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sikkh dharm ka pratik

sikkh logon ko guru nanak (1469-1539 ee.) ke anuyayiyon ke roop men jana jata hai. mukhy roop se pnjab hi unaka nivas sthan hai. prarambh men ve shantipriy the aur unamen paraspar jati-panti ka koee bhedabhav nahin tha, halanki unamen se adhikansh hindoo se sikkh bane the. ye sabhi dharmon men nihit adharabhoot saty men vishvas karate hain aur unaka drishtikon dharmik athava sampradayik pakshapat se rahit aur udar hai. 1539 ee. men guru nanak ki mrityu ke uparant sikkhon ka mukhiya 'guru' kahalane laga. sikkhon ne bharat men samay-samay par yahan ke itihas men apana bahumooly yogadan diya hai. mugal kal men kitane hi sikkh rajaon ne apane putron ko desh ki khatir balidan kar diya. aurngazeb ne to sikkhon ke prati kathor drishtikon apanaya. banda bahadur aj bhi bharatiy itihas men apani shahadat ke lie yad kiya jata hai.

itihas

15vin shatabdi men sikkh dharm 'guru nanakadev' ke dvara chalaya gaya. sikkh jati ko ek ladakoo jati ke roop men parivartit karane ka mahattvapooran kary guru har govind sinh ne kiya. sikkhon ke dasaven guru govind sinh ke netritv men sikkh ek rajanitik evn fauji shakti banakar ubhare. guru govind sinh ki mrityu ke bad 'guru' ki parampara samapt ho gee. unake shishy banda sinh, jise 'banda bahadur' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai, usane apane guru ki mrityu ke bad sikkhon ka netritv snbhala. usake shishy use 'sachcha padashah' kahakar sambodhit karate the. 1715 ee. men banda sinh ko pakadakar usaki hatya kar di gee. 1748 ee. men navab 'karpoor sinh' ne sikkhon ke alag-alag dal ko 'khalasa dal' men shamil kiya, jisaka netritv 'jassa sinh' ne kiya. sikkhon ka vibhajan 12 misalon men hua tha. 1760 ee. tak sikkhon ka pnjab par poorn adhikar ho gaya tha. sikkhon ne 1763 se 1773 ee. ke bich sikkh shakti ka vistar poorv men saharanapur, pashchim men atak, dakshin men multan aur uttar men jammoo-kashmir tak kar liya.

sikkhon ke das guru
guru ka nam samayakal
guru nanakadev 1469-1539
guru angad 1539-1552 ee.
guru amaradas 1552-1574 ee.
guru ramadas 1574-1581 ee.
guru arjun 1581-1606 ee.
guru haragovind sinh 1606-1645 ee.
guru hararay 1645-1661 ee.
guru harakishan 1661-1664 ee.
guru teg bahadur sinh 1664-1675 ee.
guru govind sinh 1675-1708 ee.

guru arjun ka vadh

chauthe guru ramadas atyant sadhu prakriti ke vyakti the, isalie badashah akabar bhi unaka adar karata tha. usane amritasar men ek jalashay se yukt bhoo-bhag unhen dan diya, jis par age chalakar sikkh svarnamandir ka nirman hua. panchaven guru arjun ne sikkhon ke adi granth namak dharm granth ka snkalan kiya, jisamen unake poorv ke charon guruon tatha kuchh hindoo aur musalaman snton ki vani snkalit hai. unhonne khalasa pnth ki arthik sthiti ko dridhata pradan karane ke lie pratyek sikkh se dharmik chnda vasool karane ki pratha chalaee. badashah jahangir ke adesh par guru arjun ka is karan vadh kar diya gaya ki unhonne daya ke vashibhoot hokar badashah ke vidrohi putr shahazada khusaro ko sharan di thi.

aurngazeb ka krodh

guru arjun ke putr guru haragovind sinh ne sikkhon ka sainik sngathan kiya, ek chhoti-si sikkhon ki sena ekatr ki. unhonne shahajahan ke viruddh vidroh karake ek yuddh men shahi sena ko parast bhi kar diya. kintu ant men unhonne bhagakar kashmir ke parvatiy pradesh men sharan li. vahin par unaki mrityu ho gee. agale donon guru, guru hararay aur guru harakishan ke kal men koee ghatana nahin ghati. unhonne guru arjun dvara prachalit dharmik chande ki pratha evn unake putr haragovind ki sainik-sngathan ki niti ka anusaran karake khalasa pnth ko aur bhi shaktishali banaya. naven guru teg bahadur sinh ko aurngazeb ka kop-bhajan banana pada. usane guru ko bandi banakar usake sammukh prastav rakha ki ya to islam dharm svikar karo athava pran dene ke lie taiyar ho jao. bad men unaka sir utar liya gaya. unaki shahadat ka samast sikkh sampraday, unake putr tatha agale guru govind sinh par gambhir prabhav pada.

sikkhon ka sngathan

guru govind sinh ne bhali-bhanti vichar karake shantipriy sikkh sampraday ko sainik sngathan ka roop diya, jo dridhatapoorvak musalamanon ke atikraman tatha atyacharon ka samana kar sake. sath hi unhonne sikkhon men aisi anushasan ki bhavana bhari ki ve ladakoo shakti ban ge. unhonne apane pnth ka nam khalasa (pavitr) rakha. sath hi samast sikkh samuday ko ekata ke sootr men abaddh karane ke vichar se sikkhon ko kesh, kachchh, kada, kripan aur kngha– ye panch vastuen avashyak roop se dharan karane ka adesh diya. unhonne sthaniy mugal hakimon se kee yuddh kie, jinamen unake do balak putr mare ge, kintu ve hatotsahit n hue. mrityu paryant ve sikkhon ka sngathan karate rahe. 1708 ee. men ek afagan ne unaki hatya kar di.

vir banda

sikkhon ke misal aur unake snsthapak
misal ka nam misal ke snsthapak
sinhapuriya misal kapoor sinh
ahaloovaliya misal jassa sinh ahaloovaliya
ramagadhiya misal jassa sinh ramagadhiya
kanahiya misal jay sinh
phulakiya misal phool sinh
bhangi misal hari sinh
sukarachakiya misal charat sinh
nishanavaliya misal saradar sngat sinh
karod sindhiya misal bhagel sinh
ullevaliya misal gulab sinh
nakaee misal hira sinh
shahidi misal baba dip sinh

age chalakar guru govind sinh ki rachanaen bhi snkalit hueen aur yah snkalan guru granth sahab ka parishisht bana. samast sikkh samuday unaka itana adar karata tha ki unaki mrityu ke uparant guru pad hi samapt kar diya gaya. yadyapi unake uparant hi banda vir ne sikkhon ka netritv bhar sambhal liya. vir banda ke netritv men 1708 ee. se lekar 1716 ee. tak sikkh nirantar mugalon se loha lete rahe, par 1716 ee. men banda bandi banaya gaya aur badashah farrukhasiyar ki agya se hathiyon se raundavakar usaki hatya karava di gee. saikadon sikkhon ko ghor yatanaen di geen. phir bhi in atyacharon se khalasa pnth ki sainik shakti ko kisi bhi prakar se dabaya nahin ja saka. guru ke abhav men, vyaktigat netritv ke sthan par, sngathan ka bhar kee vyaktiyon ke ek samooh par a pada, jinhonne apani kshamata aur yogyata ke anusar apane sahadharmiyon ka sngathan kiya.

shakti vistar

fejullapur ke kapoor sinh ne khalasa dal athava sikkh rajy ki ninv dali. any sikkh saradaron ne nadirashah ke akraman ke uparant pnjab men phaili huee avyavastha ka labh uthakar sikkhon ka sngathan kiya aur ravi nadi ke tat par dalival men ek durg ka nirman karaya tatha lahaur tak dhave marane shuroo kar die. ahamadashah abdali ke bar-bar ke akramanon aur visheshakar 1768 ee. ke panipat ke tritiy yuddh ne pnjab men sikkhon ki shakti badhane men vishesh yog diya, kyonki unake prayas se pnjab men mugal shasan samapt pray ho gaya tha tatha sikkhon men navin asha evn sahas ka snchar ho raha tha. ve abdali ka pichha karate rahe aur chhapamar yuddh ki niti apanakar pnjab men usaki sthiti ko visham bana diya. antat: 1767 ee. men usake bharat se afaganistan laut jane par sikkhon ne apani virata tatha adhyavasay se pnjab ke samast maidani bhag ko apane niyntran men le liya.

svatntr rajy ki sthapana

1773 ee. tak unaka adhikar kshetr poorv men saharanapur se pashchim men atak tak tatha uttar men pahadi bhag se lekar dakshin men multan tak vistrit ho gaya. is prakar sikkh apane lie ek svatntr rajy ki sthapana karane men saphal hue, kintu unamen ek shasakiy eekaee ka abhav tha. ve barah misalon (tukadiyon) men vibhakt the, jinake nam kramash: is prakar the- 1-sinhapuriya misal, 2-ahaloovaliya misal, 3-ramagadhiya misal, 4-kanahiya misal, 5-phulakiya misal, 6-bhangi misal, 7-sukarachakiya misal, 8-nishanavaliya misal, 9-karod sindhiya misal, 10-ullevaliya misal, 11-nakaee misal aur 12-shahidi misal. ahamadashah abdali aur aur mugalon ki satta ke patan ke uparant sikkh kisi bhi bahy shakti ke bhay se rahit hokar paraspar sngharsharat ho ge. phalasvaroop uparyukt barah misalon ke chhinn-bhinn hone ki sthiti utpann ho gee. kintu sukarachakiya misal ke nayak ranajit sinh ne apani yogyata aur buddhimatta se is ashnka ko door kar diya.

ranajit sinh ka netritv

ranajit sinh ka janm 1780 ee. men hua tha aur 1799 ee. men unhonne afaganistan ke shasak jamanashah se lahaur ke prantiy shasak ka pad prapt kar liya, jisase pnjab ke musalamanon ko unake age jhukana pada. agale chh: varshon men unhonne sataluj nadi ko par karake sabhi misalon par apana adhipaty sthapit kar liya. sataluj ke is par athava poorvi kshetr ki misalon par adhikar jamane men vah is karan asaphal rahe ki bharat men sthit angrez sarakar in misalon ke saradaron ko unaka virodh karane ke lie sahayata de rahi thi. phir bhi ranajit sinh ne 1839 ee. men apani mrityu ke poorv sikkhon ko sngathit shakti men parivartit kar diya, jinake svatntr rajy ki simaen sataluj se peshavar tak aur kashmir se multan tak vistrit thin. isaki raksha ke lie yooropiy dhng se prashikshit tatha shaktishali topakhane se sajjit vipul sainyabal bhi tha. kintu durbhagyavash ranajit sinh ka koee suyogy tatha vayask putr nahin tha, jo sikkhon ka netritv kar unake adhoore karyon ko age badha sakata. phalasvaroop unake uttaradhikari ke roop men kee nirbal aur kathaputali shasak hue aur kuchakri rajanitigyon tatha mahattvakankshi senapatiyon ke shadyntr ke karan 1845 se 1849 ee. ke char varshon ke alpakal men hi sikkhon ko (sikkh yuddh) pratham tatha dvitiy yuddhon men phnsana pada, jisase us svatntr sikkh rajy ka nash ho gaya, jisaka nirman dirghakalin balidanon ke adhar par hua tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

bhattachary, sachchidanand bharatiy itihas kosh, dvitiy snskaran-1989 (hindi), bharat diskavari pustakalay: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan, 472.

snbndhit lekh

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