जॉन गिलक्राइस्ट  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi bhasha aur farasi lipi ka ghalamel phort viliyam kaaulej (1800-54) ki den thi. phort viliyam kaaulej ke hindustani vibhag ke sarvapratham adhyaksh jaaun gilakraist the. unake anusar hindustani ki tin shailiyan thin—

  1. darabari ya farasi shaili
  2. hindustani shaili
  3. hindavi shaili.

gilakraist farasi shaili ko durooh tatha hindavi shaili ko gnvaroo manate the. isalie unhonne hindustani shaili ko prathamikata di. unhonne hindustani ke jis roop ko badhava diya, usaka mooladhar to hindi hi tha, kintu usamen arabi–farasi shabdon ki bahulata thi aur vah farasi lipi men likhi jati thi. gilakraist ne hindustani ke nam par asal men urdoo ka hi prachar kiya.

parichay

gilakraist ka janm sanh 1759 men edinabara men hua tha. unhonne edinabara ke jarj heriyats aspatal men chikitsa snbndhi shiksha grahan ki. chikitsiy shiksha prapt kar ve aprail 1783 ko eest indiya knpani men ek chikitsak ke roop men kalakatta bharat ae jahan 21 aktoobar sanh 1794 ko sarjan ka pad diya gaya. tab tak shasan kary pharasi men hota tha. jaaun gilakraist ne pharasi ke sthan par shasanakary ko hindustani ke madhyam se chalane ki bat sochi. ve svayn adhyayan karate rahe aur doosaron ko bhi is bat ke lie prerana dete rahe.

rachanaen

yahan unhonne hindustani ke adhyayan ke lie vishesh prayatn kiya aur e dikshanari aauf ingalish end hindustani, do bhag (1787-1790) e gramar aauf hindustani lainvej (1793), di oriyntal ligvistik (1798) ki rachana ki. phort viliyam kaaulej men[1] adhyaksh niyukt hue jisake bad anek pathy pustakon ka sampadan kiya, jaise- d entijargonist[2], d strenjars. eest indiya kampani gaid too d hindustani[3] dvitiy snskaran lndan se 1808 men, tritiy snskaran 1820 men, d hindi stori telar[4], e kalaikshan aauf dayalaaugs ingalish end hindustani[5] edinabara se dvitiy snskaran 1820 men, d hindi maaurel priseptar[6], d oriyntal phaibyoolist[7] adi.

dikshanari inglish aind hindustani

dikshanari ke lie samagri jutane ke lie unhonne gajipur men 1787 se 1794 tak nil ki kheti aur aphim ka kary shuroo kiya. isi silasile men ve kuchh din banaras men bhi rahe aur is prakar gahan adhyavasay ke bad 1787-1790 ee. men 'dikshanari inglish aind hindustani' ke do bhag prakashit kiye.

kalakatta nivas

1774 men ve kalakatta men nivas karane lage. vahin unhonne 'hindustani gramar'[8] tatha 'oriyantal lingvist' 1798 ee. men likha.

hindustani bhasha ke vibhagadhyaksh

inhin dinon kampani ke videshi karmachariyon ko pharasi aur hindustani sikhane ki ek yojana taiyar ki gayi. 1778 se parikshaen bhi arambh kar di gayin. 'oriyantal seminari' namak ek sarakari snstha ka bhi janma hua. lard velejali ke ane par phort viliyam kaaulej men jaaun gilakraist hindustani bhasha ke vibhagadhyaksh ho gaye.

kary
  • 1800 ee. men 'oriyantal lingvist' ka snkshipt snskaran nikala.
  • 1802 ee. men 'hindustani tels end prinsipals', 'paliglaaut' aur 'gulistan' ke anuvad prakashit hue.
  • 1803 ee. men 'd hindi maral preseptrr' likha.
  • 1804 men 'e kalekshan aauf dayalags' ki rachana ki. isi bich lalloolal aur sadal mishr ko ve phort viliyam kaaulej men hindustani padhane ke lie le gaye.
  • 1804 ee. men ve yoorop chale gaye. unaka karyakshetr prayah lndan raha. unhen edinabara se el-el.di. ki upadhi mili. yoorop men rahakar ve koee rachana prakashit n kar sake. niji roop se ve 1816-26 tak padhate rahe. pahale ve 'oriyantl instraktar' rahe, phir hindustani ki kakshaen lene lage.
  • 'dikshanari inglish aind hindustani' men adhikansh shabd arabi pharasi ke hain. isamen shabd pharasi lipi men hain.
  • 'hindustani gramar' men pharasi chhandon ke udaharan hain. paribhashit shabdavali arabi pharasi ki hai. uddharan urdoo sahity se bhi diye gaye hain, jaise vali, dard, taban, aphajal, jurat, mir, sauda, bedar adi.
  • 'militri-tarms', 'artikils aauf var', tels aind enekdots', 'ods', 'strenjars gaid', 'hindi dikshanari' (1802) bhi hindustani vyakaran hain.
  • 'hindi mainual' maulik rachana nahin, sngrah hai. isamen apane vibhag ke adhyapakon ki kritiyon se vichitr shailiyon ke namoone chune gaye hain.
  • 'hindi stori telar' inaki maulik rachana hai.
  • 'hindi maaural preseptar' hindi se pharasi aur pharasi se hindi ka vyakaran hai. yah bhi maulik nahin hai.
  • 'hindi roman an graiphikal altimetm' men roman lipi ki shreshthata pramanit ki gayi hai. yah bhi maulik kriti hai.
hindustani bhasha

jaaun gilakraist ki drishti men 'hindustani' darabari bhasha hai. unhonne ise hindi, urdoo, aur rekhata bhi kaha hai. hindavi ko ve keval hinduon ki bhasha manate the. ise gnvaroon kahate the. shaili ke lie pharasi bhasha aur lipi ka gyan anivary manate the. unhin ke shabdon men hindustani hindi, arabi, aur pharasi ka mishrit roop hai. vah bhasha aya, munshi aur khanasama ki bhasha hai.

mahattv

jaaun gilakraist ke bhasha aur lipi snbndhi drishtikonon se aj asahamati ho sakati hai, kintu sahity ke itihas men khadi boli ke adhunik gady ke unnayak ke roop men unaka nam sadashyata se liya jayega.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1800
  2. d oriyntal ligvistik ka snkshipt snskaran (1800)
  3. 1802
  4. 1802
  5. 1904
  6. 1803
  7. 1803
  8. 1796-98

dhirendr, varma “bhag- 2 par adharit”, hindi sahity kosh (hindi), 132, 217.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

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