टोडरमल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

raja todaramal mugal kal men samrat akabar ke navaratnon men se ek the. todaramal khatri jati ke the aur unaka vastavik nam 'all tandan' tha. raja todaramal ka janm sthan avadh prant ke sitapur zile ke antargat tarapur namak gram hai yadyapi kuchh itihasgy lahaur ke pas chooman ganv ko inaka janmasthan batalate hain, par vahan ke bhagnavashesh aise aishvary ka pata dete hain jo inake mata–pita ke pas nahin tha. inake pita inhen bachapan men hi chhodakar svarg sidhare the aur inaki vidhava mata ne kisi prakar se inaka palan-poshan kiya tha. kuchh bade hone par mata ki agya se yah dilli ae aur saubhagy se vahan par unaki naukari lag gee.

char hazari manasab

vah samajhadar lekhak aur vir sammatidata the. akabar ki kripa[1] se badi unnati karake char hazari manasab aur amiri aur saradari ki padavi tak pahunch ge.

atharahaven varsh men [2]akabar ke rajy ke 9ven varsh sanh 1564 ee. men todaramal ne mujaffar khan ki adhinata men kary arambh kiya tha

gujarat ka yuddh

17ven varsh sanh 1572 ee. men gujarat ki chadhaee par yah akabar ke sath men ge the aur badashah ne todaramal ko soorat ka durg dekhakar yah nishchay karane bheja tha ki yah durg toot sakata hai ya abhedy hai. [3] gujarat prant men badashah ke ane se vidrohiyon ke upadrav se saf ho gaya tha. raja kosh ki vibhag ki janch karane ke lie todaramal ko chhod ge the ki nyayaparata ke sath jo kuchh nishchit karen, usi prakar ki vetan–soochi kam men laee jae.

bngal men niyukti

19ven varsh (san 1574 ee.) men todaramal patana vijay ke anantar jhanda aur dnka milane se sammanit hokar munim khan khanakhanan ki sahayata ke lie bngal men niyukt hue. yadyapi senapatitv aur agya khanakhanan ke hath men thi, par sainy snchalan, sainikon ko utsah dilane, sahas poorn dhave karane aur vidrohiyon tatha shatruon ko dand dene men raja todaramal ne badi virata dikhalaee.

daood khan kirrani ke yuddh men (jab khane alam haraval men mara gaya aur khanakhana kee ghav khakar bhag gaya tab bhi) raja todaramal dridhata se data raha aur bahut prayatn karake aise parajay ko vijay men parinat kar diya. thik yuddh men (ki shatru vijay hone ke ghamand men the) khane alam aur khanakhanan ke bure samachar lae, jis par raja todaramal ne bigad kar kaha ki,

"yadi khane alam mar gaya to kya shok, aur khanakhanan mar gaya to kya dar? badashah ka iqabal to hamare sath men hai."

isake anantar vahan ka prabandh thik hone par badashah ke pas pahunchakar pahale ki tarah mali aur desh ke karyon men lag gaya.[4]

bngal ki soobedari

tab khanajahan ne bngal ki soobedari paee tab raja todaramal bhi usake sath niyukt hue. is bar todaramal ke saubhagy se vah prant hath se jakar phir adhikar men chala aya aur inhonne daood ko pakadakar mar dala. 21ven varsh men us prant ki loot ko (jisamen tin char sau bhari hathi the) badashah ke samane lae [5].

gujarat prant ka prabandh

gujarat prant ka prabandh thik nahin tha aur vazir khan ki dhilaee se vahan par gadabadi aur ashanti thi. isalie raja todaramal ko us prant ka prabandh karane ke lie niyukt kiya gaya. yah buddhimani, karyadakshata, virata aur sahas ke sath sultanapur aur nadarabar se badauda aur champaner tak ka prabandh thik karake ahamadabad ae aur vazir khan ke sath nyay karane men tatpar hue. ekaek mehar ali ke bahakave se mirza mujaffar husain ka balava mach gaya. vazir khan ne chaha ki durg men ja baithe; par raja todaramal ne sahas karake use yuddh karane par utsahit kiya aur 22ven varsh men dhvadar[6] ke pas yuddh ki taiyari ki. vazir khan ne sainikon ko bhagane se lad marana chaha aur pas hi tha ki vah kam a jata, par raja todaramal (ki baen bhag ka saradar tha) apane vipakshi ko bhaga kar sahayata ko pahuncha aur ek bar hi ghamandiyon ke yuddh ka tana–bana toot gaya. mirza joonagadh ki or bhaga. usi varsh bhagyavan raja todaramal darabar men pahunchakar apane mntritv ke kam men lag gaya.

shanti ki sthapana

jab isi varsh badashah ka ajamer se pnjab jana hua, tab chalachali men ek din raja todaramal ki moortiyan (jab tak unaki pooja ek mukhy chal par nahin kar leta tha, doosara kam nahin karata tha) kho geen. usane sona aur khan–pan chhod diya. badashah ne bahut kuchh samajha kar isase apani mitrata pradarshit[7] ki. vahan se (mntrisabha ka kary karata tha) is bade kary ke uttaradayitv aur kapati chugalakhoron ke badhane ka vichar karake, isako todaramal ne svikar nahin kiya.

pradhan amaty

26ven varsh ke arambh (san 990 hil) men raja todaramal pradhan amaty niyat hua jo arth men vaqile kul ke saman hai aur kul kary usi ki sammati se hone laga. raja todaramal ne kosh aur rajy ke karyon ko ne dhng se chalaya aur kuchh ne niyam bhi banavae jo badashahi agya se kam men lae jane lage. unaka vivaran akabaraname men diya hai[8]. 29ven varsh men usaka grih badashah ke jane se prakashit hua jinaki pratishtha ke lie raja ne mahaphil sajaee thi.

lahaur ke rakshak

32 ven varsh (sn0 1644 vi0, sanh 1587 ee.) men kisi kapati 'khatri bachche' ne jo usase jalata tha, ratri ke samay savari men talavar phenki. sath valon ne use vahin par mar dala. jab raja birabal parvaty pradesh svad men mare ge, tab raja todaramal kunar manasinh ke sath yoosufajee jati ko dand dene par niyukt hue. jab 34ven varsh men badashah hare–bhare kashmir ko chale, tab todaramal muhammad kuli khan barlas aur raja bhagavntadas kachhavaha ke sath lahaur ke rakshak niyukt hue. isi varsh (jab badashah kashamir se kabul chale tab) inhonne prarthana patr likha ki vriddhavastha aur rogon ne hamen daba liya hai aur mrityu ka samay pas a gaya hai. isilie yadi chhutti paoon to sabase hath utha loon aur gnga ji ke tat par jakar pran tyagane ke lie parameshvar ko yad karoon. prarthana ke anusar chhutti mil gee aur lahaur se haridvar ko chal die. sath hi doosara agyapatr pahuncha ki eeshvar ke poojan se nirbalon ki seva nahin ho sakati; isase achchha hai ki manushyon ka kam sambhalo. nirupay hone se laut kar 34ven varsh sanh 998 hiddh ke arambh ke gyarahaven din mar ge.

allami phahami abul fazal inake bare men likhate hain - "yah sachchaee, satyata, karyadakshata, karyon men nirlobhata, virata, kadaron ko utsah dilane, kary kushalata, kam lene aur hindusthan ke saradaron men advitiy tha. par dveshi aur badala lene vala tha. usake hriday ke khet men thodi kathorata utpann ho gee thi. dooradarshi buddhiman aise svabhav ko bure svabhavon men ginate hain. mukhyatah rajakiy karyon men jahan snsari logon ka kam use saunpa gaya ho. samrat ke vaqil niyat hue the. yadi usaki buddhitani ke mukh par dharmik kattarapan ka rng n hota to aisa ayogy svabhav n rakhata. sach yah hai ki dharmik kattarapan, hath aur dvesh n rakhata aur apani baton ka paksh n leta to mahatmaon men se hota. tab bhi snsar ke aur logon ko dekhate hue vah sntosh, nirlobhata (usaka bazar lobh se mila hua hai) parishram karane, kam karane aur anupam kya advitiy tha. usaki mrityu se niahsvarth kary sampadan ko hani pahunchi. charon or se kamon ke a jane par vah ghabarata nahin tha. thik hai ki aisa sachcha purush hath se nikal gaya. vah vishvas (snsar men kam dikhalaee deta hai) kis jadoo se milata hai aur kis tilasm se prapt ho sakata hai.

niyam aur prabandh

alamagir badashah kahate the ki shahajahan ke mukh se suna hai ki ek din akabar badashah usase kahate the ki todaramal kosh aur rajy ke kamon men tivr buddhi tha aur adhik janakari rakhata tha. par usaka hath aur apani baton par adana achchha nahin lagata tha. abul fazal bhi usase bura manata tha. jab ek bar usane shikayat ki tab akabar ne kaha ki kripapatr ko nahin chhuda sakata. raja todaramal ke banae hue niyam nagaron aur sena ke prabandh men sarvada kam men lae jate hain aur bahudha badashahi daftar unhin par sthit hain.

arthik sudhar

hindustan men sultanon aur prachin rajaon ke samay se chhatha bhag kar ke roop men liya jata tha. raja todaramal ne bhoomi ke kee vibhag pahadi, padati, oosar aur bnjar adi kie. upajaoo aur an–upajaoo kheton ko nap karake (jise rakabah kahate hain) tatha usaki nap bigha, bisva aur latha se lekar har prakar ke ann par prati bigha naqad aur kuchh par ann ka, jise bntaee kahate hain, lagaya. pahale sainikon ke vetan paison men die jate the, isase todaramal ne rupaye ko (us samay chalis paise ko chalata tha) chalis dam ka nishchit kar pratyek sthan ki ay ka hisab lagakar manushyon men vetan ke badale men bant diya, jise jagir kahate hain.

ne sikkon ka prayog

mahal ko (jisaka kar rajakosh men jata hai, khalasa nam dekar) jisaki ay ek karod dam thi, (jo barah mahine ke thike par diya jata tha. ek lakh dam ka dhaee hazar rupaya hota tha. fasalon ki upaj par bhi bahut kuchh dhyan rakha jata tha.) ek yogy manushy ke prabandh men dekar usaka karodi nam rakha. ugahane ke lie ek sau panch rupaya thik rakha. pahale paise ke sivay aur koee sikka nahin tha aur saradaron, rajadooton aur kaviyon ko puraskar dene ke lie paise bhar chandi men tanba mila kar sikka banate the aur chandi ka tanaka nam dekar kam men late the. raja todaramal ne bemilavat ke gyarah mashe sone ki asharafi aur sadhe gyarah mashe chandi ka rupaya dhalavaya. is nee bat ka pata isi se adhik lagata hai ki us par snvat diya hai.

farasi bhasha ka gyan

vastutah akabar badashah ka svabhav har ek kam ki ichchha rakhata tha aur gunon tatha karigariyon ko thik karata tha. usake suprakashit samay men (snton deshon ke buddhiman aur vidvanh ekatr the) har ek buddhiman saradar apani buddhi aur vidya ki pahunch se apane adhinasth karyon men kisi nee bat aur labhakari ka anveshan karata tha to vah badashahi kripa ka patr hota tha. yahan tak ki karigar aur vidvanh log apane–apane kary men unnati kar ke puraskar pate the[9]. jab badashah svayn buddhiman hota hai, tab aur vidvanon ko bhi vaisa hi bana leta hai. todar mal ne rajasv abhilekhon ko suddhadh karane ki disha men ullekhaniy kary kiya.

raja todaramal bhoolekh prashikshan snsthan

raja todaramal akabar ke rajasv aur vittamntri the. inhonne bhoomi-paimaish ke lie vishv ki pratham mapan-pranali taiyar ki thi. janapad haradoee men uttar pradesh rajy ke rajasv adhikariyon ke liye babanaye gaye ekamatr rajasv prashikshan snsthan ka nam inake nam par raja todaramal bhoolekh prashikshan snsthan rakha gaya hai jahan aeeees, aeepies, pisies, pipies ke alava rajasv karmiyon ko bhoolekh snbndhi prashikshan diya jata hai.

kavi todaramal

todaramal ne shahi daftaron men hindi ke sthan par farasi ka prachar kiya jisase hinduon ka jhukav farasi ki shiksha ki or hua. ye pray: niti snbndhi pady kahate the. inaki koee pustak to nahin milati, phutakal kavitt idhar udhar milate hain. ek kavitt niche diya jata hai -

jar ko vichar kahan, ganika ko laj kahan,
gadaha ko pan kahan, aaundhare ko arasi.
niguni ko gun kahan, dan kahan darid ko.
seva kahan soom ki arndan ki dar si
madapi ko suchi kahan, sanch kahan lnpat ko,
nich ko bachan kahan syar ki pukar si.
todar sukavi aise hathi tau n tare tarai,
bhavai kahan soodhi bat bhavai kahan pharasi[10]

raja todaramal ki sntan

raja todaramal ke kee ladake[11] the aur sabase bade ka nam dharoo tha. akabar ke samay men sat sau savar ka manasab mila tha. thatta ke yuddh men khanakhanan ke sath badi virata dikhalakar mara gaya. kahate hain ki ghodon ki nal sone aur chandi ki bndhavata tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. akabar ki seva men ane se pahale todaramal sherashah ki naukari kar chuke the. 'tarikhe–khanejahan lodi' men likha hai ki sherashah ne todaramal ko durg rohatas banavane par niyukt kiya tha; par gakkhar jati eka karake kisi ke bhi kam men badha dalati rahi. todaramal ne jab yah vrittant sherashah se kaha, tab usane uttar diya ki dhan ke lobhi badashahon ki agya poori nahin kar sakate. is par unhonne ek–ek patthar hone ki ek–ek asharafi mazadoori laga di jis par itani bhid huee ki ap se ap mazadoori apane bhav par a lagi. jab durg taiyar ho gaya tab sherashah ne unaki bahut prashnsa ki thi.
  2. akabar ke rajy ke 9ven varsh sanh 1564 ee. men todaramal ne mujaffar khan ki adhinata men kary arambh kiya tha tatha isake doosare varsh alikuli khan khanejaman ke vidroh karane par yah mir mueejulamulk ke sahayatarth lashkar khan mirabakhsh ke sath lekar ge the. yuddh men badashahi sena parast huee aur khanejaman ka bhaee bahadur khan vijayi hua. - 'badayoonni' bhag 2, pri0 80-81 aur 'tabafate-akabari', ili0 da., bhag 5, pri0 303-4).
  3. badayooni bhag 2, pri0 144 men likhata hai ki inaki ray men vah ajey nahin tha aur usake jitane ke lie badashah ke vahan jane ki bhi avashyakata nahin thi. atharahaven varsh ke arambh men todaramal pnjab bheje ge ki vahan ke prabandh men apane anubhav se soobedar husain kuli khan khanejahan ki sahayata pahunchaven. isake bad se masirulumara men todaramal ka jivanavrint arambh hota hai.
  4. tabakate akabari (ili0 dau0, bha0 5, pri0 372-390) vistrit vivaran diya hua hai.
  5. tabakat men likha hai ki 22ven varsh ke ant men 500 hathi lekar darabar men ae the. ili0 da., bhag 5, pri0 402 .
  6. ahamadabad se barah kos par gholaka sthan men yuddh hua tha.
  7. 26ven varsh men jab mujaffar khan ki kadaee se badashahi saradar bhi vidrohiyon se mil ge tatha usaki mrityu par bihar tatha bngal ke bahut bhag par adhikar bhi kar liya, jab todaramal vahan par shanti sthapit karane ke lie bheje ge. masoom kabooli, kakashal saradaron tatha mirja shahafuddin husain ne 30,000 sena ke sath inhen munger men gher liya. humayoon ki farmali aur tarkhan divanah balavaiyon se mil ge. saman ki bhi kami thi. par sab kasht sahane karate hue tatha badashahi saradaron ko, jo ki vidrohi ho ge the, shant kar milate hue todaramal ne ant men vahan par shanti sthapit ki. - blokamain, aine akabari, prishth snkhya- 351-2, ili0 da., bha0 5, pri0 414-421)
  8. yah anshatah akabar name se liya gaya hai. (akabaranama, ili0 da., bha0 6, prishth snkhya 61-65)
  9. pahale tahasil ke kagaz patr hindi men rahate the aur hindoo lekhakagan hi likhate–padhate the; par inhin todaramal ke prastav par sab kam farasi men hone laga aur tab hinduon ne bhi farasi bhasha ka adhyayan kiya. kuchh hi dinon men aisi yogyata prapt kar li ki ve musalamanon ke farasi bhasha ke ustad ban baithe the
  10. achary, ramachndr shukl “prakaran 5”, hindi sahity ka itihas (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: kamal prakashan, nee dilli, prishth sn. 144.
  11. isake ek doosare ladake ka nam govardhan tha, jise badashah ne avar bahadur ka pichha karane bheja tha, jo bngal se parast hokar jaunapur chala aya tha. jab usane use ladaee men hara diya, tab vah pahadon men bhag gaya. (masirul umara, angrezi pri0 267)

snbndhit lekh

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