आंग्ल-अफ़ग़ान युद्ध प्रथम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pratham angl-afagan yuddh (1838-1842 ee.) eest indiya kampani ke shasan kal men gavarnar-janaral laaurd aaukalaind ke samay men shuroo hua aur yah usake uttaradhikari laaurd elanabaro ke samay tak chalata raha. roos apani shakti kafi badha chuka tha aur ab vah afaganistan par bhi apana prabhav jamana chahata tha. afaganistan ka amir dost muhammad british sarakar se samajhauta karana chahata tha, kyonki vah pnjab ke maharaja ranajit sinh se apani suraksha chahata tha. is yuddh ke parinamasvaroop angrezon ne qabul par qabza kar liya aur vahan bhaynkar lootamar ki. hazaron afagan logon ko maut ke ghat utar diya. is 'angl-afagan yuddh' se koee labh nahin hua, balki isamen 20,000 bharatiy tatha angrez sainik mare ge aur dedh karod rupaya barbad ho gaya, jisako bharat ki garib janata se vasoola gaya.

roos ka badhata prabhav

1868 ee. men afaganistan ka bhootapoorv amir shahashuja angrezon ka penshanayaphta hokar pnjab ke ludhiyana nagar men rahata tha. us samay roos ke gupt samarthan se faras ki sena ne afaganistan ke simavarti nagar herat ko gher liya. herat bahut samarik mahattv ka nagar mana jata tha aur use 'bharat ka dvar' samajha jata tha. jab us par roos ki sahayata se faras ne qabza kar liya to inglaind ki sarakar ne use bharat ke british samrajy ke lie khatara mana. halanki us samay faras aur bharat ke british samrajy ke bich men pnjab men ranajit sinh aur afaganistan men dost muhammad ka svatntr rajy tha.

dost muhammad ki ichchha

amir dost muhammad bhi herat par faras ke hamale se roosi akraman ka khatara mahasoos kar raha tha. vah apani suraksha ke lie bharat ki british sarakar se samajhauta karana chahata tha. kintu vah apane poorab ke padosi maharaja ranajit sinh se apani suraksha ki garnti chahata tha, jisane hal hi men peshavar par adhikar kar liya tha. at: usane is shart par 'angl-afagan gathabndhan' ka prastav rakha ki angrez use ranajit sinh se peshavar vapas dilane men madad denge aur isake badale men amir apane darabar tatha desh ko roosiyon ke prabhav se mukt rakhega. laaurd aaukalaind ki sarakar maharaja ranajit sinh ki shakti se bhay khati thi aur usane us par kisi bhi prakar ka dabav dalane se inkar kar diya.

tripakshiy sandhi tatha hamala

barns, jise aaukalaind ne amir se batachit ke lie qabul bheja tha, aprail 1838 ee. men qabul se khali hath laut aya. usake lautane ke bad amir ne ek roosi ejent ki avabhagat ki, jo kuchh samay se usake darabar men rahata tha aur ab tak upeksha ka patr bana hua tha. is bat ko aaukalaind ki sarakar ne amir ka shatrutapoorn vyavahar samajha aur julaee, 1838 ee. men usane pnjab ke maharaja ranajit sinh aur nishkasit amir shahashuja se, jo ludhiyana men rahata tha, ek tripakshiy sndhi kar li, jisaka uddeshy shahashuja ko phir se afaganistan ki gaddi par baithana tha. yah anuman tha ki shahashuja qabul men amir banane ke bad apane videshi snbndhon men, khasataur se roos ke snbndh men bharat ki british sarakar se niyntrit hoga. is akramak aur anyayapoorn tripakshiy sndhi ke bad angl-afagan yuddh anivary ho gaya. is tripakshiy sndhi ka yadi julaee 1838 men kuchh auchity bhi tha to vah sitambar men faras ki sena dvara herat ka ghera utha liye jane aur afagan kshetr se hat jane ke bad samapt ho gaya. lekin laaurd aaukalaind ko isase santosh nahin hua aur aktoobar men usane afaganistan par chadhaee kar di.

dost muhammad ka atm-samarpan

is akraman ka koee auchity nahin tha aur isake dvara 1832 ee. men sindh ke amiron se ki gee sndhi ka bhi ullnghan hota tha, kyonki angrezi sena unake kshetr se hokar afaganistan gayi thi. is yuddh ka snchalan bhi bahut galat dhng se kiya gaya. arambh men angrezi sena ko kuchh saphalata mili. aprail 1839 ee. men kndhar par qabza kar liya gaya. julaee men angrezi sena ne gazani le liya aur agast men qabul. dost muhammad ne qabul khali kar diya aur ant men angrez sena ke age atm samarpan kar diya. usako bndi banakar kalakatta bhej diya gaya aur shahashuja ko phir se afaganistan ka amir bana diya gaya. kintu isake bad hi sthiti aur bhi visham ho gee.

afaganon ka krodh

shahashuja ko amir banane ke bad angrezi sena vahan se vapas bula leni chahie thi, lekin aisa nahin kiya gaya. shahashuja keval kathaputali shasak tha aur desh ka prashasan vastav men sar viliyam maikanatan ke hathon men tha, jisako laaurd aaukalaind ne rajanitik adhikari ke roop men vahan bheja tha. afagan log pahale se hi shahashuja ko pasand nahin karate the aur is bat se bahut naraj the ki angrezi sena ki bandookon ki or se use amir bana diya gaya hai. isilie qabul men angrezi adhipaty sena ko rakhana zaroori ho gaya tha. yuddh ke karan chizon ke dam betahasha badh gaye the, jisase janata ka har varg pidit tha. angrezi sena ki kuchh harakaton se bhi janarosh prabal ho gaya tha. is mauke ka dost muhammad ke ladake akabar khan ne chalaki se phayada uthaya aur 1841 ee. men poore desh men shahashuja aur usaki snrakshak angrez sena ke viruddh bade paimane par balave shuroo ho ge. sar viliyan maikanatan ke khas salahakar elekzendar barns ki aniti se afagan log chidhe hue the. navambar, 1841 ee. men ek kruddh afagan bhid barns aur usake bhaee ko ghar se ghasit kar le gee aur donon ko mar dala.

akraman

maikanatan aur qabul sthit angrezi sena ke kamandar janaral enafinstan ne us samay dhulamulapan aur kamazori ka pradarshan kiya aur disambar men akabar khan se sndhi kar li, jisake dvara afaganistan se angrezi sena ko vapas bula lene aur dost muhammad ko dubara amir bana dene ka ashvasan diya gaya. shighr hi yah bat saf ho gee ki is sndhi ke pichhe maikanatan ki niyat saf nahin hai. is par akabar khan ke adesh se maikanatan aur usake tin sathiyon ko maut ke ghat utar diya gaya. qabul par adhikar karane vali angrezi sena ke 16,500 sainik 6 janavari, 1841 ee. ko qabul se jalalabad ki or ravana hue, jahan janaral sel ke netritv men ek doosari angrez sena dati huee thi. angrezi sena ki vapasi vinashakari siddh huee. afaganon ne sabhi or se us par akraman kar diya aur poori sena nasht kar di. keval ek vyakti, 'daktar viliyam braidan' gambhir roop se jakhmi aur thaka manda 13 janavari ko jalalabad pahuncha.

angrezon ki vijay

is durghatana se gavarnar-janaral laaurd aaukalaind aur inglaind ki sarakar ko gahara dhakka laga. aaukalaind ko inglaind vapas bula liya gaya aur laaurd elanabaro ko usake sthan par gavarnar-janaral (1842-1844 ee.) banaya gaya. elanabaro ke karyakal men janaral polak ne aprail, 1842 ee. men jalalabad par phir se niyntran kar liya aur mee men janaral naaut ne kndhar ko phir se angrezon ke adhikar men le liya. isake bad donon angrezi senaen raste men sabhi virodhiyon ko kuchalate hue age badhin aur sitambar, 1842 ee. men qabul par adhikar kar liya. in senaon ne bache hue bndi angrez sipahiyon ko chhudaya aur angrezon ki vijay ke upalakshy men qabul ke bazar ko barood se uda diya.

qabul ki loot

angrezon ne qabul shahar ko nirdayata ke sath dhvast kar dala, bade paimane par lootamar ki aur hazaron begunah afaganon ko maut ke ghat utar diya. in barbaratapoorn krityon ke sath is anyayapoorn aur alabhaprad yuddh ka ant hua. shighr hi afaganistan se angrezi sena ko vapas bula liya gaya aur dost muhammad, jise kalakatta men nazarabndi se riha kar diya tha, afaganistan vapas laut gaya aur 1842 ee. men dobara gaddi par baitha, jisase use anavashyak aur anuchit tarike se hata diya gaya tha. vah 1863 ee. tak afaganistan ka shasak raha. us varsh 80 sal ki umr men usaka dehant hua.

nishkarsh

isamen koee sandeh nahin ki 'pratham afagan yuddh' bharat ki british sarakar ki or se nitant anuchit riti se akaran hi chhed diya gaya tha aur laaurd aaukalaind ki sarakar ne usaka snchalan badi ayogyata ke sath kiya. is yuddh se koee labh nahin hua aur isamen 20,000 se bhi adhik bharatiy tatha angrez sainik mare ge. yuddh men dedh karod rupaya barbad ho gaya, jisako bharat ki garib janata se jabaran vasoola gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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