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jahanara
jahanara
poora nam jahanara begam
any nam padashah begam, begam sahab
janm 23 march, 1614 ee.[1]
janm bhoomi ajamer, rajasthan
mrityu tithi 16 sitambar, 1681 ee.[1]
pita/mata shahajahan aur arjumand bano (mumataz mahal)
dharmik manyata islam
vnsh mugal
any janakari aurngazeb ne jab shahajahan ko agara ke qile men qaid kar liya to usaki mrityu tak jahanara ne pita ke sath rahakar usaki seva ki.

jahanara (angrezi: Jahanara, janm: 23 march, 1614 ee. - mrityu: 16 sitambar, 1681 ee.) mugal badashah shahajahan aur mumataz mahal ki sabase badi putri thi.

parichay

jahanara ka janm ajamer men 23 march, 1614 ee. men hua tha. jab yah chaudah varsh ki thi, tabhi se apane pita ke rajakaryon men usaka hath bntati thi. jahanara 'padashah begam' ya 'begam sahab' ke nam se bhi prasiddh rahi. jahanara farasi ke pady aur gady ki achchhi gyata thi aur sath hi ise vaidyak ka bhi gyan tha. ise sheron-shayari ki bhi shauq tha, usake likhe hue bahut-se sher milate hain. apani man mumataz mahal ki mrityu ke bad shahajahan ke jivanabhar jahanara usaki sabase vishvasapatr rahi. ek bar buri tarah jal jane ke karan ise char mahine tak jivan-maran ke bich sngharsh karana pada tha. sabaki samman-bhajan hone ke karan sabhi jahanara se paramarsh liya karate the.

bhaiyon men satta sngharsh ko talane ki jahanara ne bahut koshish ki thi, lekin vah saphal nahin ho paee. isaki sahanubhooti dara shikoh ke prati thi, phir bhi isane vijayi aurngazeb aur murad se bhent ki aur prastav rakha ki charon bhaee samrajy ko paraspar bantakar shantipoorvak rahen. lekin yah sambhav nahin ho paya. aurngazeb ne jab shahajahan ko agara ke qile men qaid kar liya to usaki mrityu (janavari, 1666 ee.) tak jahanara ne pita ke sath rahakar usaki seva ki. apane antim dinon men yah lahaur ke snt miyan pir ki shishya ban gee thi. 16 sitambar, 1681 ee. ko jahanara ki mrityu huee.[1]

vishv ki amir shahazadi

mugal shasan ke daur men mahilaon ke bahut kam nam samane ae hain, jinamen gulabadan begam, noorajahan, mumataj mahal, jahanara, roshanara aur zebunnisa ka nam liya ja sakata hai. unamen bhi do, yani noorajahan aur mumataj mahal to mallika rahin aur baqiyon ki haisiyat jahanara ke barabar nahin pahunchati hai kyonki roshanara, kisi haram ki pramukh yani begam sahiba ya padashah begam n ban sakin. jab jahanara ki man ki mrityu huee to vo us samay sirf 17 varsh ki thi, aur usi samay se unake kndhon par mugal samrajy ke haram ka bhar a gaya. badashah shahajahan apani patni ki maut se itane dukhi hue ki unhonne ek tarah se ekant ka jivan guzarana shuroo kar diya.[2]

mahaboob-ur-rahaman kalim apani kitab 'jahanara' men likhate hain ki 'mumataj mahal ki maut ke bad badashah ne shok vala kala libas pahan liya tha'. lekin kuchh any itihasakaron ka kahana hai ki unhonne bahut hi sadagi ko apana liya tha aur sirf safed libas men hi nazar ate the. halanki, unaki patni ki mrityu ke bad, unaki dadhi ke bal bhi safed ho ge the. shahajahan ne aisi sthiti men apani kisi doosari mallika ko mahal ke mamalon ki zimmedari saunpane ke bajay,apani beti jahanara ko padashah begam banaya aur unake varshik vajife men char lakh roopaye aur badha die jisase unaka varshik vajifa das lakh ho gaya.

mashahoor itihasakar 'daautar aauf d san' ki lekhika, era makhoti batati hain- "jab pashchimi paryatak bharat ate to unhen ye dekhakar ashchary hota ki mugal mahilaain kitani prabhavashali hain. isake viparit, us samay men british mahilaon ke pas aise adhikar nahin the. vo is bat par hairan the ki mahilaen vyapar kar rahi hain aur vo unhen nirdesh de rahi hain ki kis chiz ka vyapar karana hai aur kis chiz ka nahin karana hai. jahanara ki daulat ka andaja is bat se lagaya ja sakata hai ki unake pas bahut si jagiren thin, jis din unake pita ki tajaposhi huee thi, us din unhen ek lakh asharphiyan aur char lakh rupaye die ge the, jabaki chhah lakh varshik vajife ka elan kiya gaya tha aur unaki man ki maut ke bad unaki sari snpatti ka adha hissa jahanara ko de diya gaya aur baki ka adha hissa doosare bachchon men bant diya gaya.

aligadh muslim vishvavidyalay men itihas ke esosiet prophesar daauktar em. vasim raja jahanara ki daulat ke bare men batate hain- "jab unhen padashah begam banaya gaya tha to us din unhen ek lakh asharphiyan, char lakh rupaye aur isake alava char lakh rupaye varshik ki grant di gee. unhen jo bag die ge uname bag jahanara, bag noor aur bag sapha aham hain. unaki jagir men achhal, pharajahara aur bachhol, saphapur, dohara ki sarakaren aur panipat ka paragana diya gaya tha. unhen soorat ka shahar bhi diya gaya tha jahan unake jahaz chalate the aur angrejon ke sath unaka vyapar hota tha."

pnjab histaaurikal sosaiti ke samane 12 aprail, 1913 ko padhe jane vale apane shodhapatr men nizam haidarabad ki saltanat men puratatv ke nideshak ji. yazadani ne likha hai ki "isi sal navaroz ke avasar par jahanara ko 20 lakh ke abhooshan aur javaharat tohafe men die ge." unhonne age likha hai ki "jahanara sadan ke samarohon ki bhi zimmedar hoti thi, jaise ki badashah ke janmadin aur navaroz adi ke avasar par vahi mukhy karyavahak hoti. vasnt ritu men eed-e-gulabi manaee jati thi. is avasar par shahazade aur padadhikari uttam javaharat vali surahi men badashah ko arq-e-gulab pesh karate the. etadal shabo roz (yani jab din aur rat barabar hote hain) ka jashn shukravar ko manaya jata tha. us avasar par jahanara ne 19 march 1637 ko badashah ko dhaee lakh ka ek ashtakoniy sinhasan diya tha."[2]

ag se jalana

jahanara ke jivan men ek badi ghatana us samay ghati, jab vo jal gayi aur lagabhag ath mahine tak bistar men rahane ke bad, jab svasth hueen to badashah ne khushi se saltanat ke khazane ke munh khol die. 6 aprail 1644 ko jab jahanara ag ki chapet men aee thi to unake thik hone ke lie ek sarvajanik udghoshana ki gee. garibon ko pratidin paise bante jate aur badi snkhya men kaidiyon ko riha kiya gaya. shodhakarta ziya-ud-din ahamad apani kitab 'jahanara' men mohammad saleh ke havale se likhate hain ki "badashah ne tin dinon men 15 hazar asharphiyan aur lagabhag itane hi rupaye garibon men bant die. rozana ek hajar rupaye is tarah se dan kie jate the ki rat men ek hajar rupaye jahanara ke takiye ke niche rakh die jate the aur subah ko garibon men bant die jate the. varishth adhikari jo ghotalon ke arop men qaid the unako riha kar diya gaya aur unake 7 lakh rupaye tak ke qarz maf kar die ge."

ji. yazadani likhate hain ki "jahanara ke svasth hone par ath dinon ka jashn manaya gaya tha, unhen sone men tola gaya aur vo sona garibon men banta gaya. pahale din, shahajahan ne shahazadi ko 130 moti aur panch lakh rupaye ke kngan tohafe men die. doosare din sarapech diya gaya jisamen hire aur moti jade hue the. soorat ka bndaragah bhi isi avasar par diya gaya, jisaki varshik amadani panch lakh rupaye thi. n sirf jahanara ko balki unaka ilaj karane vale hakim ko bhi mal aur daulat se bhar diya gaya. hakim mohammad daud ko do hazar paidal aur do sau ghodon ki saradari mili, poshak aur hathi ke alava, ek sone ki kathi vala ghoda, 500 tole ki sone ki muhar aur usi vazan ka us avasar par vishesh roop se banaya gaya sikka bhi diya gaya. ek gulam arif ko usake vazan ke barabar sona aur poshak,ghode,hathi aur sat hazar rupaye die ge."[2]

taqatavar mahila noorajahan

mahaboob-ur-rahaman kalim, begam sahiba ki sundarata ke bare men likhate hain ki- "jahanara begam mugaliya vnsh men roop aur charitr ke lihaz se ek bemisal begam thin. vo bahut hi khoobasoorat thin." kuchh itihasakaron ka kahana hai ki roshanara begam us samay apani sundarata ke lie prasiddh thin, lekin daauktar barniyar ne likha hai ki "halanki roshanara begam, unaki chhoti bahan bahut hi sundar hai, lekin jahanara begam ki sundarata isase kahin jyada hai." jahanara ka vo sthan tha ki unaka apana alag ek mahal tha jahan vo rahati thi.

anuvadak aur itihasakar maulavi zakaullah dehalavi ne 'shahajahannama' men likha hai ki "jahanara begam ka mahal shahnshah shahajahan ke mahal se satakar banaya gaya tha. begam sahiba ka akarshak aur alishan makan aramagah se juda hua tha aur bahut hi akarshak chitron se saja hua tha. isake daravazon aur divar par uchch koti ki karigari ki gee thi. aur jagah jagah kimati javaharat khoobasoorati se jade hue the. usake angan ke bngale men jo yamuna ke tat par sthit tha do kaksh the,aur unhen bahut achchhi tarah naqsho nigar se sajaya gaya tha. ye imarat tin mnjila oonchi thi aur us par sone ka kam kiya hua tha.

soofivad ki or jhukav

daauktar rohama ke anusar- jahanara apani javani men hi soofivad ke prati akarshit ho gee thi, lekin jalane ki ghatana ke bad unaka jivan aur adhik faqirana ho gaya tha". lekin usase pahale, mahaboob-ur-rahaman ne likha hai ki pahale unaka jivan jine ka tariqa bahut shahi tha. daauktar barniyar ke havale se likhate hain ki "unaki savari bahut hi shanadar tariqe se nikalati thi. vo aksar joodol par nikalati thi, jo sinhasan se milata julata tha, aur ise kahar uthate the. isake charon taraf chitrakari ka kam kiya gaya tha. aur is par reshami parade pade hote the,aur uname zari ki jhalaren aur sundar phundane tnge hote the, jisase isaki khoobasoorati doguna badh jati thi."

"kabhi-kabhi jahanara begam ek lnbe aur sundar hathi par savar hokar nikalati thi. lekin parade ki sakht pabnd thi to vo aksar manornjan ke lie bahut dhoomadham ke sath sair bag jati thi. isake alava unhonne shahajahan ke sath kee bar dakkan, pnjab, kashmir aur kabul ki sair ki. lekin har paristhiti aur har mauke par unhonne parade ka poora dhyan rakha. ye sirf unhonne hi nahin kiya balki mugal vnsh ki sabhi begam bahut hi parade vali hoti thin."

vividh vyaktitv

paryatak aur itihasakar barniyar ne likha hai ki- "kisi ke lie bhi in begamon ke pas jana snbhav nahin tha aur ye lagabhag asnbhav hai ki vo kisi insan ko nazar a saken, sivay us savar ko chhodakar jo galati se in begamon ki savari ke pas chala jaye. kyonki vo vyakti kitane bhi oonche pad par kyon n ho, kinnaron ke hathon se pite bina nahin rah sakata."

daauktar rohama ka kahana hai ki "itihas ki kitabon men jahanara ke jalane ki ghatana ka vivaran to milata hai, lekin unaki any sevaon ke bare men khulakar vyakt nahin kiya jata hai, jabaki vo mugal samrajy ki bahut shaktishali aur prabhavashali shakhsiyat thin. unaki gyan mitrata, soofiyon ke prati unaka samarpan, unaki udarata, darabar men unaki rananiti aur baganon aur vastukala ke prati unaka lagav unake vividh vyaktitv ki pahachan hai."

jahanara ne do kitaben likhi thin aur donon hi farasi bhasha men hain. unhonne 12vin aur 13vin sadi ke soofi hazarat moinuddin chishti par 'monis al-aravah' ke nam se ek kitab likhi hai. soofiyon aur snton ki baton men unaki gahari dilachaspi thi. vo apane shuruati dinon men hi unhen samajh rahi thi. vo shuroo men dara aur bad men apane pita ke sath isase vishay par bahas karati thin. unhonne likha hai ki ek bar jab vo dara ke sath kitab vapas karane ke bahane hindustan ki mallika noorajahan se milane gee, to vo ye janakar hairan rah gee ki noorajahan ne unhen jo kitaben padhane ke lie di thi unaka nam unhen yad tha. noorajahan ne poochha ki unhen faizi ki kitab pasnd aee ya haroon rashid ki kahaniyan. jahanara ne javab diya haroon rashid ki kahaniyan. noorajahan ne kaha ki vo umr ke sath shayari ka annd lena shuroo kar degi.

jahanara ki shiksha ghar men hi huee thi aur unaki man ki saheli sati al-nisa begam[3] ne unhen shiksha di. sati al-nisa begam ek shikshit parivar se thi aur unake bhaee talib amali jahangir ke samay men malikushshuara (rashtrakavi) ki upadhi se sammanit kiye ge the. jab jahanara kuchh dinon ke lie dakkan men thi to unhen ek aur mahila shikshak padhane ke lie ati thi. unaki doosari kitab 16vin aur 17vin sadi ke kashmir ke soofi mulla shah badakhshi par 'risala sahibiya' hai.

daauktar rohama ke anusar- "jahanara se mulla shah badakhshi itane prabhavit the ki vo kahate the ki agar jahanara ek mahila n hoti to vo unhen apane khalifa (uttaradhikari) ke roop men namit kar dete." jahanara ko aupacharik roop se murid (shishy) banane aur apane pir (guru) ke anusar jivan jine vali pahali mugal mahila hone par garv tha. jahanara ke bare men kaha jata hai ki unhonne poore shahajahannabad yani dilli ka naqsha apani dekharekh men banavaya tha. kuchh itihasakaron ka is par matabhed hai, lekin chandani chauk ke bare men kisi ko apatti nahin hai. yah bazar unake achchhe shauq aur shahar ki zarooraton ki pahachan ki nishani hai.

noorajahan aur mumatah mahal ki tulana

jahanara ek jagah noorajahan aur apani man ki sundarata ki tulana karate hue likhati hai ki- "noorajahan apani oonchaee aur chehare ki lnbaee ke karan man se adhik akarshak aur sundar dikhati thi". lekin vo kahati hai ki "unaki man bhi bahut khoobasoorat thi aur phool ki tarah khilati thi jise har koee chahe". jahanara ki dayari se pata chalata hai ki unase badi ek sauteli bahan thi, lekin doosare sabhi bachche shahajahan ko arjumnd ara yani mumataj mahal ke garbh se hue. mahal ka jikr karate hue jahanara likhati hai- "mahal ke andar mahilaon ki duniya hai. shahajadiyan, raniyan ,dasiyan, prashikshu, naukaraniyan, bavarchin, dhobin, gayikaen, nartakiyan, chitrakar aur dasiyan sthitiyon par nazar rakhati hain aur badashah ko vahan ki sthiti se avagat karati rahati hain. kuchh mahilaain shahi parivar se shadi karake aee hain. kuchh ko unaki sundarata ke karan shahazadon ki pasnd par haram men laya gaya hai, kee ka janm haram ki char divaron ke bhitar hua hai. kuchh mahilaon ka kahana hai ki ek bar jab ap haram men pravesh karate hain, to koee bhi apaka chehara nahin dekh sakata hai. ap ek jinn ki tarah gayab ho jate hain aur kuchh dinon ke bad apake ghar vale bhi apaki soorat bhool jate hain."

mukhy kary

uparokt ke alava jahanara ne kee masjiden banavaeen aur ajamer men hazarat moeenuddin chishti ki daragah par ek baradari ka bhi nirman karaya. daauktar rohama batati hain ki jab vo daragah par aee, tab unhen ye baradari[4] banane ka khyal aya tha aur usi samay unhonne seva bhav se is baradari ke nirman ka snkalp liya. unhonne bahut se bagon ka bhi nirman karaya.

agara ki jama masjid ke bare men daauktar rohama ka kahana hai ki- "isake bare men vishesh bat yah hai ki isamen ibadat ke lie mahilaon ke lie ek kamara hai." doosari mahatvapoorn bat yah hai ki mukhy daravaze par pharasi men ek shilalekh hai, jisamen kisi mugal badashah ki tarah jahanara ki, unaki adhyatmikata aur unaki pavitrata ki prashnsa ki gee hai. yah ek tarah ka qasida padhana hai." jahanara mahilaon ke lie ek sarvajanik sthan banane vali pahali mugal shahazadi thi. unhonne dilli se sate yamuna par sahibabad men begam ka bag banavaya tha. isamen mahilaon ke lie sthan arakshit tha balki din bhi arakshit the taki vo azadi ke sath bag ki sair kar saken aur vahan ki khoobasoorati ka annd le saken.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 bharatiy charit kosh |lekhak: liladhar sharma 'parvatiy' |prakashak: shiksha bharati, madarasa rod, kashmiri get, dilli |prishth snkhya: 317 |
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 shahajahan ki beti jo thi duniya ki 'sabase amir' shahazadi (hindi) bbc.com. abhigaman tithi: 02 sitambar, 2020.
  3. jinhen sadar al-nisa ke nam se bhi jana jata hai.
  4. barah dvaron vala mahal.

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