एशिया महाद्वीप  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

eshiya mahadvip ka manachitr
Map Of Asia Continent

eshiyaee mahadvip ya jamboodvip bhoomadhy sagar, andh sagar, arkatik mahasagar, prashant mahasagar, aur hind mahasagar se ghira hua hai. kakeshas parvat aur yooral parvat prakritik roop se eshiya ko yoorop se alag karate hain. eshiya akar aur janasnkhya donon hi drishti se vishv ka sabase bada mahadvip hai, jo uttari golarddh men sthit hai. pashchim men isaki simaen yoorop se milati hain. eshiya aur yoorop ko milakar kabhi-kabhi yooreshiya bhi kaha jata hai. kuchh sabase prachin manav sabhyataon ka janm isi mahadvip par hua tha jaise sumer, bharatiy sabhyata, chini sabhyata ityadi. chin aur bharat vishv ke do sarvadhik janasnkhya vale desh bhi hain.

ek lnbi pashchim men sthit bhoo-sima yoorop ko eshiya se prithakh karati hai. tah sima uttar-dakshin disha men niche ki or roos men yooral parvat tak jati hai, yooral nadi ke kinare-kinare kaispiyan sagar tak, aur phir kakeshas parvaton se hote hue andh sagar tak hai. roos ka lagabhag tin chauthaee bhoobhag eshiya men hai, aur shesh yoorop men. char any eshiyaee deshon ke kuchh bhoobhag bhi yoorop ki sima men ate hain.

sabase bada mahadvip

eshiya vishv ka sabase bada mahadvip hai. vishv ke kul bhoobhag ka lagabhag 3/10van bhag ya 30% eshiya men hai, aur is mahadvip ki janasnkhya any sabhi mahadvipon ki snyukt janasnkhya se adhik hai, lagabhag 3/5van bhag ya 60%. uttar men barfile arkatik se lekar dakshin men ooshn bhoomadhy rekha tak yah mahadvip lagabhag 10,000 kimi kshetr men phaila hua hai aur apane men kuchh vishal, khali registanon, vishv ke sabase oonche parvaton aur kuchh sabase lnbi nadiyon ko samete hue hai. eshiya snsar ka brihattam mahadvip, prachin duniya ke uttar-poorv bhoobhag par vistrit hai; isake uttar-pashchim men yoorop aur dakshin-pashchim men aphrika mahadvip sthit hain.

eshiya ke namakaran ke snbndh men vibhinn mat hain. yoorop aur eshiya donon shabdon ki udgamabhoomi snbhavat: injiyan sagariy pradesh hai jahan 'asu' (sooryodayakal) aur 'erch' (sooryastakal) shabdon ka prayog kalakram se kramash: tarki aur eshiya tatha gris aur yoorop ke bhoobhagon ke lie prarnbh hua. snbhavat: eshiya ke lie prayukt honevala 'asu' shabd snskrit tatsam 'oosha' (sooryodayakal) ka sthaniy tadbhav prayog matr hai. prastut prayog pratham sthaniy bhookhnd matr ke lie hi prarnbh hua kintu kalantar men samagr adhunik eshiya ke bhoobhag ke lie prayukt hone laga.

eshiya mahadvip uttar men lagabhag madhy dhruvapradesh se lekar dakshin men 13roo (dakshini arab), 6roo (shrilnka) aur 10roo (hindeshiya) d.a. rekhaon tak kul 1,72,56,000 varg mil kshetr par phaila hai. mahadvip ki poorvi aur pashchimi simaen kramash: 26roo poo.de. (baba antarip) aur 170roo p.de. rekha (eest antarip) tak phaili huee hain. at: eshiya hi ekamatr aisa mahadvip hai jisaki poorvi aur pashchimi simaen kramash: pashchimi aur poorvi deshantar rekhaon ko sparsh karati hain. eshiya aur yoorop mahadvipon ki simarekha bhaugolik drishti se spasht nirdharit nahin hai. roos poorvi yoorop se lekar saiberiya hote hue eshiya ke sudoor uttar-poorv tak vistrit hai aur rajanitik manachitr par eshiya-yoorop ke madhy koee spasht simarekha ankit nahin hai. samanyat: yah sima yooral parvat ke pashchimi anchal se hoti huee dakshin men yooral nadi se kaispiyan sagar aur kaispiyan se kakeshas parvat ki shikharapnkti dvara kalasagar (blaik si) se snbaddh mani jati hai. kuchh log is sima ko kakeshas parvat ke dakshini anchal se gujarati huee manate hain.

at: is aspasht simarekha ke karan eshiya mahadvip ke kshetraphal ka sarvatha shuddh mapan nahin ho saka hai. phir bhi eshiya mahadvip ke kshetraphal ka sarvatha shuddh mapan nahin ho saka hai. phir bhi eshiya mahadvip apane brihath‌ akar evn kshetraphal ke karan snsar men mahatvapoorn hai.yah kul 164roo deshantar rekhaon aur 85roo akshansh rekhaon par phaila hua hai aur snsar ka bhookhnd isake andar a jata hai. snsar ka koee bhi any mahadvip dhruv pradesh se lekar bhoomadhyarekhiy pradesh tak vistrit sabhi katibndhon ko samahit nahin karata. mahadvip ke madhy men sthit balkash jhil aur jungeriya pradesh samudr se lagabhag 2,000 mil door hain.

eshiya vishamataon ka mahadvip hai. yahan snsar ka sarvochch parvatashikhar evarest hai jisaki samudratal se oonchaee 29,141 phut hai aur yahin snsar ka sabase nicha kshetr mritasagar (ded si) bhi hai, jo samudratal se 1,290 phut nicha hai. philipain dvipasamooh ke pas sthit mindanav gart snsar ka sabase gahara sagaragart hai. snsar ka sabase garam tatha sabase thnda sthan bhi yahin hai. jaikobabad (sindh) ka adhikatam tapakram 126roo pha. tatha barakhoyansk (sahaberiya) ka nyoonatam tapakram -90roo pha. hai. itana thnda hone ke karan barakhoyansk ko snsar ka shitadhruv bhi kahate hain. sabase adhik aur sabase kam tapantar bhi yahin par pae jate hain. singapur ka varshik tapantar 1roo pha. tatha barakhoyansk ka 119roo pha. hai. sabase adhik varsha ke sthan cherapoonji ki (khasi ki pahadiyon men) ausat varshik varsha 458faf hai. 1876 ee. men yahan keval 24 ghnte men 41faf varsha huee thi. sabase kam varshavala sthan adan hai, jahan keval 1.8faf varshik varsha hoti hai. at: snsar men sabase ardr tatha sabase shushk jalavayu ke kshetr bhi eshiya hi men milate hain. any mahadvipon ki apeksha eshiya ki ausat oonchaee jyada hai, parntu sath hi yahan maidan bhi any mahadvipon ke maidanon ke apeksha adhik samatal hain. gnga ke maidan men varanasi se samudratat (delta pradesh) tak ki dhal 5faf pratimil hai.

eshiya ki janasnkhya lagabhag 2,10,90,00,000 hai, jo snpoorn vishv ki janasnkhya (3,70,00,00,000) ki 57 pratishat hai. yahan janasnkhya ke adhik ghanatvavale bhagon ke sath-sath kam ghanatvavale vistrit pradesh tatha nirjan marusthal bhi hain. eshiya ko adimanav ka janmasthan hone ka bhi saubhagy prapt hai. yahin vishv ke sabhi bade dharmon ka pradurbhav hua hai. hindoo, bauddh, eesaee tatha islam dharm yahin janm lekar phoole-phale hain. eshiya men 68 manavajatiy varg milate hain. itane kisi bhi doosare mahadvip men nahin hain. yahan par sab tarah ke log hain. ek or to manushy jngalon men vicharate hain, nnge rahate tatha shikar kar aur jngali knd-mool-phal khakar nirvah karate hain, doosari or adhunik sabhy manav hain, jo adhunikatam sadhanon ka prayog karate hain. yahan par poonjivad tatha samyavad evn rajatntr tatha ganatntr sabhi phool phal rahe hain.

eshiya ki khoj-eshiya vishal mahadvip hai. isake vibhinn bhag parvaton, marusthalon tatha vanon adi ke karan ek doosare se alag hain. isi karan prarnbh men bahut se pradeshon ke bare men logon ka gyan kam tha. madhyayug ke pashchath‌ dhire-dhire margon ka vikas hone par yoorop ke logon ne eshiyaee deshon se snpark sthapit kiya. isase poorv eshiya nivasiyon ne yoorop ki khoj ki thi. finishiya (pashchimi eshiya) ke navik bhoomadhyasagariy margon se uttari aphrika tatha briten pahunche. dakshin-pashchim eshiyaee pradesh eshiya tatha yoorop ke bich setu ke saman hain. eesa ki doosari shatabdi men chin ke han vnshayi rajaon ne chini samrajy ka vistar kaispiyan sagar ke samipasth sthanon tak kiya. udhar rom ka samrajy turki tak badha. tatpashchath‌ yoonani senaen sikndar mahanh‌ ke netritv men siriya, eeran aur aphaganistan hoti huee 327 ee.poo. men bharat a pahunchin. sikndar ko vipasa (vyas) nadi ke tat se lautana pada. uchch sabhyata tatha eshiya ke nikat basane ke karan yoonaniyon ne eshiya ki khoj sarvapratham ki. yadyapi unaka samrajy chirasthayi n raha, phir bhi unhonne eshiya par kaphi prabhav dala aur svayn bhi yathesht prabhavit hue. madhyayug men poorv-pashchim ke snpark kam the. tatpashchath‌ venis prajatntr ne kustuntuniya par abhiyan kiya. yoorop tatha eshiyaee desh chin ke bich snbhavat: sarvapratham resham ka vyapar arnbh hua. venis ke do vyapari nikolo tatha mefiyopolo 1251 ee. men kustuntuniya hote hue chin ge. 1254 ee. men roobruk nivasi viliyam kubala khan ke darabar men pahuncha. 1271 ee. men phir donon mefiyo ke putr markopolo ko sath lekar, room sagar ke eshiyaee tat par pahunchakar sthalamarg se urmuj, kashagar, kyunalun hote hue mee, 1275 ee. men piking pahunche. markopolo ne chin darabar men naukari kar li. 1295 ee. men vah venis lauta. in yatraon se yoorop tatha eshiyaee deshon ke bich snpark badha aur resham, masala, chay ityadi ka vyapar hone laga. phir shaktishali turkon ki barbarata ke karan yoorop tatha eshiya ke sthalamargon dvara honevala vyapar 200 varshon tak bnd raha. yoorop ke logon ne doosare marg dhoondhane prarnbh kie. vasko di gama namak ek purtagali navik samudri marg se 1498 ee. men kalikat pahuncha. isake bad vyapari tatha eesaee dharmapracharak eshiyaee deshon men adhik snkhya men ane lage. dhire-dhire vyapar ke uddeshy se ae hue yooropiy logon ne eshiya ke anek bhagon par n keval vyaparik kendr sthapit kie, apitu dhire-dhire apana adhipaty bhi jama liya. angrejon ne bharat, lnka, brahma, malay, hangakang adi sthanon men, phrans ne hindachin tatha syam men aur halaind ne java, sumatra adi poorvi dvipasamoohon par adhikar jama liya. uttar men roos ne apana adhikar sudridh kiya tatha prabhavakshetr badhaya. sanh‌ 1868 ee. men svez nahar khulane par yoorop tatha eshiya ke snbndhon men ek nee kadi judi aur logon ne vasko di gama ke uttamashantaripavale marg ko tyag diya. trans saiberiyan relave ne bhi yoorop tatha eshiya ke snbndh dridh kie. sthanabhav ke karan yahan par eshiya ke sabhi samanveshakon ki yatraon ka varnan karana snbhav nahin hai. 16vin tatha 17vin shatabdiyon ke pramukh samanveshak railf fich, tamas ro, laval tatha tevarniyar the. svidanavasi nooradenashald ne 1878 ee. se 1880 tak uttarapoorvi marg dvara yoorop se bering jaladamaroomadhy tak yatra ki. tatpashchath‌ svenahedin, sar phhऱansis yngahasabaind, arel stain, prins kropatakin, elsavarth hntigatan tatha svami pranavannd ne madhy eshiya men gahan shodh kary kiya. dvitiy vishvayuddh ke pashchath‌ yooropiy samrajyavad ke pair eshiya se ukhad ge tatha ab usaka ant ho gaya hai.

dharatal-eshiya ki prakritik banavat apane dhng ki anokhi hai. isake antaral men parvaton ka visham jal bichha hua hai. in himamndit parvat pnktiyon ki snkulata ke karan mahadvip ki bhavyata atulaniy ho jati hai. 24,000 phut se adhik oonche snsar men kul 94 parvatashikharon men se 92 keval himalay aur karakoram shreniyon men tatha shesh do altaeepar shreniyon men sthit hain. snsar ki sarvadhik vistrit nichi bhoomi mahadvip ke uttar-pashchimi bhag men phaili hai, jahan kaispiyan ki nichi bhoomi snsar ka sabase bada, samudratal se bhi nicha, shushk pradesh hai. at: n keval brihath‌ akar ke karan pratyut visham prakritik snrachana ke vichar se bhi yah mahadvip sarvadhik mahatvapoorn hai.

mahadvip ki vishal parvatapnktiyan dakshin-pashchim men lalasagar se prarnbh hokar sudoor uttar-poorv men jaladamaroomadhy tak phaili huee hain. ek or jahan arab ke dakshini samudratat par 10,000 phut oonche parvat hain vahan doosari or eshiya mainar aur siriya ke madhy sthit taras shreniyan 13,000 phut se bhi adhik oonchi hain jinamen akeli ararat ki choti (16,873 phut) sthit hai. pas hi kakeshas shreniyon se abaddh elaburj parvat 18,000 phut se bhi oonche hain. kaispiyan ke dakshin-poorv eeran ki elaburj shreniyon men sthit demavend shikhar isase bhi adhik ooncha hai. dakshini prachin bhoobhag men ek or jahan bharat ke dakshini pathar men parvaton, ghatiyon aur chhote-chhote lagabhag samataliy kshetron ki visham snkulata hai, vahan malay prayadvip men uttar se dakshin singapur tak parvatapnktiyan paee jati hain. isi prakar eshiya ke dakshin, madhy erv poorv se hote hue sudoor saiberiya tak parvaton ka atynt visham jal bichha hua hai. n keval mahadvip bhag hi, pratyut adhikansh dvipasamooh-japan, pharamosa, hindeshiya, shrilnka adi-bhi parvatasunkul hain. at: mahadvip ke pratyek bhag men parvatashreniyan bikhari padi hain.

mahadvip ki mukhy parvatashreniyan 12,000 phut se bhi adhik oonche vishal pamir ke pathar (duniya ki chhat) se ashtabahu ki bhujaon ke saman chaturdikh‌ phaili huee hain. ye shreniyan pray: samantar roop se poorv-pashchim disha men prashant mahasagar se lekar bhoomadhyasagar aur kalasagar tak bichhi huee hain. ek or to hai pamir se pashchim men nikalanevali uttari shreniyan, kramash: hindukush, elaburj, kakeshas aur pauntik, tatha dakshini shreniyan, suleman, kirathar, khurdistan, skarp, taras adi aur dasoori or hain poorab men nikalanevali altaee, thiyanshan adi apekshakrit prachinatar uttari parvatashreniyan, jo chin men jakar lagabhag 700 mil chaudi ho gee hain. kyunalun parvat ki aganit shreniyon men hi prasiddh ooncha amne machin shikhar sthit hai jisaki rahasyamayata bhoogolavettaon ke lie sarvadhik akarshan ka vishay hai. lekin inake dakshin men bharat ki uttari sima par himakirit ki bhanti phaila hua snsar ka vishal parvat himalay (him-alay) hai, jisaki mahatta atulaniy hai. isamen sthit knchanajngha, makalu, dhaulagiri, nngaparvat adi 26,000 phut se adhik oonchi chotiyon ko bhi mat karanevala snsar ka sarvochch parvatashikhar (oonchaee 29,141 phut) ya chamo lungama (snsar ki devi man) prithvi ke bhavy mastak ke sadrish shobhayaman hai. himalay ke uttar-pashchim men himalay ki lagabhag samakaksh oonchaeevale karakoram parvat hain jinamen snsar ka dvitiy sarvadhik parvatashikhar ke-2 sthit hai. pas hi isake samakaksh oonchaeevale shikhar, chaudi choti (braaud pik) aur gasharabruy, bhi apana sir akash men uthae hain. uttar men kyunalun tatha dakshin-dakshin-pashchim men himalay-karakoram ki shreniyon se ghira tibbat (ausat oonchaee 12,000 phut) ka vishal bhoobhag bhi bahut oonche hain. arab evn eeran ke oonche vishal pathar tatha poorv men mngoliya ka 3,000 se 5,000 phut ooncha pathar aise hi kshetr hain. aphaganistan men pahadon, uchch bhoomiyon evn unake bich-bich sthit ghatiyon ka adbhut sammilan hai.

n keval ati oonche, pratyut samudratal se bhi nimn sthalakhndon ka bhi eshiya men adhik vistar hai. mngoliya men samudr se saikadon phut nichaeevale sthalakhnd milate hain. kaispiyan tat ki dhnsi nimn bhoomi bhi vikhyat hai. kintu sarvadhik dhnsa bhookhnd brihath‌ aphrikiy bhoomibhng (gret aphhऱkan ripht) hai jo izarayal tatha jardan ke madhy se gujarata hai aur jahan mritasagar ka namak se bhara hua tal pas ke bhoomadhyasagar se 1,292 phut niche sthit hai.

in uchch evn nimn bhoomi ke khndon ke bich eshiya men vishal samatal maidan avasthit hain. inamen turkistan ka maidani bhag, uttari dhruvasagar ke tat ka brihath‌ maidan tatha chin ke suvikhyat poorvi maidan evn bharat ki nadiyon ke vishal maidan prasiddh hain.

eshiya men jahan ek or sarvasnpann maidani bhag hain vahan doosari or vishal marubhoomiyan bhi hain. adhikanshat eeran, arab tatha turkistan prakritya marubhoomi hain. gobi athava shamo ka 1,000 mil lnba evn 600 mil chauda marukhnd mngoliya ke adhikansh bhag men phaila hua hai. pakistan men bhi asinchit kshetron men anurvar marusthal pae jate hain.

jalapravah pranali-snsar ki barah sarvadhik badi nadiyon men se sat nadiyan eshiya mahadvip men pravahit hoti hain. mahadvip ke adhikansh bhag men sadharan jalapravah pranali vikasit hai par madhy ke lagabhag 50 lakh varg mil kshetr men antarpravah pranali hai. adhikatar nadiyan eshiya ke parvatiy evn pathari bhag se nikalakar mukhyat: hind mahasagar, prashant mahasagar aur uttari dhruvasagar men jal chhodati hain. hind mahasagar men giranevali nadiyon men mukhy hain dazala, pharat, sindh, satalaj, ravi, vyas, chinav, jhelam, narmada, tapti, gnga, brahmaputr, mahanadi, iravadi, salavin, sitang, godavari, krishna aur kaveri. minay, mikang, lalanadi, sikyang, yangasikyang, hvangaho aur amoor nadiyan prashant mahasagar men jal chhodati hain. uttari dhruvasagar men ob, yanisi, lina, indigirika aur koliya girati hain, sar dariya aur amoo dariya aral sagar men. ili nadi balkash men aur tarim laupanar jhil men jalapravah karati hain. inake atirikt manasarovaradi kuchh chhoti-badi jhilen bhi hain.

snrachana aur khanij snpath-eshiya ka dharatal yahan ki bhaumik snrachana evn itihas dvara nirdisht hota hai. mahadvip men kee vibhinn vishal sanrachanik bhookhnd hain : jaise dakshin men arab evn bharat men prayadvipiy pathari bhag hain jinake niche ati prachin kaibriyan-poorv yugin modadar parvat pade hain. ye kshetr sthan-sthan par ne nikshepon dvara sarvatha dhak se ge hain. uttari yooreshiya men bhi aise hi do bhookhnd milate hain : pratham to fenoskaidiyan pathar (shild) hai jo baltik sagar ko ghere hue hai aur dvitiy angara laind jo baikal jhil ke uttar aur poorv men avasthit hai. kuchh aise hi prachin bhookhnd chin men bhi milate hain . in sabhi prachin bhookhndon ka nirman prachin parivartit chattanon dvara hua hai.

in prachin bhookhndon ke bich-bich men modadar parvaton ki shreniyan poorv-pashchim disha men bikhari hain. purakalpiy (pailiyozoik) aur madhyakalpiy (mesozoik) yugon ke adhikansh kal men in parvaton ke sthan par tethis namak bada sagar phaila hua tha jo aj ke roomasagar se adhik lnba evn chauda tha. is samudr men mitti, baloo adi ki paraton ka jamav hua aur madhyakalp yug ke antim kal men, visheshakar nootanakalp (kenozoik) yug men, paraton ka nirman hua. himalay parvat inhin parvaton men se ek hai tatha prithvi ka navinatam modadar parvat hai. aisi hi parvatashreniyan turki se japan tak bikhari padi hain.

eshiya ki snrachana ka poora adhyayan abhi thik se nahin ho paya hai tathapi bahumat ke anusar eshiya ko char sanrachanik vibhagon men banta gaya hai : pratham, ati prachin uttari khnd; dvitiy, ati prachin dakshini bhookhnd; tritiy alpain parvatashreniyan aur chaturth avashisht bhag.

is mahadvip men tin, abhrak, aintimani tatha angstan doosare mahadvipon se adhik milate hain. mainganiz, tanba, chandi aur sona bhi prachur matra men milate hain. mitti ke tel ka bhndar yahan sarvadhik hai. any khanijon men loha evn koyala ullekhaniy hain.

jalavayu-eshiya ke bhoopunj ki vishalata ka mukhy prabhav usaki jalavayu par sarvadhik padata hai. isake sagaraprabhavit tatiy pradesh aur sthalaprabhavit deshabhyntar pradesh jalavayu men ek doosare se bahut bhinn hain. varsha tatha tapakram ki vishamata charam sima tak pahunch jati hai.uttari amarika ke saman akshanshonvale pradeshon ki apeksha yahan adhik shit padati hai. malay ke vishuvath‌rekhiy jalavayu se lekar, dhruvapradeshiy himani jalavayu tak ke sab prakar ki jalavayu vale pradesh eshiya men milate hain. itane brihath‌ akar tatha mahanh‌ dharataliy antaron ke karan jalavayu men is prakar ka vaibhiny svabhavik hi hai. varsha ki vishamata bhi ullekhaniy hai. yahan varsh men ek inch ya usase kam se lekar 450 inch tak varsha hoti hai. atyadhik varsha vahan hoti hai jahan pravahaman havaon ko raste men pahad aur parvat a jate hain, jaise bharat tatha dakshin-poorv eshiya men. shushkatam pradesh parvaton ke prishthadesh men milate hain, jaise pashchimi chin men eeran se mngoliya tak ka pathari pradesh jo eshiya men do vishal bhinn jalavayu pradeshon ko prithak karata hai. uttar tatha pashchim men sthaliyata dvara kuchh prabhavit shitoshn pachhuvan vayu apana prabhav dalati hai. dakshini tatha poorvi bhag men manasooni jalavayu milati hai. yahan shit ritu men shushk vayu sthal se sagar ki or bahati hai tatha grishm men sagar se sthal ki or ati hai aur vrishti hoti hai. manasooni pradesh sindh ghati se madhy amoor nadi tatha dakshini kamachataka tak aur andar ki or tibbat tatha mngoliya ke kinare tak phaila hua hai. isake dakshin men ek chhote bhag par vishuvath‌rekhiy jalavayu milati hai. madhy tatha pashchimi eshiya shushk hai. eshiya ke shitoshn marusthal 50roo u.a. par dhruvapradeshiy nadiyon ke udgam ke nikat se lekar pashchim ki or kaispiyan sagar ke uttari bhag phaile hain. shitapradesh ke antargat eshiya men tundra, taiga tatha ghas ke uttari maidan ate hain. bharatavarsh ka thar tatha arab adi ushn marusthal pradesh ke antargat hain. saiberiya ki shitakal ki kadi thnd prasiddh hai. lina delta ka ausat tapaman varsh bhar 1roo pha. rahata hai. barkhoyansk vishv ka shitalatam sthan hai. janavari men yahan ka ausat tapaman -59roo pha. rahata hai yah -94roo pha. tak bhi pahunch chuka hai. kahate hain, yahan jis bhi disha se vayu aegi vah yahan ki vayu se garam hoti. isake viparit dakshin-pashchim eshiya atynt ushn pradesh hain. madhy arab men varshik vashpikaran 160 inch hai. din men baloo atynt garam ho jane ke karan yatriyon ke karavan ratri men taron ke sahare chalate hain. isi karan yahan ke logon men jyotish se yathesht prem hai. bharat ki bhishan garmi ke samane chngez khan ke yoddha yahan ruk n sake. yahi ekamatr shutr tha jisaka samana ve nahin kar sake.

yahan ki manasooni jalavayu mukhy roop se ullekhaniy hai jisamen chhah mahine uttar-poorvi tatha chhah mahine dakshin-pashchimi evn dakshin-poorvi vayu chalati hai. manasoon jalavayu bharat men poornataya vikasit hai, kuchh kam chin men, aur anyatr namamatr hai. jis varsh manasoon se paryapt pani nahi barasata us varsh bharatiy krishi ki hani hoti hai. dakshini chin tatha japan ke tatiy manasooni pradeshon men taiphoon (bhaynkar andhi) chalate hain.

snpoorn saiberiya ki varshik varsha 20faf se adhik nahin hai. uttar men yah 10faf se bhi kam hai tatha turkistan ke adhikatar bhag men 4faf se bhi kam hai. dakshin tatha poorab men adhik varsha ki patti dakshini chin, brahmadesh, hindachin, bharat ke kuchh bhag evn malay men phaili hain. malay men keval ek ghnte ki varsha shushk nadi nalon ko begavanaroop de deti hai. barkhoyansk ka varshik tapantar 100roo se bhi adhik hai parntu malay ke kuchh bhagon men yah antar vigat ek shatabdi men kabhi bhi 10roo se adhik nahin hua. mausami tapantar vishuvath‌rekhiy pradesh se uttar-poorvi antarik pradesh ki or uttarottar badhata jata hai.

prakritik vanaspati-prakritik vanaspati prakritik vatavaran ka pratyaksh roop hai. eshiya mahadvip ka uttari thnda bhag sadharanataya tundra tatha konadhari vrikshon ke jngalon ya taiga se achchhadit hai tatha bhoomadhyarekhiy evn ushn katibndhiy manasooni jngal bhoomadhyarekha ke pas ke sthanon men phaile hain. mahadvip ke antarik bhagon men marudeshiy evn parvatiy vanaspatiyan milati hain. vibhinn bhoobhagon ki vanaspatiyon men badi gahan vishamata hai. sthan-sthan par manushy ke karyon ne prakritik vanaspati ko parivartit sa kar diya hai, aur kuchh sthanon par usake tatha usase snbaddh janavaron, jaise bakariyon ityadi ke vinashakari karyon ne prakritik vanaspati ka sarvatha vinash kar dala hai. bhinn jalavayuvale do brihath‌ evn prakritik vanaspatiyon se paripoorn bhookhndon men pahala uttari vanakhnd taiga hai jo snpoorn saiberiya ke madhyottari bhag men phaila hua hai aur snsar ka sabase bada ek hi prakar ki prakritik vanaspativala bhookhnd hai. doosara prakritik vanaspativala bhoobhag ushn evn uposhnakatibndhiy manasooni kshetron men phaila hai. kintu yahan apekshakrit adhik vishamata evn khulapan hai. inaka vistar chaudi pattiyonvale sadabahar vrikshon tatha vayushiph (maigrov) ke samudratatiy jngalon se lekar bharat ke pashchimi bhag men sthit kantedar jhadiyon evn marubhoomi jngalon tak hai. in do brihath‌ vanaspatikhndon ke anntar ullekhy madhyavarti steps ke maidan hain, tadanntar madhy eshiya tatha asapas phaili parvatashreniyan evn unamen sthit ghatiyan hain, shesh bnjar pathar adi hain. gnga, sindhu tatha hvangaho adi nadiyon ke maidani bhag men svarthi manushy ke vinashakari karyon ke karan vanaspati ke chhote-chhote bikhare khnd rah ge hain. jngalon ki pnktiyan nadiyon ke kinare phaili milati hain. eshiya ke in vibhinn prakar ke prakritik vanaspatikhndon se kuchh arthik mahatv ke paudhe snsar ko prapt hue hain jinamen chay, dhan aur ganna bharat se, seb evn nashapati kaispiyan kshetr se tatha adoo, khubani evn narngi chin se prapt hue hain.

jivajntu-brihath‌ vistar, jalavayu evn prakritik vanaspati ki atyadhik vividhata tatha vishamata ke karan mahadvip men anek tarah ke jivajntu pae jate hain. inamen se kuchh mahatvapoorn jntu sada ke lie vinasht ho ge hain. mahadvip ke jivajntuon men himayug ke anntar prachur parivartan hue hain, jaisa asthi avasheshon ke adhyayan se suspasht hai. vibhinn prakar ki vinasht pashujatiyon men kndaravasi richh (kev beyar), bhediya, lakadabaggha tatha vishalakay gainde pramukh hain. hal men prapt avasheshon men baloochithiriyam ki asthiyan ullekhaniy hain. gainde ki akriti ka yah jntu prithvi ka sarvadhik bada jntu tha aur isake kndhe tak ki hi oonchaee atharah phut tak hoti thi. kuchh any prakar ke jntu bhi teji se vinisht ho rahe hain jinamen jngali bhaisa evn sinh mukhy hain. eshiya mahadvip bahut se vartaman pashuon ke vibhinn vnshon ki janmabhoomi bhi raha hai. unamen se sarvadhik upayogi ghoda hai, jise ghumakkad jatiyon ne lagabhag 5,000 varsh pahale palatoo banaya. eshiya hi jngali gadahe ki bhi janmabhoomi hai. eshiya mainar bakari ka pratham nivasabhoomi mana jata hai. do koobadavale oont evn yak adi ki bhi utpatti isi mahadvip men huee thi. yak tibbat ka pashu hai jisase n keval makkhan, mans evn chamada milata hai, pratyut yah bojh dhone ke lie bhi atynt upayogi hai. is desh men palatoo banae ge jngali janavaron men sarvapramukh evn sarvadhik upayogi bharatiy bail hai. uttari saiberiya evn tundra pradesh ke lie renadiyar anivary janavar hai. pamir kshetr men paee janevali pahadi bhed, ovisapoli, apane vishal evn anek shakhayukt singon ke lie prasiddh hai. mahadvip men anek prakar ke lngoor pae jate hain. bharat, brahmadesh evn malaya ke vibhinn vany pradeshon men hathi bahutayat se milate hain. yahan ke hathi badi sugamata se palatoo aur shikshit ho jate hain. vaibhav evn rajasi that ke ye pramukh chihn to hain hi, prashikshan ke uparant shram aur seva snbndhi vibhinn karyon men ye vishesh upayogi bhi siddh hue hain. mahadvip men tin prakar ke gainde milate hain. dakshin-pashchimi eshiya evn padosi aphrika men snbaddh vnsh ke bahut se janavar milate hain. lakadabaggha n keval aphriki maidanon men pratyut bharat men bhi bahut milata hai. bhaloo, chite, tendue tatha bhedie bahutayat se pae jate hain. bhaluon men sabase bada dhruvapradeshiy bhaloo hota hai jo uttari pradeshon men paya jata hai. mansahari jivon men sarvapratham bagh hai jo eshiya ke atirikt kisi bhi any mahadvip men vany avastha men nahi paya jata. lekin eshiya ke jntuon men snbhavat: sarvadhik vichitr janavar vishalakay pnda hai jo antarik chin ke parvatiy kshetron men milata hai. isaka mukhy bhojan bans ki pattiyan adi hai lekin is sadharan bhojy samagri par bhi usaka vajan 350 paund tak hota hai. dakshini eshiya men bndaron ki anek jatiyan bikhari hain. malay ka vanamanush (giban) hi keval ek aisa manushyetar jntu hai jo manushy ki tarah sidha khada rah sakata hai.

mahadvip men vividh prakar ke pakshi bhi prachurata se pae jate hain jinamen vanyakukkut (murg), bagula tatha giddh adhik prasiddh hain. mor namak sundar pakshi prachy bagon ka saundaryapakshi hai. baj raja maharajaon ka priy akhetapakshi raha hai. dakshin eshiya men vishaile tatha sadharan sanpon ki anek jatiyan paee jati hain. jalachar jntuon men ghadiyal prasiddh hai jo bharat ki nadiyon men bahut paya jata hai. mahadvip ke nikatavarti samudron men evn antarik jalakhaton, nadiyon, jhilon aur talabon men anek tarah ki machhaliyan milati hain. chin men sunahari machhali milati hai.

janasnkhya tatha arthik vikas snbndhi samasyaen-eshiya n keval kshetraphal pratyut janasnkhya ki drishti se bhi mahattam mahadvip hai. kee kshetron men janaganana n hone se mahadvip ki janasnkhya ka thik akalan nahin ho sakata hai, parntu 1974 men yahan anumanat: 2,10,00,00,000 janasnkhya ho gee hai. is prakar snsar ke sthalabhag ke ek tihaee kshetravale eshiya mahadvip men snsar ke 57 pratishat vyakti rahate hain. lekin is vishal janasnkhya ka mahadvip ke vibhinn bhagon men asaman vitaran hai. yadi kuchh kshetron men abadi ghani hai to kuchh kshetr men ati viral aur kuchh lagabhag janashoony bhi hain. mahadvip ki adhi se adhik abadi keval do brihath‌ bhookhndon men nivas karati hai : pratham, chin (1971 men janasnkhya anumanat: 75,00,00,000) tatha dvitiy, bharatiy upamahadvip jisamen bharat (1971 men 54,73,67,926), pakistan (1971 men janasnkhya 6,80,00,000) tatha bngaladesh (1971 men janasnkhya 7,10,00,000) hain. tin any kshetron men bhi ghani abadi paee jati hai-pratham japan (1970 men 10,37,20,000), dvitiy java (1971 men 7,98,49,000) evn tritiy shrilnka (1971 men anumanat: 1,30,00,000). inamen ausat ghanatv kramash: 275, 500 evn 179 vyakti prati varg ki.mi. hai.

eshiya men aise kee vishal bhookhnd hain jahan basti atynt viral hai. do tihaee kshetraphal men mahadvip ki kul janasnkhya ka keval dashamansh nivas karata hai. aise viral bhookhndon men dakshin-pashchim eshiya, soviyat eshiya evn uchchadharataliy bhag hain. is prakar ki kam abadi ke mukhy karan in bhoobhagon men jalavayu ki shushkata, shitadhiky athava unake atyuchch visham dharatal hain. arab prayadvip ke brihath‌ bhookhnd (lagabhag 10 lakh varg mil) men keval ek karod manushy rahate hain. is pradesh ka janaghanatv panch se bhi kam hai aur madhy eshiya ke adhikansh men to yah ghanatv ek se bhi kam ho jata hai. java ko chhodakar poorvi dvipasamoohon ka bhi prati vargamil ghanatv ka ausat 25 hi hai. janasnkhya ke is asaman vitaran se yah gyat hota hai ki krishiyogy bhoomi ke anusar hi is mahadvip men janasnkhya ka ghanatv kam ya adhik paya jata hai. dakshin evn poorvi bhagon men sthit ghani abadivale adhikansh bhookhnd jalodh dvara nirmit maidani bhag hain. eshiya mahadvip ke lagabhag sabhi desh krishipradhan hain aur sarvadhik janasnkhya gramin kshetron men basi hai. nagaron evn udyog dhndhon ka vikas eshiya mahadvip men thode samay se hi prarnbh hua hai parntu inake vikas ki gati badi tivr ho gee hai. 1941 tak bharat men keval do hi brihath‌ nagar (das lakh janasnkhyavale) the, lekin 1971 men inaki snkhya nau (kalakatta, bnbee, dilli, madras, bngalor, ahamadabad, haidarabad, kanapur tatha poona) ho gee. dakshin-poorvi eshiya men 1945 ke bad chhah brihath‌ nagar vikasit hue jinake nam jakarta, manila, saigan, baikak evn singapur hain.

mahadvip ke vibhinn bhagon men paee janevali jatiyon ke vistar men parvaton ke prithakkari kary ka mahatvapoorn hath raha hai jo mahadvip ki do brihath‌ manav jatiyon-mngolon evn indo-yooropiyanon-ko spashtataya prithak karate hain. madhy eshiya ke pathar snbhavat: madhyakalpik kal se hi sthaliy bhag rahe hain aur himalay ka nirmanakary prarnbh hone ke pahale hi inaka sthaliy vikas ho chuka tha. at: yah siddhant sarvatha saty evn tathyapoorn lagata hai, jaisa puratatviy khojon se bhi siddh ho chuka hai, ki madhy eshiya hi snsar ke stanadhari jivon ka vikasakshetr hai evn yahin se unaka chaturdik vikendrikaran hua. in stanadhari jivon men se hi manav bhi ek jiv hai jisaka vikas snbhavat: madhy eshiya ke kisi kshetravishesh men tritiy yug men hua. snbhavat: himayug ke pradurbhav ke karann madhy eshiya men bhi jalavayu manushyon ke nivas ke pratikool ho gee jisase unhen deshantar jana pada. himayugon ke antim kal men madhy eshiya ki jalavayu aj ki apeksha snbhavat: atyadhik ardr thi. lekin dhire-dhire kalakram se, jalasrot sookhate ge. jalavayu ki shushkata badhati gee. phalat: vahan ke nivasiyon ko badhy hokar dhire-dhire ne deshon ki khoj men bahar jana pada. jaisa haidan ne likha hai, pragaitihasik kal ke prvrajanon men naaurdik (uttari yoorop ke nivasi) jati ke logon ne madhy eshiya se pashchim ki or, mngol jativalon ne dakshin-poorv ki or tatha alpain jativalon ne turkistan se eshiya mainar hote hue madhy dakshini yoorop ki or prasthan kiya.

ajakal mahadvipon men anek jatiyan, upajatiyan paee jati hain aur hajaron varshon ke antarmishran ke karan jatiyon, upajatiyon ke itane chhote-chhote vibhag evn samooh ho ge hain jinaki mukhy bhagon men vibhajit karana dushkar ho gaya hai. haidan ne manav jati ke tin mukhy vibhag kie hain : yoolotriki, saimotriki aur laiotriki. mahadvip men sthit yoolotriki jativibhag men kuchh atynt pichhadi huee nate kadavali jatiyan ati hain jinamen andaman nivasi, malay evn sumatra ke semang, philipain dvipasamooh ke aita tatha nyoogini ke paipua jativale pramukh hain.

kapalarachana ke adhar par saimotriki jati ke tin pramukh vibhag evn sharir ke rng ke vichar se pun: upavibhag kie ge hain : pratham lnbe siravale logon men dalikosifalik hain jinaka rng gahara bhoora evn kala hota hai. inamen shrilnka ke vedda, malay, sumatra tatha selibiz dvipon ki pragdravid jatiyan evn bharat ke dravid jativale pramukh hain, tatha kuchh halke rngavali jatiyon men uttari bharat evn dakshini-pashchimi eshiya ke adhikansh bhagon men nivasit indo-aphagani, arab, yahoodi evn poorvi dvipasamooh ke nivasi indoneshiyan jativale hain. mesatisifalik arthath‌ sadharan siravali jatiyon men japan ke nivasi ainoo tatha chode siravali jatiyon men braikisifalik arminiyan sarvapramukh hain. dvitiy brihath‌ vibhag laiotriki ka mukhy chihn sidha sir hai jo samagr uttari evn poorvi eshiya ke nivasiyon men paya jata hai aur jinake sidhe bal ya pile-bhoore mishrit rngon ke hote hain. ankhon ki banavat adi men antar hote hue bhi sadharanataya ye mngol jati ke kahalate hain. in vibhedon ke anusar pramukh upajatiyon men nimnalikhit jatiyan mukhy hain-pratham, uttari saiberiya nivasi; dvitiy, tung evn manchu; tritiy, chini (mukhy chin ke nivasi); chaturth, turk, pncham, pashchimi saiberiya ke nivasi, ugriyan; tatha shashth, tibbatachin ke mishrit log jinamen malay jativale bhi sammilit hain.

janasnkhya ki adhikata ka bhar khady ke sadhanon athava apratyaksh roop se krishiyogy bhoomi par padata hai. prachin sabhyata evn nimn star ke jivan ke karan nirntar badhate-badhate mahadvip ki vartaman sntripti ki sima ko bhi par kar rahi hai.

pahale prakritik duryog, jaise durbhiksh, mahamari athava yuddh adi janasnkhya ki nirntar vriddhi ko niyntrit karate the, paratu ajakal in duryogon par manushyon ne svayn niyntran kar liya hai, phalat: janasnkhya abadh gati se badhati ja rahi hai. eshiya ka do tihaee bhag apane sadhanon ke snbhavit vikas ke anuman men viral basa hai. mahadvipon ke ghane base hue kshetron men, jahan se kuchh deshantaragaman hua hai, bhoomi ki janasnkhya ka bhar bahut kam halka hua hai. lekin idhar eshiya nivasiyon ke antarmamahadvipiy sthanantaran par snbndhit rashtron dvara kuchh rok laga di gee hai.

vatavaran ki bhinnataon evn vishamataon ke anuroop hi mahadvip men anek prakar ke samajik evn arthik sabhyata tatha snskriti ke star bhi pae jate hain-ek or sarvatha pichhadi huee jatiyan hain jo ab tak sabhyata ke prathamik charan par bhi nahin pahunch paee hain to doosari or samajavad evn ekadhikaratmak poonjivad ke atynt visham sngathan vikasit hain. vartaman avagaman evn snvadasnvahan ke sadhanon ke vikas ke phalasvaroop asthiravasi tatha sthayi snskritiyon ki vishamata din prati din ghat rahi hai. chalachitr, rediyo tatha sarvopari motar bason ke vikas ke karan vibhinn bhagon ki nirjanata evn ekakipan samaptapray hota ja raha hai.

prakritik vatavaran evn samajik vikas ke adhar par eshiya ke chhah brihath‌ vibhag kie ja sakate hain : dakshin-pashchim eshiya, dakshin-eshiya, dakshin-poorvi eshiya, poorvi eshiya, soviyat eshiya evn uchch eshiya. in sabhi bhoobhagon men prachur samajik, rajanitik evn arthik parivartan ho rahe hain. in kshetron men kalantar se chal rahi krishipradhan evn atmashrit arthikata ko khinchakar antarrashtriy bajaron se snbaddh kar dene ke vividh dushparinam bhi hue. anek kshetron men samoohik krishi ne vaiyaktik parivaron ko bade paimane ke arthik dhndhon ke star par la diya. snpoorn samaj ka samaj prachin evn navin snsar ke sarvatha vibhinn arthik prayatnon ke path men arase se bhatakata raha hai aur kisi kinare par ab tak poornataya sthir nahin ho saka hai. barma evn pakistan jaise deshon men gaun krishi udyog-dhndhon par jor dekar kalyan ke marg dhoondhane ke prayatn ho rahe hain. eshiya mahadvip ke krishakon ki atyalp krayashakti udyogikaran ke marg men snbhavat: sabase badi kathinaee hai. at: krayashakti ko badhane ki samasya snprati mahadvip ki sabase badi samasya hai. mahadvip ke vibhinn deshon, jaise chin, bharat adi, ne arthik vikas ke lie yojanaen banaee hain aur is disha men vishesh pragati ki hai.

yadyapi mahadvip ke samajik jivan ki parnparaon evn ritirivajon men adhik parivartan nahin ho sake hain, aur jo parivartan ho bhi rahe hain ve bahut dhimi gati se, tathapi shatabdiyon se videshi prabhavon ke karan antarrashtriy bajaron ke chakr men padakar usake arthik sngathan men prachur parivartan hue hain. dvitiy mahayuddh evn paravarti krantikal men mahadvip ke rajanitik kshetron men bhi kee ek parivartan hue. rashtriyata ki bhavanaon evn krantiyon ke karan lagabhag 50 karrod manushyon ko svatntrata mili hai. roos ne antaryuddhakal men arthik jivan ki kayapalat kar di hai aur is shatabdi ke ant tak apani arthik samasyaon ko sulajha lene ke path par vah nirntar age badh raha hai. japan ke bhavishy men kuchh anishchitata hai par pichhale sath varshon ki vyapar samunnati ne japan ko atynt mahatvapoorn shakti bana diya hai. bharat ne yojanatmak dhng se pragati ka marg apanaya hai tatha padosi pakistan bhi apane simit sadhanon ke anusar apani visham samasyaon ko sulajhana chahata hai. is prakar eshiya mahadvip ke sabhi desh apane arthik sngathan tatha krishi evn udyog dhndhon ko yojanatmak dhng se vikasit karake pragati ke marg par badhate drishtigat hote hain.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

sambndhit lekh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 256 |

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah