भारतीय ज़मींदारी प्रथा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatiy zamindari pratha madhyakalin tatha aupaniveshikakalin bharat men prachalit thi. bharat ki prachin vicharadhara ke anusar bhoomi sarvajanik snpatti thi, isaliye yah vyakti ki snpatti nahin ho sakati thi. bhoomi bhi vayu, jal evn prakash ki tarah prakritidatt upahar mani jati thi. madras (vartaman chainnee) men zamindari pratha ka uday angrez shasakon ki nilam niti dvara hua. ganvon ki bhoomi ka vibhajan kar unhen nilam kar diya jata tha aur adhikatam mooly dene vale ko vikray kar diya jata tha. prarnbh men avadh men bndobast krishak se hi kiya gaya tha, parntu tadanntar rajanitik karanon se yah bndobast zamindaron se kiya gaya.

aitihasik tathy

  • maharshi jaimini ke matanusar- "raja bhoomi ka samarpan nahin kar sakata, kyonki yah usaki snpatti nahin varanh manav samaj ki sammilit snpatti hai. isaliye is par sabaka saman roop se adhikar hai."
  • manu ka bhi spasht kathan hai ki- "rishiyon ke matanusar bhoomi svamitv ka pratham adhikar use hai, jisane jngal katakar use saph kiya tha."[1]

at: prachin bharat ke kafi bade bhag men bhoomi par gram ke pradhan ka nirvachan gram samuday karata tha tatha usaki niyukti rajy ki sammati se hoti thi. rajy use bhoomikar n dene par hata sakata tha, yadyapi yah pad vnshanugat tha tatha isaki prapti ke liye janamat tatha rajy svikriti avashyak thi. at: vartaman samay ke zamindaron se, jo nirvachit nahin hote, ve bhinn the.[2]

bhoomi ka kray-vikray

bhoomi ka snpatti ke roop men kray-vikray prachin bharat men snbhav nahin tha. is tathy ki pushti pashchaty vidvanh beden pavel tatha sar jaaurj kainpabel ne bhi ki hai. kainpabel ka kathan hai ki bhoomi jotane ka adhikar ek adhikar matr hi tha aur hindoo vyavastha ke anusar bhoomi nahin mana gaya tha. adhunik anusndhanon dvara yah gyat hua hai ki prachin bharat men samnt, uparik, bhogik, pratihar tatha dndanayak vidyaman the. ye log nyoonadhik samnt pratha ke anukool the. kintu inake adhikaron tatha kartavyon ka pata nishchay roop se nahin ho saka hai, sivay isake ki ye log apane svamiyon ko avashyakata padane par sainik bhejate the. in adhikariyon ko parishramik ke roop men bhoomi pradan ki jati thi.

yagyvalky ka mat

bhoomi vyavastha ke snbndh men yagyvalky ke matanusar char varg- 'mahipati', 'kshetrasvami', 'krishak' aur 'shikami' the.[3] achary brihaspati ne kshetrasvami ke sthan men keval 'svami' shabd ka hi prayog kiya hai, parntu isaka spashtikaran kar diya hai ki svami, raja aur khetihar ke madhy ka varg tha. uparyukt varnan keval bhoodhriti ke vargikaran ko ingit karata hai, n ki krishak ko ek angl das ke star par pahuncha deta hai. mukhy prashn to yah hai ki bhoomi par svatv adhikar kisako- rajy ko, krishak ko athava kisi madhyavarti varg ko vidvanon ke matanusar prachin bharat men yah adhikar[4] hi tha, jo svatv adhikar nahin kaha ja sakata.

yavanon ki bhoomi vyavastha

yavan shasanakal men is prachin bhoomi vyavastha men koee roopantar nahin dikhaee deta aur n bhoomi-svatv-adhikaron ke mool siddhanton men parivartan hi. yavan shasak bhoomikar ganv ke mukhiya dvara hi vasool karate the aur kabhi-kabhi sthaniy saradaron v rajaon dvara, jo apana star ganv ke mukhiya se ooncha hone ka dava karate the. in rajaon ke dave men rajy aair krishak ke bich men ek madhyavarti varg ka janm pratit hota hai. parntu samntavad pad avarodh sthayi rakha gaya tha, kyonki rajy sarvada in rajaon ko karmachari hi manate the. yadyapi ye raja vnshanugat hone lage the, tathapi rajy ko inake pad ko dene tatha vapas lene ka adhikar sadaiv prapt tha. ek raja ke uttaradhikari ko raja ki sanad prapt karane ke liye prarthana patr dena padata tha aur sanad ki prapti ke pashchath‌ hi vah raja hota tha. 'aina-e-akabari' men krishak tatha rajy ke bich men kisi madhyavarti varg ko manyata nahin di gee hai tatha kathit raja aur zamindar saiddhantik aur vastavik roop men keval kar vasool karane vale karmachari hi the.[2]

yah ullekhaniy hai ki yavan shasakon ne bhoomi-svamitv-adhikar ka kabhi dava nahin kiya tha. yah bat in aitihasik tathyon se spasht hai ki badashah aurngazeb ne hundi, palam tatha any sthanon par krishakon se bhoomi kharidi thi, jaisa akabar ne akabarabad aur ilahabad men durg banane ke lie kiya tha. aisa hi shahajahan ne bhi kiya tha. ukt pramanon se siddh hota hai ki yavan shasak keval kar vasool karane men hi snpatti adhikar manate the, n ki bhoomi men. unake shasanakal men krishak ke adhikaron ko uchchatam manyata di gee thi. krishak apana kar raja tatha gram ke mukhiya dvara hi deta tha aur raja tatha mukhiya ko rajy dvara is kary ka parishramik milata tha.

ardhasamntavadi bhavana

san 1707 ee. men mugal badashah aurngazeb ki mrityu ke pashchath krishakon ke adhikaron ka lop dhire-dhire arnbh hua, jabaki kendriy satta shithil padane lagi. is arajakata ke samay men ardhasamntavadi svarthon ki manobhavana ka pradurbhav hua. jab rajy ki satta shithil padane lagi, rajy ke karmachari praja ke janamal ki raksha karane men asamarth hone lage. phalasvaroop gram nivasi raksha ke liye shaktishali karmachari evn raja ya mukhiya logon ka sahara lene lage. in logon ne svabhavat: sharanarthi krishakon ke bhoomyadhikaron par akraman kiya. in paristhitiyon men zamindari pratha ke ankur pae jate hain. parntu is snkat kal men bhi krishakon ke bhoomyadhikaron ka poorn samarpan nahin hua tha.

british kal men zamindari pratha ka uday

bharat men angrezon ke agaman kal se hi zamindari pratha ka uday hone laga. angrez shasakon ka vishvas tha ki ve bhoomi ke svami hain aur krishak unaki praja hai, isaliye unhonne sthayi bndovast tatha asthayi bndovast bade krishakon tatha rajaon aur zamindaron se kie. yadyapi rajanitik auchity se prabhavit hokar usane ek ek paragana har kar vasool karane vale ijaredar ko panch varsh ke liye patte par de diya. is prakar zamindari pratha ko angrazon ne manyata pradan ki, yadyapi arnbh men unaka vichar krishakon ko unake adhikaron se vnchit karane ka nahin tha. san 1786 ee. men laaurd kaaurnavaaulis laaurd varen hestigaj ke bad gavarnar-janaral hua. laaurd kaaurnavaaulis bhi zamindari pratha ke paksh men tha. usane san 1791 ee. bngal, bihar tatha udisa men das varshiy bndobast ki agya di. do varsh pashchath 'bord aauf dairektars' ne is das varshiy yojana ko sthayi bndobast[5] bana dene ki anumati de di.[2]

angrez shasakon ki nilam niti

madras (vartaman chainnee) men zamindari pratha ka uday angrez shasakon ki nilam niti dvara hua. ganvon ki bhoomi ka vibhajan kar unhen nilam kar diya jata tha aur adhikatam mooly dene vale ko vikray kar diya jata tha. prarnbh men avadh men bndobast krishak se hi kiya gaya tha, parntu tadanntar rajanitik karanon se yah bndobast zamindaron se kiya gaya. mahanh itihasakar sar vinsent e. smith, aligadh ki bndobast riport men, yah bat spasht roop se svikar karata hai ki prachalit bhoomyadhikaron ki upeksha karate hue keval upayogita ko lakshy men rakhakar bndobast ijaradaron[6] se kie ge. anyayapoorn kar rashi ikattha karane ka yah sabase saral upay hai, tatha yah rajaniti ke drishtikon se bhi upayogi hai, kyonki isake phalasvaroop sarakar ko ek shaktishali tatha dhani varg ki sahayata milati rahegi. is prakar bharatavarsh ke itihas men sarvapratham in bndobaston dvara rajy aur krishakon ke bich men jamindaron ka varg angrezon ki niti dvara sthapit hua, jisake phalasvaroop krishakon ke bhoo-snpatti adhikar, jo anadi kal se chale a rahe the, chhin ge. yah madhyavarti varg din pratidin dhani hota gaya, kyonki angrez shasak apani kar rashi men se adhik se adhik hissa unhen pralobhan ke roop men dete rahe.

in bndobaston men krishakon ke hiton ki or koee dhyan nahin diya gaya tha, jisake parinamasvaroop unaka du:kh, apaman evn daridray din pratidin badhata gaya. kee bar angrez shasakon ne bhi is or dhyan dilaya ki krishakon ki bhoodhriti ki raksha ki jaye evn unaka lagan bndobast ke samay tak nirdharit kar diya jaye. phir bhi kuchh nahin kiya gaya. isaka karan yah tha ki angrez shasakon ki dharana thi, ki zamindaron ke sath vyavahar men udarata dikhane par jab ve snpann evn sntusht rahenge to ve apane asamiyon ko nahin sataenge, jisake phalasvaroop ve bhi khushahal rahenge. parntu yah unaki mahanh bhool thi, kyonki jamindaron ne hamesha hi apane kartavy ke sath vishvasaghat kiya. at: angrez shasak yah mahasoos karane lage ki is bhool ka sudhar kiya jae. phalasvaroop unhonne krishakon ki dasha sudharane ke lie bhoomi snbndhi vidhanon ki vyavastha ki. yah kadam zamindari pratha ke ast ki disha men pratham charan kaha ja sakata hai.[2]

bhoomi snbndhi pahala adhiniyam

is pratham charan men, jo san 1859 ee. se 1929 ee. tak raha, jo qanoon bane unase zamindaron ke lagan badhane ke adhikaron par kuchh pratibndh lagae ge aur uchch shreni ke krishakon ko labh bhi hue. kintu in qanoonon ka mukhy uddeshy zamindaron ko lagan vasool karane men sahooliyat dene ka tha, jisase ve rajy ko rajasv thik samay par de saken. san 1959 ee. men bhoomi snbndhi pahala adhiniyam pas hua. yah adhiniyam samast british bharat ke liye ek adarsh bhoomi-adhiniyam tha, jisake anuroop adhiniyam bharat ke sabhi bhagon men pas hue aur samay-samay par unamen snshodhan bhi kie ge taki asntusht krishakon ko shant kiya ja sake. kintu zamindar phir bhi krishakon ko apane nyayapoorn tatha anyayapoorn karon ko vasoolane ke liye nichodate rahe, jisase kisanon men ghor asntosh tatha bechaini phailane lagi.

kisan andolan

zamindari pratha ke ast ke kram men doosara charan san 1930 ee. se 1944 ee. tak raha. is samay men sare desh men kisan andolan hone lage. in andolanon ka bij ek kisan sabha ne boya tha, jo 'akhil bharatiy kangres' ki ilahabad baithak men 11 faravari, san 1918 ee. ko huee thi. tatpashchath‌ kangres kisanon ke hiton ko age badhane lagi. parinamasvaroop gramin janata men kafi jagrati paida ho gee. pn. javaharalal neharoo ne 'yoo. pi. kangres kameti' men 27 aktoobar, 1928 ko ghoshana ki ki rajanitik svatntrata nirarthak hai, jab tak kisanon ko shoshan se mukti n prapt ho. shanai: shanai: kisanon ki jagarookata badhi aur sath hi sath unaki vyakulata bhi. kisan varg ab adhik mukhar ho gaya aur bhoodhriti ki sthirata evn lagan men kami ki mang karane laga.

kisan andolanon se prabhavit hokar raiyyatavadi kshetron men naye adhiniyam banae gaye, jinase krishakon ke hiton ki raksha ho sake. 'malabar tenensi aikt' (1930 ee.) is snbndh men sima chinh hai. isake bad 'bhopal laind revenyoo aikt', 1935 tatha 'asam tenensi aikt' 1935 pas hue. 'gavarnament aauv indiya aikt', 1935 ke arntagat jab ‘pravinshal atonomi’ ka udghatan hua to prantiy sarakaron ne bhoomi sudhar adhiniyamon ki vyavastha ki, jinamen krishakon ko aur adhikar pradan kie ge tatha zamindaron ke adhikaron ki katauti ki gee. 'yoo. pi. tenensi aikt', 1939 tatha 'bnbee tenensi aikt', 1939 ye vishisht udaharan aise vyapak adhiniyamon ke hain, jinake dvara krishakon ko mauroosi adhikar die ge evn krishakon ke hit men zamindaron ke katipay adhikar chhin liye gaye.[2]

zamindari unmoolan ka prastav

in bhoomi sudhar adhiniyamon ke banane par bhi zamindari pratha ki buraiyan vidyaman rahin, yadyapi kafi had tak zamindaron ko pngu bana diya gaya tha. in zamindaron ko neharoo ‘british sarakar ki atilalit sntan[7]’ kaha karate the. ve bhootakalin samntavadi pratha ke pratik the, jo ki adhunik paristhatiyon ke bilkul pratikool ho gee thi. isalie 'indiyan neshanal kangres' ne kee bar is bat ki ghoshana ki ki zamindari unmoolan ko kangres ke karyakram men pramukh sthan dena chahie. ek kisan kaphronns 17 aprail, 28 aprail san 1935 ee. ko saradar patel ke sabhapatitv men ilahabad men huee thi. usane zamindari unmoolan ko prastav pas karake is or ek pramukh kadam uthaya. is prastav men yah ghoshana ki gee thi ki ‘gram kalyan ke drishtikon se vartaman zamindari pratha bilkul viparit hai. yah pratha british shasan ke agaman men layi gayi aur isase gramin jivan poornataya tahas-nahas ho gaya hai’. parntu san 1939 ee. men dvitiy vishvayuddh shuroo ho jane ke karan bhoomi sudhar ka sara karyakram ruk gaya.

yuddh ki samapti ke bad zamindari pratha ke ant ka antim charan arnbh hua jo san 1945 se 1955 tak chala. yuddh samapt hote hi british sarakar ne 1945 ee. men 'gavarnament aauf indiya aikt-1935' ee. ke antargat prantiy sadanon ke chunav karane ka phaisala kiya. kangres ne chunav men bhag lene ka nishchay kiya aur disnbar, 1945 men chunav ghoshana patr nikala. is ghoshana patr men zamindari unmoolan ke vishay men spasht tay kaha gaya ki ‘bhoomi vyavastha ka sudhar, jisaki bharat men ati avashyakata hai, krishakon tatha rajy ke bich madhyavarti varg ko hatane se snbndhit hai. isalie is madhyavarti varg ke adhikaron ka uchit pratikar dekar prapt kar liya jana chahie." is ghoshana patr se arthashastri, rajanitigy tatha patrakar sabhi sahamat the.

arthik vikas rokane vali pratha

zamindari pratha bharatiy arthik vikas men rukavat dalati thi, kyonki bade zamindar hamesha pratikriyavad ke samarthak the. ‘lndan ikonomist’ ne inake vishay men likha tha ki "inamen se adhikatar ‘thaikarase’ ke patr ‘laaurd stin’ ki tarah dushcharitr, ‘jen astin’ ke ‘mistar benet’ ki tarah alasi, ‘surtijaskvayar’ ki tarah sharabi the.[8] 'bngal laind kamishan' (san 1940 ee.) bhi is nishkarsh par pahuncha ki "san 1793 ee. ka sthayi bndobast us samay jin bhi karanon se uchit samajha gaya ho, aj ki paristhiti men anupayukt hai aur zamindari pratha men itani buraiyan upaj chuki hain ki yah ab rashtr ke hit men kisi bhi prakar upayogi nahin rah gee hai." bharatiy tatha pashchaty arthavettaon ki ray men zamindari unmoolan adhik krishi utpadan ke lie atyavashyak hai. isake atirikt yah pratha snsar ke har bhag men samayanukool n hone ke karan samapt ho chuki hai. punashch, yah pratha rajy ke liye adhik kharchili hai. sarvopari, yah pratha is samay aisi sthiti par pahunch chuki thi ki yadi isaka unmoolan n kiya gaya hota to isake karan ne keval rashtriy arthik samasya par hi varanh samaj suraksha par bhi vipatti a padati.[2]

pratha ki samapti

at: san 1946 ee. men chunav men saphalata ke phalasvaroop jab har prant men kangres ke mntrimndal bane to chunav pratigya ke anusar zamindari pratha ko samapt karane ke liye vidheyak prastut kiye gaye. ye vidheyak san 1950 se 1955 tak banakar chaloo ho ge, jinake parinamasvaroop zamindari pratha ka bharat men unmoolan ho gaya aur krishakon evn rajy ke bich pun: sidha snbndh sthapit ho gaya. bhoomi ke svatvadhikar ab krishakon ko vapas mil ge, jinaka upayog ve anadi parnparagat kal se karate chale ae the. is prakar jis zamindari pratha ka uday angrezon ke agaman se hua tha, usaka ant bhi unake shasan ke samapt hote hi ho gaya. is pratha ki samapti par kisi ne tanik bhi shok prakat nahin kiya, kyonki isaka vinash hote hi purane siddhant ki, jisake anusar bhoomi ka svami krishak hota tha, punaravriti huee.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jota, manusmriti, 8, 237,239
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 bharatiy zamindari pratha (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 22 sitambar, 2015.
  3. yagyvalky 2.158
  4. Servitus
  5. permanent settlement
  6. revenue farmers
  7. Spoilt child
  8. Indian land porblem, G.D. Patel

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