अफ़ग़ान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

  • afagan un parvatiy jan-jatiyon ke lie prachalit shabd, jo n keval afaganistan men basati hai, balki pashchimottar sima pranton men bhi rahati hai. vnsh athava prakritik drishti se ye pray: turk--eerani hain aur bharat ke nivasiyon ka bhi kaphi mishran iname hua hai.
  • kuchh viddhano ka mat hai ki keval durrani varg ke log hi sachche 'aphagan' hain aur ve un bani isarail phirakon ke vnshaj hain jinako badashah nabookad nazar philastin se pakadakar kabul le gaya tha. aphaganon ke yahoodi phirakon ke vnshadhar hone ka adhar keval yah hai ki khanjahan lodi ne apane itihas 'amakhajane aphagani' me 16 vin sadi me isaka pahale pahal ullekh kiya tha. yah grnth badashah jahangir ke rajyakal men likha gaya tha. isase pahale isaka kahin ullekh nahin paya jata. aphagan shabd ka prayog alabarooni evn utbi ke samay, arthath‌ 10vin shati ke ant se hona shuroo hua. durrani aphaganon ke bani isaraeel ke vnshadhar hone ka dava to usi paripati ka ek udaharan hai jisaka prachalan musalamanon men apane ko muhammad ke parivar ka athava any kisi mahanh‌ vyakti ka vnshaj batalane ke lie ho gaya tha.
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  • yadyapi aphaganistan ke durrani evn any nivasi apane hi ko vastavik aphagan manate hain tatha any pradeshon ke pathanon ko apane se bhinn batalate hain, tathapi yah dharana asaty evn nissar hai. vastav me 'pathan' shabd hi is jati ka samoohik jativachak shabd hai. 'aphagan' shabd to keval un shikshit tatha sabhy vargon men prayukt hone laga hai, jo any pathanon ki apeksha utkrisht hone par bada gaurav karate hain.
  • pathan shabd 'pakhtan' (rigvaidik pakthanh‌) ya 'pashtan' shabd ka hindi roopantar hai. pathan shabd ka prayog pahale-pahal 16vin shati men 'makhazane aphagani' ke rachachita niyamatulla ne kiya tha. parntu, jaisa kaha ja chuka hai, aphagan shabd ka prayog bahut pahale se hota aya tha.
  • itihas ke arambh kal se hi bharat ke sath is durdharsh jati ke sambandh mitrata ke bij rahe hain aur shatruta ke bhi.
  • bharat ki sampada par lubdh hokar ye log vyapari aur lutere donon roopon men bharat ate rahe.
  • sultan mahamood gazanavi pahala afagan sultan tha, jisane bharat par akraman kiya.
  • shahabuddin muhammad gori pahala afagan sultan tha, jisane bharat men musalaman shasan ki ninv dali.
  • dilli ke jin sultanon ne 1200 se 1526 ee. tak yahan rajy kiya., ve sabhi afagan athava pathan pukare jate the. lekin unamen se adhikansh turki the.
  • keval lodi rajavnsh ke sultan (1450-1526 ee.) hi asal pathan the.
  • pratham mugal badashah babar ne panipat ki pahali ladaee men bharat se pathan shasan ka ant kar diya.
  • sherashah soori ne dubara pathan rajy sthapit kiya aur panipat ki doosari ladaee ko jitakar akabar ne use samapt kar diya.
  • akabar khan ne pratham angl-afagan yuddh (1841-43) ke dauran afaganon ko sngathit kar angrezon ke hamale ka muqabala karane men khas hissa liya tha.
  • aphagan jati ke logon ke uttarapashchim ke pahadi pradeshon tatha asapas ki bhoomi par phaile hone ke karan, unake chehare mohare aur sharir ki banavat men sthaniy vibhinnataen paee jati hain. tathapi samany roop ve unche kad ke hrisht pusht tatha pray: gore hote hain. unaki nak lnbi evn nokadar, bal bhoore aur kabhi--kabhi ankhen knji paee jati hain.
  • in aphaganon ya pathanon ke vibhinn vargon ko ek sootr men bandhanevali inaki bhasha 'pashto' hai. is boli ke samast bolanevale, chahe ve kisi kul ya jati ke hon, pathan kahalate hain.
  • samast aphagan ek sarvamany alikhit kintu prachin parnparagat vidhan ke anuyayi hain. is vidhan ka adi srot 'ibrani' hai. parntu us par muslim tatha bharatiy rityachar ka kaphi prabhav pada hai. pathanon ke kuchh niyam tatha samajik prachalan rajapooton se bahut milate hain. ek or atithi satkar, aur doosari or shatru se bhishan pratishodh, unake jivan ke ang ho ge hain. oosar aur sookhe pahadi pradeshon ke nivasi hone ke karan aur nirday ho ge hain. unaki hinsr pravritti dharmandhata ke karan aur bhi ugr ho gee hai. kintu unake charitr men saundary tatha sadgunon ki bhi kami nahin hai. ve bade vakh‌chatur, samany paristhitiyon men bade vinamr aur samajhadar hote hain. shayad unake inhin gunon ke karan bharatiy svadhinata sngram men mahatma gandhi ke prabhav se mahamany aphagan neta abdul gaphphar khan ke netritv men samast pathan janata ke charitr men aisa maulik evn ashcharyajanak parivartan hua ki vah 'ahinsa' ki sachchi vrati ban gee. in aphaganon men aisa parivartan hona itihas ki ek apoorv evn anupam ghatana hai.[1]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 150,151 |

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