क्रिप्स मिशन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

krips mishan
krips mishan ke dauran mahatma gandhi aur steford krips
vivaran 'krips mishan' briten dvara bharat ka sakriy sahayog pane ke lie yuddhakalin mntrimandal ke ek sadasy staiford krips ki adhyakshata men bheja gaya tha.
tithi march 1942
netritvakarta steford krips
uddeshy bharat ke sath rajanitik gatirodh door karana aur bharatiyon ka sahayog prapt karana.
vishesh mahatma gandhi ne krips prastavon par tippani karate huye kaha tha ki- "yah age ki tarikh ka chek tha, jisaka baink nasht hone vala tha."
snbndhit lekh aupaniveshik kal, bharatiy rashtriy kangres
any janakari kangres ki or se javaharalal neharoo tatha maulana abul kalam azad ko krips mishan ke sndarbh men parikshan evn vichar vimarsh hetu adhikrit kiya tha.

krips mishan british pradhanamntri charchil dvara british snsad sadasy tatha majadoor neta sar stefard krips ke netritv men march 1942 men bharat bheja gaya tha, jisaka uddeshy bharat ke rajanitik gatirodh ko door karana tha. halanki is mishan ka vastavik uddeshy yuddh men bharatiyon ko sahayog pradan karane hetu unhen phusalana tha. sar krips, british yuddh mntrimndal ke sadasy bhi the tatha unhonne bharatiy rashtriy andolan ka sakriyata se samarthan kiya tha. kangres ki or se javaharalal neharoo tatha maulana abul kalam azad ko krips mishan ke sndarbh men parikshan evn vichar vimarsh hetu adhikrit kiya tha.

mishan bhejane ke karan

  1. jahan ek or dakshin-poorv eshiya men briten ko karari har ka samana karana pada, vahin doosari or bharat par japan ke akraman ka bhay dinon-din badhata ja raha tha. in paristhitiyon men briten ko bharat se samarthan ki koee ummid nahin dikhaee de rahi thi.
  2. briten par mitr rashtron (amerika, soviyat sngh evn chin) ki or se yah dabav dala ja raha tha ki vo bharat ka samarthan prapt kare.
  3. bharatiyon ne is shart par mitr rashtron ko samarthan dena svikar kar liya tha ki bharat ko thos uttaradayi shasan ka tvarit hastantaran kar diya jaye tatha yuddhoparant bharat ko poorn ajadi dene ka vachan diya jaye.

mukhy pravadhan

krips mishan ke mukhy pravadhan nimnanusar the-

  1. dominiyan rajy ke darje ke sath ek bharatiy sngh ki sthapana ki jayegi; yah sngh rashtramndal ke sath apane snbndhon ke nirdharan men svatntr hoga tatha snyukt rashtr sngh evn any antararashtriy nikayon evn snsthaon men apani bhoomika ko khud hi nirdharit karega.
  2. yuddh ki samapti ke pashchath naye snvidhan nirman hetu snvidhan nirmatri parishad ka gathan kiya jayega. isake kuchh sadasy prantiy vidhayikaon dvara nirvachit kiye jayenge tatha kuchh (riyasaton ka pratinidhitv karane ke liye) rajaon dvara manonit kiye jayenge.
  3. british sarakar, snvidhan nirmatri parishad dvara banaye gaye naye snvidhan ko agralikhit shaton ke adhin svikar karega-
  • snvidhan nirmatri parishad dvara nirmit snvidhan jin pranton ko svikar nahin hoga, ve bharatiy sngh se prithakh hone ke adhikari hongen. prithakh hone vale pranton ko apana prithakh snvidhan banane ka adhikar hoga. deshi riyasaton ko bhi isi prakar ka adhikar hoga.
  • navagathit snvidhan nimatrii parishad tatha british sarakar satta ke hastantaran tatha prajatiy tatha dharmik alpasnkhyakon ke hiton ki raksha ke mudde ko apasi samajhaute dvara hal karenge.
  • ukt vyavastha hone tak bharat ke suraksha snbndhi dayitvon ka nirvahan briten karega; desh ki suraksha ka niyntran evn nirdeshan karega; tatha gavarnar-janaral ki samast shaktiyan poorvavath bani rahengi.

prastavon ka poorvavarti prastavon se bhinn hona

krips mishan ke dauran mahatma gandhi aur steford krips

krips mishan ke prastav isake poorvavarti prastavon se anek arthon men bhinn the-

  1. snvidhan ke nirman ka adhikar ab vastavik taur par bharatiyon ke hathon men tha.
  2. snvidhan nirmatri sabha ke gathan hetu ek thos yojana banayi gayi thi.
  3. pranton ko apana prithakh snvidhan banane ka vikalp diya gaya tha. yah vyavastha, apratyaksh roop se bharat ka vibhajan sunishchit karati thi.
  4. svatntr bharat ke liye yah adhikar sunishchit kiya gaya tha ki use rashtramndal se prithakh hone ka adhikar hoga.
  5. bharatiyon ko prashasan men bhagidari ka bharapoor avasar pradan kiya jana sunishchit kiya gaya tha.

asaphalata ke karan

krips mishan ke prastav bharatiy rashtravadiyon ko sntusht karane men asaphal rahe tatha sadharan taur par bharatiyon ke kisi bhi varg ki sahamati nahin prapt kar sake. vibhinn dalon tatha samoohon ne alag-alag adhar par in prastavon ka virodh kiya. kangres ne nimn adhar par prastavon ka virodh kiya-

  1. bharat ko poorn svatntrata ke sthan par dominiyan stets ka darja diye jane ki vyavastha.
  2. deshi riyasaton ke pratinidhiyon ke liye nirvachan ke sthan par manonayan ki vyavastha.
  3. pranton ko bharatiy sngh se prithakh hone tatha prithakh snvidhan banane ki vyavastha, jo ki rashtriy ekata ke siddhant ke viruddh tha.
  4. satta ke tvarit hastantaran ki yojana ka abhav tatha pratiraksha ke mudde par vastavik bhagidari ki vyavastha ka n hona; gavarnar-janaral ki sarvochchata poorvavat thi; tatha gavarnar-janaral ko keval snvaidhanik pramukh banane ki mang ko svikar n kiya jana.

muslim lig dvara asvikar karana

muslim lig ne bhi krips mishan ke prastavon ko asvikar kar diya tatha isake liye nimn tark diye-

  1. ekal bharatiy sngh ki vyavastha ka hona use svikary nahin tha.
  2. snvidhan nirmatri parishad ke gathan ka jo adhar sunishchit kiya tha, vah use svikary nahin tha tatha pranton ke sngh se prithakh hone tatha apana prithakh snvidhan banane ki jo vidhi nirdharit ki gayi thi, usase bhi lig asahamat thi.
  3. prastavon men musalamanon ke atm-nirdharan ke siddhant tatha prithakh pakistan ki mang ko nahin svikar kiya gaya tha.

any dalon dvara virodh

any dalon ne bhi pranton ko sngh se prithakh hone ka adhikar diye jane ka virodh kiya. udaravadiyon ka manana tha ki pranton ko sngh se prithakh hone ka vikalp dena bharat ki ekata evn suraksha ke viruddh hai. hindoo mahasabha ne bhi is pravadhan ki alochana ki. daliton ne anuman lagaya ki vibhajan ke pashchath unhen bahusnkhyak hinduon ki kripa par jina padega. sikkhon ka virodh is bat par tha ki vibhajan hone par pnjab unase chhin jayega. angrezon ne kaha ki yah yojana 1940 ke agast prastavon ka hi ek roop hai, jise adhik spasht kiya gaya ho isaka uddeshy us purane prastav ka atikraman karana nahin hai. angrejon ki is ghoshana se sarakar ke prati shnka aur badh gayi.

krips dvara prastavon se age akar bharatiyon ka vishvas jitane ki asaphalata tatha unaka yah kahana ki "ise svikar karo ya chhod do", gatirodh ke sabase pramukh karan the. prarambh men krips ne "mntrimndal ke gathan" tatha "rashtriy sarakar" ki sthapana ki bat kahi, kintu bad men ve apani baton se mukar gaye tatha kahane lage ki unaka ashay keval karyakarini parishadh ke vistar se tha. pranton ke vilay ya prithakh hone ki vyavastha ka pravadhan aspasht tha. sngh se prithakh hone ke prastav ka vidhanamndal men 60 pratishat sadasyon dvara anumodan kiya jana avashyak tha. yadi is prastav ka 60 pratishat se kam sadasy samarthan karenge, tab ise prant ke vayask purushon ke samany bahumat se parit hona avashyak hoga. yah vyavastha vishesh roop se pnjab evn bngal ke hinduon ke liye hanikarak thi, bhale hi ve bharatiy sngh men shamil hona chahate the.

british sarakar ki vastavik mnsha

mishan ke prastavon men yah bhi aspasht tha ki satta ke hastantaran snbndhi pravadhanon ko kaun lagu karega tatha kaun inaki vyakhya karega. british sarakar ki vastavik mnsha yah thi ki krips mishan saphal n ho. kyonki vah bharatiyon ko satta ke hastantaran tatha desh ki pratiraksha snbndhi jimmedari men bhagidari, donon ke viruddh thi. udhar, charchil (british pradhanamntri), emari (videsh mntri), linalithago (vayasaray) tatha vevel (kamandar-in-chiph) bhi nahin chahate the ki krips mishan saphal ho. vayasaray ke vito (nishedhadhikar) ke mudde par stefard krips tatha kangres ke netaon ke madhy batachit toot gayi.

gandhi-neharoo tippani

mahatma gandhi ne krips prastavon par tippani karate huye kaha ki- "yah age ki tarikh ka chek tha, jisaka baink nasht hone vala tha." javaharalal neharoo ne krips prastavon ke snbndh men kaha ki- "krips yojana ko svikar karana bharat ko anishchit khandon men vibhajit karane ke liye marg prashast karana tha."

is prakar stefard krips bharatiyon ko nirasha evn asamnjas ke vatavaran men chhodakar vapas inglaind laut gaye. bharatiy jo abhi bhi fansivadi akraman ke piditon ke prati poori sahanubhooti ki tasvir apane mano-mastishk men snjoye huye the, angrez sarakar ke ravaiye se khud ko chhala hua mahasoos karane lage the. ab bharatiyon ne yah manana prarambh kar diya ki vartaman paristhitiyan asahaniy ban chuki hain tatha samrajyavad par antim prahar karana avashyak ho gaya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah