isaka arnbh hota hai. vikram snvat men 3044 evn shak snvat men 3179 jodane se kaliyug snvat ata hai.

3. viranirvan snvat - antim jain tirthnkar mahavir ke nirvan varsh ee.poo. 427 se isaka arnbh mana jata hai. vikram snvat men 470 evn shak snvat men 605 jodane se viranirvan snvat ata hai.

4. buddhanirvan snvat - gautam buddh ke nirvan varsh se isaka arnbh mana jata hai. yah vivadaspad hai, kyonki vividh srot evn vidvanon ke adhar par buddhanirvan ee.poo.1097 se ee.poo. 388 tak mana jata hai. samanyat: ee.poo. 487 adhik svikrit varsh hai.

5. maury snvat - chandragupt maury ne chanaky ki sahayata se ee.poo. 321 men maury samrajy ki sthapana ki thi. hathigumfa, katak (udisa) men maury snvat 165 ka raja kharavel ka ek lekh prapt hua hai.

6. selyukidi snvat - sikandar mahanh‌ ke senapati selyukas ne jab bntavare men eshiya ka samrajy prapt kiya to ee. poo. 312 se apane nam ka snvat chalaya. kharoshthi lipi ke kuchh lekhon men isaka sadnrbh milata hai.

7. vikram snvat - ise 'malava snvat' bhi kahate hain. malavaraj ne akramak shakon ko parast kar apane nam ka snvat chalaya tha. isaka arnbh ee.poo. 75 varsh se mana jata hai. bharat aur nepal men yah atyadhik lokapriy hai. uttar bharat men isaka arnbh chaitr mah ke shukl paksh pratipada se, dakshin bharat men kartik mah ke shukl paksh pratipada se aur gujarat tatha rajasthan ke kuchh hisson men ashadh mah ke shukl paksh pratipada (ashadhadi snvat) se mana jata hai.

8. shak snvat - aisa anuman kiya jata hai ki dakshin ke pratishthanapur ke raja shalivahan ne is snvat ko chalaya tha. anek srot ise videshiyon dvara chalaya hua manane hain. kathiyavad evn kachchh ke shilalekhon tatha sikkon men isaka ullekh paya jata hai. varahamihir dvara rachit 'pnchasiddhantika' men isaka sabase pahale ullekh hua hai. nepal men bhi isaka prachalan hai. isamen 135 varsh jodane se vikram snvat aur 79 varsh jodane se ee. sanh‌ banata hai.

9. kalachuri snvat - ise chedi snvat aur traikootak snvat bhi kahate hain. yah snvat gujarat, konkan evn madhy pradesh men lekhon men mila hai. isamen 307 jodane se vikram snvat tatha 249 jodane se ee. sanh‌ banata hai.

10. gupt snvat - ise 'gupt kal' aur 'gupt varsh' bhi kaha jata hai. kathiyavad ke valabhi rajy (894ee.) men ise 'valabhi snvat' kaha gaya hai. kisi guptavnshi raja se isaka snbndh joda jata hai. nepal se gujarat tak isaka prachalan raha tha. isamen 376 jodane se vikram snvat, 241 jodane se shak snvat evn 320 jodane se eesavi sanh‌ banata hai.

11. gangey snvat - ise kaling nagar (tamilanadu) ke gngavnshi kisi raja ka chalaya hua snvat mana jata hai. dakshin bharat ke katipay sthanon par isaka ullekh milata hai. 579 jodane se eesavi sanh‌ banata hai.

12. harsh snvat - thaneshvar ke raja harsh ke rajyarohan ke samay ise chalaya gaya mana jata hai. uttar pradesh evn nepal men kuchh samay tak yah prachalit raha. isamen 606 jodane se eesavi sanh‌ banata hai.

13. bhatik (bhattik) snvat - yah snvat jaisalamer ke raja bhattik (bhati) ka chalaya hua mana jata hai. isamen 680 jodane se vikram snvat aur 623 jodane se ee. san banata hai.

14. kolsamh‌ (kolnb) snvat - tamil men ise 'kollamh‌ andu' aur snskrit men kolabn snvat likha gaya hai. malabar ke log ise 'parashuram snvat' bhi kahate hain. isake arnbh ka thik pata nahin hai. isamen 825 jodane se ee. san banata hai.

15. nevar (nepal) snvat - nepalaraj jayadevamall ne ise chalaya tha. isamen 936 jodane se vikram snvat aur 879 jodane ee.san banata hai.

16. chaluky vikram snvat - kalyanapur (andhr) ke chaluky (solnki) raja vikramadity (chhathe) ne shak snvat ke sthan par chaluky snvat chalaya. ise 'chalukay vikramakal', 'chaluky vikram varsh', 'vir vikram kal' bhi kaha jata hai. isamen 1132 jodane se vikram snvat evn 1076 jodane se ee.san banata hai.

17. sinh snvat - karnal jems taaud ne isaka nam 'shivasinh snvat aur div bet (kathiyavad) ke gohilon ka chalaya hua batalaya hai. isaka nishchit praman nahin milata. isamen 1170 jodane se vikram snvat 1113 jodane se ee.san banata hai.

18. lakshmanasen snvat - bngal ke senavnshi raja lakshman sen ke rajyabhishek se isaka arnbh hua. isaka arnbh magh mah ke shukl paksh pratipada se mana jata hai. isaka prachalan bngal, bihar (mithila) men tha. isamen 1040 jodane se shak snvat, 1175 jodane se vikram snvat aur 1118 jodane se ee.san banata hai.

19. puduvaippoo snvat - sanh‌ 1341 men kochin ke samip udbhoot 'bipin' tapoo ki smriti men yah snvat chalaya gaya. arnbh men kochin rajy men isaka prachalan raha.

20. rajyabhishek snvat - chhatrapati shivaji ke rajyabhishek joon, 1674 ee. se isaka arnbh mana jata hai. maratha prabhav tak isaka prachalan raha.

21. barhaspaty snvatsar - yah 12 varshon ka mana jata hai. brihaspati ke uday aur ast ke kram se is varsh ki ganana ki jati hai. satavin sadi eesavi ke poorv ke kuchh shilalekhon evn danapatron men isaka ullekh paya jata hai, yatha 'varshaman ashvin', 'varshaman kartik adi.

22. barhaspaty snvatsar (60 varsh ka) - isamen 60 vibhinn namon ke 361 din ke varsh mane ge hain. brihaspati ke rashi badalane se isaka arnbh mana jata hai. dakshin men isaka ullekh adhik milata hai. chalukyaraj mngalesh (ee.san 591-610) ke lekh men ise 'siddharth snvatsar' bhi likha gaya hai.

23. grahaparivritti snvatsar - isamen 90 varsh ka chakr hota hai. poora hone par varsh 1 se likhana shuroo karate hain. isaka arnbh ee.poo. 24 se mana jata hai. madura (tamilanadu) men isaka vishesh prachalan raha hai.

24. saur varsh - yah 365 din, 15 ghadi, 31 pal aur 30 vipal ka mana jata hai. isamen barah mahine hote hain. ajakal pray: saur varsh hi vyavahar men hai.

25. chandr varsh - do chandr pakshon ka ek chandr mas hota hai. uttar men krishn paksh 1 se aur dakshin men shukl paksh 1 se mas ki ganana hoti hai. 12 chandramas ka ek chandr varsh hota hai, jo 354 din, 22 ghadi 1 pal aur 24 vipal ka hota hai. sauraman evn chandraman ke 32 mahinon men 1 mahine ka antar pad jata hai.

26. hijari sanh - islam ke pravarttak muhammad sahab ke makka se madina palayan (hijari) ke din 15 julaee, 622 ee. se isaka arnbh mana jata hai. yah chandravarsh hai. chand dekhakar isaka arnbh kiya jata hai. tarikh ek sham se doosari sham tak chalati hai. saur mas ki tulana men chandramas 10 din, 53 ghadi, 30 pal aur 6 vipal ke lagabhag kam hota hai. is prakar 100 saur varsh men 3 chandravarsh, 24 din, 9 ghadi ka samay badh jaega. astu is sanh‌ ki any se koee nishchit tulana nahin ho sakati. bharat men isaka pahala ullekh mahamood gazanavi ke mahamoodapur (lahaur) ke sikkon par milata hai, jin par snskrit men bhi hijari sanh‌ ka ullekh kiya gaya hai.

27. shahoor sanh - snbhavat: ise bharat men muhammad tugalaq ne chalaya tha. yah hijari sanh‌ ka snshodhit roop hai. chandramas ke badale ise saur mas ke anusar mana gaya hai. isamen 600 jodane se ee. sanh‌ aur 657 jodane se vikram snvat banata hai. marahatha shasan men yah lokapriy hua. marathi pnchangon men abhi bhi milata hai.

28. phasali sanh - ise badashah akabar ne todaramal ke paramarsh se lagan vasooli ke lie hijari sanh‌ 971 (1563 ee.) men chalaya. yah hijari sanh‌ ka snshodhit roop hai, kyonki isake mahine saur mas ke anusar chalate hain. pnjab se bngal tak ke uttari bhag men kisanon aur aminon men isaka prachalan hai. dakshin bharat ka phasali sanh‌ uttar se kuchh bhinn hai.

29. vilayati sanh - bngal men apana shasan sthapit hone ke bad ise angrazon ne chalaya. yah phasali sanh‌ ka doosara roop hai, jisamen varsharnbh ashvin mas se hota hai. isamen 592-593 jodane se ee.s. banata hai.

30. amali sanh - yah vastav men vilayati sanh‌ hi hai, kintu udisa men isaka arnbh bhadrapad men shukl paksh ki dvadashi arthath‌ raj indradyumn ke janm kal se mana jata hai. isaka prachar vahan ke vyapariyon evn nyayalayon men hai.

31. bngala sanh - ise 'bngabd' bhi kahate hain. phasali sanh‌ se antar yah hai ki isaka arnbh vaishakh se hota hai. isamen 594 jodane se ee.snvat tatha 651 jodane se vi.snvat banata hai.

32. magi sanh - yah bhi bngal men hi chalata hai kintu bngabd se 45 varsh pichhe isaka arnbh mana jata hai. bngala desh ke chataganv janapad men isaka prachar hua. prachar ka karan arakan (barma) ki magi jati ki kshetriy vijay ko milata hai.

33. ilahi sanh - badashah akabar ne birabal ke sahayog se 'din-ilahi' (eeshvariy dharm) ke sath is sanh‌ ko hijari sanh‌ 992 (1584 ee.) men chalaya. isamen mahine 32 dinon ke hote the. akabar aur jahangir ke samay ke lekhon v sikkon men isaka ullekh hai. shahajahan ne ise samapt kar diya tha.

34. yahoodi sanh - yah prachalit abdon men sarvadhik prachin hai. izarayal aur vishv ke yahoodi isaka prayog karate hain. yah 5733 varsh purana hai. eesavi sanh‌ men 3561 jodane se yah sanh‌ ata hai.

35. eesavi sanh - eesa masih ke janm varsh se isaka arnbh mana jata hai. ee. snvat 527 ke lagabhag rom ke nivasi padari doyonisiyas ne ganana kar rom nagar ki sthapana se 795 varsh bad eesa masih ka janm hona nishchit kiya. vartaman eesavi sanh‌ ki chhathi shati se isaka prachar shuroo hua aur 1000 eesavi tak yoorop ke sabhi eesaee deshon ne tatha adhunik yooropiy samrajyavad ke vistar ke sath sare vishv ne ise svikar kar liya. isase poorv roman samrajy men jooliyas sijar aur pop gregari dvara nirdharit sanh‌ tatha pnchang chalate the.

yah saur varsh hai, jisaka arnbh 1 janavari se hota hai. 24 ghnte ka din (rat 12 baje se agali rat 12 baje tak) mana jata hai. isamen 57 varsh jodane se vikram snvat banata hai. ise 'khrostabd' bhi kaha jata hai. 1917 tak roos men pashchimi yoorop ke mukabale varsh ka arnbh 13 din pichhe hota tha. kranti ke bad lenin ne use badhakar samakaksh kiya, jisase 25 aktoobar ko huee kranti 7 navnbar ko man li gee. yahi karan hai ki soviyat kranti ko 'aktoobar kranti' bhi kaha jata hai.[1]


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  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 170 |

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