शेरशाह सूरी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sherashah soori
sherashah soori
poora nam sherashah soori
any nam farid khan, sher khan
janm sanh 1485-86[1] ya 1472[2]
janm bhoomi hisar, firoja, hariyana[1] athava sasaram, bihar[2]
mrityu tithi 22 mee, 1545
mrityu sthan bundelakhand
pita/mata hasan khan
sntan jalal khan (islamashah soori)
upadhi sherashah
rajy sima uttar madhy bharat
shasan kal 17 mee 1540 - 22 mee 1545
sha. avadhi 5 varsh
rajyabhishek 17 mee 1540
dharmik manyata islam dharm
yuddh chausa ka yuddh, bilagram ki ladaee
poorvadhikari humayoon
uttaradhikari islamashah soori
vnsh soor vnsh
maqabara sherashah ka maqabara
snbndhit lekh sherashah soori samrajy
any janakari sherashah soori, pahala muslim shasak tha, jisane yatayat ki uttam vyavastha ki aur yatriyon evn vyapariyon ki suraksha ka sntoshajanak prabndh kiya.

sherashah soori (angrezi: Sher Shah Suri, janm: 1485-86 hisar[1] athava 1472 sasaram[2] - mrityu: 22 mee 1545 bundelakhand) ka vastavik nam 'farid khan' tha. sherashah soori ka bharat ke itihas men vishesh sthan hai. sherashah, soor samrajy ka snsthapak tha. isake pita ka nam hasan khan tha. sherashah ko sher khan ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. itihasakaron ka kahana hai ki apane samay men atynt dooradarshi aur vishisht soojhaboojh ka adami tha. isaki visheshata isalie adhik ullekhaniy hai ki vah ek sadharan jagidar ka upekshit balak tha. usane apani virata, adamy sahas aur parishram ke bal par dilli ke sinhasan par qabza kiya tha.

janm aur bachapan

sherashah soori ke janm tithi aur janm sthan ke vishay men itihasakaron men matabhed hain. kuchh itihasakaron ne isaka janm sanh 1485-86, hisar, firoja hariyana[1] men aur kuchh sanh 1472, sasaram bihar[2] men batalaya hai. ibrahim khan ke pautr aur hasan ke pratham putr farid (sherashah) ke janm ki tithi angrez itihasakar ne sanh 1485-1486 bataee hai. sherashah soori par vishesh khoj karane vale bharatiy vidvan shri kalika rnjan qanoonago ne bhi farid ka janm sanh 1486 mana hai. hasan khan ke ath ladake the. farid khan aur nizam khan ek hi afagan mata se paida hue the. ali aur yoosuph ek mata se. khurram (kuchh grnthon men yah nam mudahir hai) aur shakhi khan ek any man se aur suleman aur ahamad chauthi man se utpann hue the. farid ki man badi sidhi-sadi, sahanashil aur buddhiman thi. farid ke pita ne is vivahita patni ke atirikt any tin dasiyon ko haram men rakh liya tha. bad men inhen patni ka sthan prapt hua. farid aur nizam ke atirikt shesh chhah putr inhin ki sntan the. kuchh samay bad hasan khan, farid aur nizam ki man se udasin aur dasiyon ke prati asakt rahane laga. vah suleman aur ahamad khan ki man ke prati vishesh asakt tha. vah ise adhik chahane laga tha. hasan ki yah chaheti (suleman aur ahamad khan ki man) farid aur nizam ki man se jalati thi, kyonki sabase bada hone ke karan farid jagir ka hakadar tha. is paristhiti men farid ka dukhi hona svabhavik hi tha. pita usaki or se udasin rahane laga.[3]

bulnd hausala

farid khan bachapan se hi bade hausale vala insan tha. usane apane pita se agrah kiya ki mujhe apane masanadeali umar khan ke pas le chaliye aur prarthana kijiye ki vah mujhe mere yogy koee kam den. pita ne putr ki bat yah kahakar tal di ki abhi tum bachche ho. bade hone par tumhen le chaloonga. kintu farid ne apani man se agrah kiya aur apane pita ko is bat ke lie raji kiya. hasan, farid ko umar khan ke pas le gaya. umar khan ne kaha ki bada hone par ise main koee n koee kam doonga, kintu abhi ise mahabali (isaka doosara nam hani hai) gram ka balahoo namak bhag jagir ke roop men deta hoon. farid ne badi prasannata se apani man ko isaki soochana di.[3]

parivarik vivad

pita aur sherashah ke apasi sambandh katu hote ja rahe the. is karan kautunbik vivad khada hone laga. is vivad ka ek achchha phal bhi hua. pita ki udasinata, vimata ki nishthurata mata ki gnbhirata aur parivar men badhate hue vidveshamay vatavaran se balak farid khan (sherashah) shuroo se hi gnbhir, dridhanishchayi aur atmanirbhar hone laga. yadyapi naranaul se sahasaram aur khavasapur pahunchakar tatha vahan badi jagir pa jane se hasan khan ka darja badh gaya tha, tathapi farid aur nizam tatha inaki mata ke prati hasan ke vyavahar men avanati hi hoti gee. bap-bete ka sambandh din par din bigadata hi gaya. farid rusht hokar jaunapur chala gaya aur svayn jamal khan ki seva men upasthit ho gaya. jab hasan khan ko pata chala ki farid jaunapur chala gaya hai, tab use yah bhay hua ki kahin vah jamal khan se meri shikayat n kar de. atah usane jamal khan ko patr likha ki, "farid mujhase rusht hokar apake pas chala gaya hai. kripaya use manakar mere pas bhej dene ka kasht karen. yadi vah apake kahane par bhi ghar vapas ane ke lie taiyar n ho to, ap use apani seva men rakhakar usake lie dharmik achar shastr ki shiksha ka prabndh karane ki anuknpa karen". [4]

bahalol ki mrityu

bahalol ki mrityu ho jane par sikndar lodi dilli ke sinhasan par baitha. usane apane bhaee baibak khan (barabak khan) se jaunapur sooba (tatkalin)[5] jit liya. usane jamal khan ko jaunapur ka shasak niyukt kiya aur use adesh diya ki vah 12 hazar ghudasavaron ki vyavastha karake unamen jaunapur ke soobe ko jagiron ke roop men bant den. jamal khan, hasan khan ko jisaki seva se vah bahut prasann tha, jaunapur le aya aur use 500 ghudasavaron ki sena ki vyavastha ke lie banaras ke samip sahasaram, hazipur aur tanda ki jagiren pradan kar din.[3]

humayun aur sherashah

agara men humayoon ki anupasthiti ke dauran (faravari, 1535-1537 tak) sherashah ne apani sthiti aur mazaboot kar li thi. vah bihar ka nirvirodh svami ban chuka tha. nazadik aur pas ke afagan usake netritv men ikatthe ho gaye the. halanki vah ab bhi mugalon ke prati vafadari ki bat karata tha, lekin mugalon ko bharat se nikalane ke lie usane khoobasoorati se yojana banayi. bahadur shah se usaka gahara sampark tha. bahadur shah ne hathiyar aur dhan adi se usaki bahut sahayata bhi ki thi. in sroton ke upalabdh ho jane se usane ek kushal aur brihad sena ekatr kar li thi. usake pas 1200 hathi bhi the. humayoon ke agara lautane ke kuchh hi din bad sherashah ne apani sena ka upayog bngal ke sultan ko harane men kiya tha aur use turant 1,300,000 dinar (svarn mudra) dene ke lie vivash kiya tha.

ek nayi sena ko lais karake humayoon ne varsh ke ant men chunar ko gher liya. humayoon ne socha tha ki, aise shaktishali qile ko pichhe chhodana uchit nahin hoga, kyonki isase usaki rasad ke marg ko khatara ho sakata tha. lekin afaganon ne dridhata se qile ki raksha ki. kushal topachi roomi khan ke prayatnon ke bavajood humayoon ko chunar ka qila jitane men chhah mahine lag gaye. isi dauran sherashah ne dhokhe se rohatas ke shaktishali qile par adhikar kar liya. vahan vah apane parivar ko surakshit chhod sakata tha. phir usane bngal par dubara akraman kiya aur usaki rajadhani gaud par adhikar kar liya.

chaunsa evn bilagram ke yuddh

1539 ee. men chaunsa ka evn 1540 ee. men bilagram ya kannauj ke yuddh jitane ke bad sherashah 1540 ee. men dilli ki gaddi ki par baitha. uttar bharat men dvitiy afagan samrajy ke snsthapak sher khan dvara babar ke chaderi abhiyan ke dauran kahe gaye ye shabd aksharashah saty siddh hue, “ ki agar bhagy ne meri sahayata ki aur saubhagy mera mitr raha, to mai mugalon ko saralata se bharat se bahar nikala doonga.” chaunsa yuddh ke pashchath sher khan ne ‘sherashah’ ki upadhi dharan kar apana rajyabhishek karavaya. kalantar men isi nam se khutabe (upadesh ya prashnsatmak rachana) padhavaye evn sikke dhalavaye. jis samay sherashah dilli ke sinhasan par baitha, usake samrajy ki simayen pashchim men kannauj se lekar poorab men asam ki pahadiyon evn chataganv tatha uttar men himalay se lekar dakshin men jharakhand ki pahadiyon evn bngal ki khadi tak phaili huee thi.

gakkharon se yuddh

1541 ee. men sherashah soori ne gakkharon ko samapt karane ke lie ek abhiyan kiya. vah gakkharon ko isalie samapt karana chahata tha kyonki, yah jati aye din mugalon ki sahayata kiya karati thi. sherashah gakkhar jati ko samapt karane ke apane lakshy ko to poora nahin kar saka, lekin phir bhi vah gakkharon ki shakti ko kam karane men avashy saphal raha. sherashah ne apani uttari-pashchimi sima ko surakshit karane ke lie ek shaktishali ‘rohatasagadh’ namak qile ka nirman karavaya. haibat khan evn khavas khan ke pratinidhitv men sherashah ne yahan par ek afagan sainik tukadi ko niyukt kar diya.

bngal ka vidroh (1541 ee.)

bngal ka soobedar khizr khan, jo ek svatantr shasak ki tarah vyavahar kar raha tha, ke vidroh ko kuchalane ke lie sherashah bngal aya. usane khizr khan ko bandi bana liya. bhavishy men dobara bngal men vidroh ko rokane ke lie sherashah ne yahan ek navin prashasanik vyavastha ko prarambh kiya, jisake antargat poore bngal ko kee sarakaron (zilon) men bant diya gaya aur sath hi pratyek sarakar men ek chhoti sena ke sath ‘shiqadar’ (kisi shretr vishesh ka adhikari) niyukt kar diya gaya. shiqadaron ko niyntrit karane ke lie ek gair sainik adhikari ‘amin-e-bngala’ ki niyukti ki gee. sarvapratham yah pad ‘qazi fajilat’ nam ke vyakti ko diya gaya.

malava (1542 ee.)

gujarat ke shasak bahadur shah ke marane ke bad malava ke soobedar malloo khan ne apane ko ‘kadir shah’ ke nam se malava ka svatantr shasak ghoshit kar liya. usane apane nam se sikke dhalavaye evn 'khubate' (upadesh ya prashnsatmak rachana) padhavaye. sherashah malava ko apane adhin karane ke lie kadir shah par akraman karane ke lie age badha aur aprail, 1542 ee. men raste men hi sherashah ne gvaliyar ke qile par adhikar kar vahan ke shasak pooranamal ko apane adhin kar liya. kadir shah ne sherashah se bhayabhit hokar sarngapur men usake samaksh atm samarpan kar diya. usake samarpan ke bad mandoo, ujjain evn sarngapur par sherashah ka qabza ho gaya. sherashah ne bhadrata ka parichay dete hue kadir shah ko lakhanauti v kalapi ka garvanar niyukt kiya, parantu kadir shah, sherashah se darakar apane parivar ke sath gujarat ke shasak mahamood tritiy ki sharan men chala gaya. sherashah ne sujat khan ko malava ka garvanar niyukt kar vapas jate samay ‘ranathambhaur’ ke shaktishali qile ko apane adhin kar putr adil khan ko vahan ka garvanar bana diya.

rayasin (1543 ee.)

rayasin ke shasak pooranamal dvara 1542 ee. men sherashah ki adhinata svikar karane ke bad bhi sherashah ke lie rayasin par akraman karana isalie avashyak ho gaya tha, kyonki vahan ki muslim janata ko pooranamal se badi shiqayat thi. sath hi rayasin ki sampannata bhi akraman ka ek karan thi. 1543 ee. men rayasin ke qile par ghera dala gaya. kee mahine tak ghera dale rahane par bhi sherashah ko saphalata nahin mili. antatah sherashah ne chalaki se pooranamal ko usake atm-samman evn jivan ki suraksha ka vayada kar atm-samarpan hetu taiyar kar liya. kutub khan aur adil khan is shart ke gavah bane. parantu rayasin ke musalamanon ke punah dabab ke karan rajapooton ko dand dene ke lie sherashah ne ek rat rajapooton ke khemon ko charon or se ghera liya. apane ko ghira hua pakar pooranamal evn usake sipahiyon ne bahaduri se ladate hue pranotsarg kar diya tatha unaki striyon ne ‘jauhar’ kar liya. sherashah dvara kiya gaya yah vishvasaghat usake vyaktitatv par kala dhabba hai. is vishvasaghat se kutub khan itana ahat hua ki usane atmahatya kar li.

sindh evn multan (1543 ee.)

sherashah ne haivat khan ke netrit men sindh tatha multan ke vidrohiyon bakhsoo lngah evn phateh khan par vijay prapt ki. sherashah ne multan men phateh khan evn sindh men islam khan ko soobedar niyukt kiya.

maladev se yuddh (1544 ee.)

maladev, maravad (rajasthan) par shasan kar raha tha. usaki rajadhani jodhapur thi. usaki badhati shakti se sherashah ko eeshrya thi. atah bikaner naresh kalyanamal evn ‘medata’ ke shasak viramadev ke amantran par sherashah ne maladev ke viruddh abhiyan kiya. donon senayen ‘bhal’ namak sthan par ek doosare ke sammukh upasthit huee. yahan bhi sherashah ne kootaniti ka sahara lete hue maladev ke shivir men yah bhranti phaila di ki, usake saradar usake sath nahin hain. isase maladev ne nirash hokar bina yuddh kiye vapas hone ka nirnay kar liya. phir bhi usake ‘jayata’ evn ‘kumpa’ nam ke saradaron ne apane oopar kiye gaye avishvas ko mitane ke lie sherashah ki sena se takkar li, parantu ve viragati ko prapt hue. is yuddh ko jitane ke bad sherashah ne kaha ki, "mai mutthi bhar bajare ke lie hindustan ke samrajy ko prayah kho chuka tha." sherashah ne bhagate hue maladev ka pichha karate hue ajamer, jodhapur, nagaur, medata evn aboo ke qilon ko adhikar men kar liya. sherashah ki yah vijay usake marane ke bad sthayi nahin rah saki. abhiyan se vapas ate samay sherashah ne mevad ko bhi apane adhin kar liya. jayapur ke kachhavah rajapoot saradaron ne bhi sherashah ki adhinata svikar kar li. is prakar rajasthan usake niyntran men a gaya.

hindoo mitrata ki niti

dilli ke sultanon ki hindoo virodhi niti ke khilaf usane hinduon se mitrata ki niti apanayi. jisase use apani shasan vyavastha sridridh karane men sahayata mili. usaka divan aur senapati ek hindoo saradar tha, jisaka nam hemoo (hemachndr) tha. usaki sena men hindoo viron ki snkhya bahut thi. usane apane rajy men shanti sthapit kar janata ko sukhi aur samriddh banane ke prayas kiye. usane yatriyon aur vyapariyon ki suraksha ka prabndh kiya. lagan aur malaguzari vasool karane ki sntoshajanak vyavastha ki. sherashah soori ke faraman farasi bhasha ke sath nagari aksharon men bhi hote the. vah pahala badashah tha, jisane bngal ke sonaganv se sindhu nadi tak do hazar mil lambi pakki sadak banavaee thi. us sadak par ghudasavaron dvara dak lane−le−jane ki vyavastha thi. yah marg us samay 'sadak-e-azam' kahalata tha. bngal se peshavar tak ki yah sadak 500 kos (shuddh= krosh) ya 2500 kilo mitar lambi thi. sherashah ne is sadak par yatriyon ki suvidha ke lie pratyek kos par kos minar banavayin, jahan par thaharane ke lie saray aur pani ka bndobast rahata tha. sherashah ka bhatija adali tha, jo sherashah ke putr aur uttaradhikari islamashah ke bad 1554 ee. men gaddi par baitha tha. yahan ek bindu smaraniy yah hai ki sherashah ne afaganon ke dabab ke karan hinduon se jaziya kar ko samapt nahin kiya tha.

kalinjar abhiyan evn mrityu (1545 ee.)

yah abhiyan sherashah ka antim sainy abhiyan tha. kalinjar ka shasak kirat sinh tha. usane sherashah ke adesh ke viparit ‘riva’ ke maharaja virabhan sinh baghela ko sharan de rakhi thi. is karan se navambar, 1544 ee. men sherashah ne kalinjar qile ka ghera dal diya. lagabhag 6 mahine tak qile ko ghere rakhane ke bad bhi saphalata ke asar n dekh kar sherashah ne qile par gola, barud ke prayog ka adesh diya. aisa mana jata hai ki, qile ki divar se takarakar laute ek gole ke visphot se sherashah ki 22 mee, 1545 ee. ko mrityu ho gee. mrityu ke samay vah ‘ukka’ nam ka ek agneyastr chala raha tha. usake marane se poorv qile ko jit chuka tha. usaki mrityu par itihasakar qanoonago ne kaha, "is prakar ek mahanh rajanitigy evn sainik ka ant apane jivan ki vijayon ek lokahitakari karyon ke madhy men hi ho gaya.”

sherashah ke nirman kary

sherashah soori ka maqabara, sasaram bihar

sherashah soori ne apane jivan men anek mahattvapoorn kary sampann kie aur kee prakar ke nirman kary bhi karavae. usake nirman karyon men sadakon, sarayon evn masjidon adi ka banaya jana prasiddh hai. vah pahala muslim shasak tha, jisane yatayat ki uttam vyavastha ki aur yatriyon evn vyapariyon ki suraksha ka sntoshajanak prabndh kiya. usane bngal ke sonaganv se lekar pnjab men sindhu nadi tak, agara se rajasthan aur malava tak pakki sadaken banavaee thin. sadakon ke kinare chhayadar evn phal vale vriksh lagaye gaye the, aur jagah-jagah par saray, masjid aur kuon ka nirman karaya gaya tha. brajamndal ke chaumuhan ganv ki saray aur chhata ganv ki saray ka bhitari bhag usi ke dvara nirmit hain. dilli men usane 'shahar panah' banavaya tha, jo aj vahan ka 'lal daravaza' hai. dilli ka 'purana qila' bhi usi ke dvara banavaya mana jata hai.

sahity premi

sherashah soori ne kee darshanikon ke grnth padhe. usane sikndaranama, gulistan aur bostan adi grnthon ko knthasth kar liya. samrat ban jane ke bad bhi usaki dilachaspi itihas ke grnthon aur prachin shasakon ke jivanachariton ke prati barabar bani rahi. pustakon men likhi baton ko vah jivan men utarane ka saphalatapoorvak prayas karata tha.

shri kalikarnjan qanoonago ne likha hai :- ‘‘bachapan men usane sahity ka jo adhyayan kiya, usane us sainik jivan ke marg se use prithakh kar diya, jis par shivaji, haidar ali aur ranajit sinh jaise nirakshan vir sadharan paristhiti se oonche uthakar raja ki maryada prapt kar lete hain. bharat ke itihas men hamen doosara koee vyakti nahin milata, jo apane prarnbhik jivan men sainik rahe bina hi ek rajy ki ninv dalane men samarth hua ho.’[3]

darshanikon ke vichar

"malik muhammad jayasi", "farishta" aur "badayoonni" ne sherashah ke shasan ki badi prashnsa ki hai. badayoonni ne likha hai ki-

  • bngal se pnjab tak tatha agara se malava tak sadak par donon or chhaya ke lie phal vale vriksh lagaye gaye the.
  • kos−kos par ek saray, ek masjid aur kune ka nirman kiya tha.
  • masjid men ek imam aur ajan dene vala ek mulla tha.
  • nirdhan yatriyon ka bhojan banane ke lie ek hindoo aur musalaman naukar tha.
  • 'prabndh ki yah vyavastha thi ki, bilkul ashakt buddha asharphiyon ka thal hath par liye chala jay aur jahan chahe vahan pada rahe. chor ya lutere ki majal nahin ki, ankh bhar kar usaki or dekh sake.

uttaradhikari

sherashah ki mrityu ke uparant 1545 ee. men usaka putr 'jalal khan' 'islamashah' ki upadhi dharan kar sultan bana. adil khan ko parast kar evn samrajy men saradaron ke vidrohon ka daman kar usane sultan ke samman aur shakti men vriddhi ki aur afaganon ki svatntr prakriti ko poornataya daba diya. islam shah ke samay men prantiy soobedar sultan ka to kya sultan ke jooton ka bhi samman karate the. usane 1553 ee.tak shasan kiya. shasan vyavastha men islamashah ne apekshit sudhar kiye. uttar pashchim ki sima ki suraksha ke lie vahan panch qile khade kiye. ye qile 'sheragadh', 'islamagadh', 'rasidagadh', 'firojagadh' aur 'manakot' men the. inako sammilit roop se ‘manakot ke qile’ kaha jata hai.

dilli par humayoon ka adhikar

islamashah ke shasan snbndhi sudharon men sabase mahattvapoorn sudhar vibhinn qanoonon ka nirman aur unaka sabhi sthanon par lagoo kiya jana tha. islamashah ke pashchath usake uttadhikariyon ke samay soor-samrajy 5 bhagon men bnt gaya. soor-samrajy ki apasi kalah ka labh uthakar humayoon ne bharat par akraman kar "machchhivara" aur "sarahind" ke yuddhon ko jitakar 1555 ee. men dilli par adhikar kar liya.

sherashah ki prashasan-vyavastha

sherashah ko vyavastha sudharak ke roop men mana jata hai, vyavastha pravartak ke roop men nahi. sherashah ka shasan atyadhik kendrikrit tha. sampoorn samrajy ko 47 sarakaron (zilon) men bant diya gaya tha. daau. qanoon gon ke anusar- "usake prantiy shasan men sarakar se ooncha vibhajan nahin kiya gaya tha, aur prant evn soobon jaisi shasan ki koee eekaee nahin thi. paramatma saran, qanoon gon ke vicharon se asahamati vyakt karate hain. pratyek sarakar men do pramukh adhikari hote the- 'shiqadar-e-shiqadaron' (shiqadar=kisi shretr-vishesh ka adhikari), aur 'mussiph-e-mussiphan'. pratyek saradar kee paraganon men bnte the. pratyek paragane men ek shiqadar, ek munsiph, ek 'fotadar' (khazanchi, tahasiladar) aur do 'karakun' (karyakarta, kam karane vala, karmachari) hote the.

'sherashah soori ek aisa vyakti tha, jo zamini star se uth kar shnhashah bana. zamini star ka yah shnhashah apane alp shasanakal ke dauran hi janata se jude adhikansh muddo ko hal karane ka prayas kiya. halanki sherashah soori ka yah durbhagy raha ki use bharatavarsh par kafi kam samay shasan karane ka avasar mila. isake bavajood usane rajasv, prashasan, krishi, parivahan, snchar vyavastha ke lie jo kam kiya, jisaka anusaran aj ka shasak varg bhi karata hai. sherashah soori ek shanadar rananitikar, adhunik bharatavarsh ke nirman men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhane vala mahanh shasak ke rup men najar aega. jisane apane snkshipt shasanakal men shanadar shasan vyavastha ka udaharan prastut kiya. sherashah soori ne bharatavarsh men aise samay men sudhridh nagarik evn sainy vyavastha sthapit ki jab gupt kal ke bad se hi ek mazaboot rajanitik vyavastha evn shasak ka abhav-sa ho gaya tha. sherashah soori ne hi sarvapratham apane shasan kal men aj ke bharatiy mudra rupaya ko jari kiya. isilie itihasakar sherashah soori ko adhunik rupaya vyavastha ka agradoot bhi manate hai. mauryon ke patan ke bad patana punah prantiy rajadhani bani, atah adhunik patana ko sherashah dvara basaya mana jata hai.'[6]

vitt vyavastha

sherashah ki vitt vyavastha ke antargat sarakari ay ka sabase bada srot zamin par lagane vala kar tha, jise ‘lagan’ kahate the. sherashah ki lagan vyavastha 'raiyatavadi vyavastha' par adharit thi, jisamen kisanon se pratyaksh sampark sthapit kiya jata tha. sthaniy ay, jise kee prakar ke karon se ekatr karate the, use ‘abavas’ kaha jata tha. sherashah ke samay men bhoomi tin vargon achchhi, sadharan evn kharab men vibhajit thi. paidavar ka lagabhag ek tihaee bhag sarakari lagan ke roop men liya jata tha. keval multan men upaj ka 1/4 bhag lagan ke roop men liya jata tha. lagan nagad roop men vasoola jata tha, par nagad men lena adhik pasnd kiya jata tha. lagan nirdharan hetu tin pranaliyan prachalan men thin-

  1. bataee ya galla bakshi
  2. nashk ya muktaee ya kanakoot aur
  3. nagadi ya jabti ya jami.

in tinon pranaliyon men kisanon dvara nagadi v jamaee vyavastha ko adhik saraha jata tha. tin prakar ki 'bataee', 'khet bataee', 'lnk bataee' evn 'ras-bataee' ka bhi prachalan tha. kisanon ko sherashah ke shasan kal men 'jaribana' ya 'sarvekshan shulk' evn ‘muhasilana’ ya 'kar sngrah shulk' bhi dena padata tha, jinaki daren kramashah bhoorajasv ki 2.5 pratishat evn 5 pratishat thi. isake alava pratyek kisan ko poori lagan par 2.5 pratishat atirikt kar dena hota tha. sherashah ne krishi yogy bhoomi aur parati bhoomi donon ki nap karavaee. is kary ke lie usane ahamad khan ki sahayata li. sherashah dvara prachalit 'raiyatavadi vyavastha' multan ko chhodakar rajy ke lie sabhi bhagon men lagoo thi. multan men sherashah ne rajasv nirdharan aur sngrah ke lie pahale se chali a rahi bataee (hissedari) vyavastha ko hi prachalan men rahane diya tatha vahan se utpadan ka 1/4 bhag lagan vasool kiya, jo anyatr prachalit nahin tha.

  • sherashah ne bhoomi ki map ke lie 32 ank vala ‘sikandarigaj’ evn ‘san ki dndi’ ka prayog kiya.
'shasan sudhar ke kshetr men bhi sherashah ne ek janahitakari vyavastha ki sthapana ki, jisase kafi kuchh akabar ne bhi sikha tha. shasan ke suvidhajanak prabandh ke lie usane sare samrajy ko 47 bhagon men banta tha, jise 'prant' kaha jata hai. pratyek prant sarakar, paragane tatha ganv paragane men bnte the. kafi kuchh yah vyavastha aj ki prashasanik vyavastha se milati hai. sherashah ke shasan kal ki bhoomi vyavastha atyant hi utkrisht thi. usake shasanakal men mahanh bhoo-visheshgy 'todaramal khatri' tha, jisane age chalakar akabar ke sath bhi kary kiya. sherashah ne bhoomi sudhar ke anek kary kie. usane bhoomi ki nap karaee, bhoomi ko bighon men banta, upaj ka 3/1 bhag bhoomikar ke lie nirdharit kiya. usane bhoomikar ko anaj evn nakad donon roop men lene ki pranali vikasit karaee. patte par malagujari likhane ki vyavastha ki gee. kisanon ko yah suvidha di gee ki ve apana bhoomikar svayn rajakosh men jama kar sakate the. akabar ke shasanakal ki bhoomi vyavastha kafi kuchh isi par adharit thi. bad men angrejon ne bhi ise hi chaloo rakha.'[7]

mudra-sudhar

sherashah ka doosara mahattvapoorn sudhar mudra men sudhar tha. usane sone, chandi evn tanbe ke akarshak sikke chalavaye. kalantar men in sikkon ka anukaran mugal samraton ne kiya. sherashah ne 167 gren sone ki asharaphi, 178 gren ka chandi ka rupaya evn 380 gren tanbe ka ‘dam' chalavaya. usake shasan kal men kul 23 takasalen thi. usane apane sikkon par apana nam, pad evn takasal ka nam arabi bhasha evn devanagari lipi men khudavaya. sherashah ke rupaye ke vishay men smith ne kaha ki, "yah rupaya vartaman british mudra pranali ka adhar hai".

parivahan vyavastha

sherashah soori ke shasanakal ki sabase badi visheshata usaki parivahan vyavastha hai. sadaken kisi bhi rashtr ke vikas vyavastha ki dhuri mani jati hain. sherashah soori ne isake mahatv ko jana aur apane samay se age sochakar itihas men amar ho ge. sherashah soori ne bngal ke sonaganv se sindh nadi tak do hazar mil lnbi pakki sadak banavaee, jisase yatayat ki uttam vyavastha ho sake. sath hi usane yatriyon evn vyapariyon ki suraksha ke lie bhi sntoshajanak prabndh kiya. grand trnk rod ka nirman karavana sherashah soori ke vilakshan soch ka parinam hai. yah sadak sadiyon se desh vikas men aham bhoomika nibha rahi hai. usane sadakon par mil ke patthar lagavae. usane dak vyavastha ko sahi kiya aur ghudasavaron dvara dak ko lane−le−jane ki vyavastha ki. usake adesh pharasi ke sath nagari aksharon men bhi hote the. usane anek bhavanon jisamen 'rohatasagadh ka qila', apana 'maqabara', dilli ka 'purana qila' ka nirman karaya. sherashah ne sadakon ke kinare chhayadar evn phal vale vriksh lagavaye, aur jagah-jagah par saray, masjid aur kuon ka nirman karaya. dilli men usane shaharapanah banavaya tha, jo aj vahan ka 'lal daravaza hai.

sthapaty kala

vah kshetr jisamen sherashah ka yogadan nissndeh hi avismaraniy hai, vah hai- "sthapaty kala ka kshetr". usake dvara ‘sasaram’ men jhil ke andar oonche tile par nirmit karavaya gaya svayn ka maqabara poorvakalin sthapaty shaili ki parakashtha tatha navin shaili ke prarambh ka dyotak mana jata hai. isake atirikt sherashah ne humayoon dvara nirmit ‘dinapanah’ ko tudavakar usake dhvnshavasheshon se dilli men ‘purane qile’ ka nirman karavaya. qile ke andar sherashah ne ‘qila-e-kuhana’ masjid ka nirman karavaya, jise uttar bharat ke bhavanon men mahattvapoorn sthan prapt hai. sherashah ne rohatasagadh ke durg evn kannauj ke sthan par ‘sherasoor’ namak nagar basaya. 1541 ee. men usane pataliputr ko ‘patana’ ke nam se punah sthapit kiya. sherashah ne dilli men ‘lngar’ ki sthapana ki, jahan par sambhavatah 500 tola sona har din vyay kiya jata tha.

maqabara

sherashah soori ka shahar banaras-kolakata rod par sasaram tha. yahin par usane apane jite ji apana maqabara banavana shuroo kar diya tha. maqabara pattharon se bana hai. maqabare ke sabase oopari sire se poore sasaram ka drishy saf dikhaee deta hai.


inhen bhi dekhen: sherashah soori samrajy


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 tarikhe khan jahan lodi ke anusar
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 banglapedia
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 pustak sndarbh 'sherashah soori' lekhak 'vidya bhaskar' pej- 2-5
  4. pustak sndarbh 'sherashah soori' lekhak 'vidya bhaskar'
  5. vartaman men zila hai.
  6. sherashah soori : ek mahanh rashtr nirmata (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 5mee, 2011.
  7. sherashah soori : ek mahanh rashtr nirmata (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 5mee, 2011.

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