रज़िया सुल्तान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

raziya ka poora nam-raziya alh-din (1205– aktoobar 14/15, 1240), sultan jalalat ud-din raziya tha. vah iltutamish ki putri tatha bharat ki pahali muslim shasika thi.

Seealso.gifraziya sultan ka ullekh in lekhon men bhi hai: iltutamish, rukunuddin firozashah, gayasuddin balaban, muizuddin baharamashah, gulam vnsh evn raziya sultan ki qabr

raziya ko uttaradhikar

apane antim dinon men iltutamish apane uttaradhikar ke saval ko lekar chintit tha. iltutamish ke sabase bade putr nasirooddin mahamood ki, jo apane pita ke pratinidhi ke roop men bngal par shasan kar raha tha, 1229 ee. ko aprail men mrityu ho gee. sultan ke shesh jivit putr shasan kary ke kisi bhi prakar se yogy nahin the. at: iltutamish ne apani mrityu shaiyya par se apani putri raziya ko apana uttaradhikari niyukt kiya. usane apane saradaron aur ulmaon ko is bat ke lie razi kiya. yadyapi striyon ne prachin misr aur eeran men raniyon ke roop men shasan kiya tha aur isake alava shasak rajakumaron ke chhote hone ke karan rajy ka karobar sambhala tha, tathapi is prakar putron ke hote hue sinhasan ke lie stri ko chunana ek naya qadam tha.

saradaron ki manamani

iltutamish ke is faisale se usake darabar ke saradar aprasann the. ve ek stri ke samaksh natamastak hona apane anhakar ke viruddh samajhate the. un logon ne mritak sultan ki ichchhaon ka ullaghnn karake usake sabase bade putr rukunuddin firozashah ko, jo apane pita ke jivan kal men badayoon tatha kuchh varsh bad lahaur ka shasak rah chuka tha, sinhasan par baitha diya. yah chunav durbhagyapoorn tha. rukunuddin shasan ke bilkul ayogy tha. vah nich ruchi ka tha. vah rajakary ki upeksha karata tha tatha rajy ke dhan ka apavyay karata tha. usaki man shah turkhan ke, jo ek nimn udabhav[1] ki mahattvakankshapoorn mahila thi, karyon se baten bigadati hi ja rahi thin. usane sari shakti ko apane adhikar men kar liya, jabaki usaka putr rukanuddin bhog-vilas men hi dooba rahata tha. sare rajy men gadabadi phail gee. badayoon, multan, hansi, lahaur, avadh evn bngal men kendriy sarakar ke adhikar ka tiraskar hone laga. dilli ke saradaron ne, jo rajamata ke anavashyak prabhav ke karan asantosh se ubal rahe the, use bandi bana liya tatha raziya ko dilli ke sinhasan par baitha diya. rukanuddin firoz ko, jisane lokhari men sharan li thi, qaravas men dal diya gaya. jahan 1266 ee. men 9 navambar ko usake jivan ka ant ho gaya.

amiron se sngharsh

apani sthiti mazaboot karane ke lie raziya ko n keval apane sage bhaiyon, balki shaktishali turki saradaron ka bhi muqabala karana pada aur vah keval tin varshon tak hi shasan kar saki. yadyapi usake shasan ki avadhi bahut kam thi, tathapi usake kee mahattvapoorn pahaloo the. raziya ke shasan ke sath hi samrat aur turki saradaron, jinhen chahalagani (chalis) kaha jata hai, ke bich sngharsh prarambh ho gaya.

raziya ki chaturaee v kootaniti

yuvati begam ke samaksh koee kary sugam nahin tha. rajy ke vazir muhammad junaidi tatha kuchh any saradar ek stri ke shasan ko sah n sake aur unhonne usake viruddh virodhiyon ko jama kiya. parantu raziya men shasan ke lie mahattvapoorn sabhi gunon ka abhav nahin tha. usane chaturaee evn uchchatar kootaniti se shighr hi apane shatruon ko parast kar diya. hindustan (uttari bharat) evn pnjab par usaka adhikar sthapit ho gaya tatha bngal evn sindh ke sudooravarti pranton ke shasakon ne bhi usaka adhipaty svikar kar liya. is prakar jaisa ki minahajassiraj ne likha hai, lakhanauti se lekar deval tatha damarila tak sabhi malikon evn amiron ne usaki agyakarita ko svikar kiya. raziya ke rajyakal ke arambh men naruddin namak ek turk ke netritv men kiramit aur ahamadiya namak sampradayon ke katipay pakhandiyon dvara upadrav karane ka sngathit prayas kiya gaya. unake ek hazar vyakti talavaron aur dhalon ke sath pahunche aur badi masjid men ek nishchit din ko pravesh kiya; parantu ve rajakiy sena dvara titar-bitar kar diye gaye tatha vidroh ek bhaddi asaphalata banakar rah gaya.

turkon ka sngathan

Blockquote-open.gif samakalin muslim itihasakar minahajassiraj ne likha hai ki, "vah mahati samragyi chatur, nyayi, danashil, vidvanon ki ashrayadayi, nyay vitaran karane vali, apani praja se sneh rakhanevali, yuddh kala men pravin tatha rajaon ke sabhi avashyak prashnsaniy visheshanon evn gunon se sampann thi." vah svayn sena lekar shatruon ke sammukh jati thi. striyon ke vastr ko chhod tatha burke ka parityag kar vah jhilli pahanati thi tatha purush ka shirovastr dharan karati thi. vah khule darabar men atyant yogyata ke sath shasan-kary ka sampadan karati thi. is prakar har sambhav tariqe se vah raja ka abhinay karane ka prayatn karati thi. Blockquote-close.gif

phir bhi begam ke bhagy men shantipoorn shasan nahin tha. vah abisiniya ke ek das jalaluddin yaqoot ke prati anuchit kripa dikhalane lagi tatha usane use ashvashaladhyaksh ka ooncha pad de diya. isase kruddh hokar turki saradar ek chhote sngh men snghathit hue.

darshanikon ke vichar

ibn batoota ka yah kahana galat hai ki abisiniyan ke prati usaka chav (lagav) aparadhatmak tha. samakalin muslim itihasakar minahaz ne is tarah ka koee arop nahin lagaya hai. vah keval itana hi likhata hai ki abisiniyan ne sultana ki seva kar (usaki) kripa prapt kar li[2].

farishta ka usake khilaf ekamatr arop yah hai ki, abisiniyan aur begam ke bich atyadhik parichay dekha gaya, yahan tak ki jab vah ghode par savar rahati thi, tab vah bahon se use (rani ko) uthakar barabar ghode par bitha leta tha[3].

jaisa ki mejar raivarti ne batalaya hai, taaumas ne uchit karan n rahane par bhi is begam ke charitr par in shabdon men akshep kiya hai, yah bat nahin thi ki ek avivahita begam ko pyar karane ki manahi thi-vah kisi bhi ji-huzoor vale shahazade se shadi kar usake sath prem ke gote laga sakati thi, athava rajamahal ke haram (zananakhane) ke andhere kone men qarib-qarib bina rokatham ke amod-pramod kar sakati thi; lekin rah chalate prem dikhalana ek galat disha ki or snket kar raha tha aur is karan usane (begam ne) ek aise adami ko pasand kiya, jo ki usake darabar men naukari kar raha tha tatha vah ek abisiniyan bhi tha. jisake prati dikhalaee gee kripaon ka turki saradaron ne ek svar se virodh kiya[4].

altooniya se vivah

sabase pahale sarahind ke shasak ikhtiyaruddin altooniya ne khule taur par vidroh kiya, jise darabar ke kuchh saradar gupt roop se ubhad rahe the. begam ek badi sena lekar vidroh ka daman karane ke lie chali. kintu is yuddh men vidrohi saradaron ne yaqoot ko mar dala tatha begam ko qaid kar liya. vah ikhtiyaruddin altooniya ke snrakshan men rakh di gee. raziya ne altooniya se vivah karake is paristhiti se chhutakara pane ka prayatn kiya, parantu yah vyarth hi siddh hua. vah apane pati ke sath dilli ki or badhi. lekin kaithal ke nikat pahunchakar altooniya ke samarthakon ne usaka sath chhod diya tatha 13 aktoobar, 1240 ee. ko muizuddin baharam ne use parajit kar diya. doosare din raziya ki usake pati ke sath hatya kar di gee. is tarah tin varsh tatha kuchh mahinon ke rajyakal ke bad kashtapoorvak raziya begam ke jivan ka ant ho gaya.

raziya ke gun

raziya men adabhut gun the. farishta likhata hai ki, "vah shuddh uchcharan karake quran ka path karati thi tatha apane pita ke jivan kal men shasan kary kiya karati thi." begam ki haisiyat se usane apane gunon ko atyadhik vishishtata se pradarshit karane ka prayatn kiya. samakalin muslim itihasakar minahajussiraj ne likha hai ki, "vah mahati samragyi chatur, nyayi, danashil, vidvanon ki ashrayadayi, nyay vitaran karane vali, apani praja se sneh rakhanevali, yuddh kala men pravin tatha rajaon ke sabhi avashyak prashnsaniy visheshanon evn gunon se sampann thi." vah svayn sena lekar shatruon ke sammukh jati thi. striyon ke vastr ko chhod tatha burke ka parityag kar vah jhilli pahanati thi tatha purush ka shirovastr dharan karati thi. vah khule darabar men atyant yogyata ke sath shasan-kary ka sampadan karati thi. is prakar har sambhav tariqe se vah raja ka abhinay karane ka prayatn karati thi. kintu ahnkari turki saradar ek mahila ke shasan ko nahin sah sake. unhonne ghrinit riti se usaka ant kar diya. raziya ke du:khad ant se yah spasht ho jata hai ki andhavishvason par vijay prapt karana sadaiv zyada asan nahin hota.

raziya ke pashchat

raziya ki mrityu ke pashchath kuchh kal tak avyavastha evn gadabadi phaili rahi. dilli ki gaddi par usake uttaradhikari muizuddin baharam tatha alauddin masood gunahin evn ayogy the tatha unake chh: varshon ke shasanakal men desh men shanti evn sthirata ka nam bhi n raha. bahari akramanon se hindustan (uttari bharat) ka du:kh aur bhi badh gaya. 1241 ee. men mngol pnjab ke madhy men pahunch ge tatha lahaur ka sundar nagar unake nirmam pnje men pad gaya. 1245 ee. men ve uchch tak badh aye. lekin unaki badi kshati huee aur unhen pichhe hatana pada. masood shah ke shasanakal ke antim varshon men asantosh adhik prachand evn vistrit ho gaya. amiron tatha malikon ne 10 joon, 1246 ee. ko iltutamish ke ek kanishth putr nasirooddin mahamood ko sinhasan par baitha diya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. vah mool roop se ek turqi dasi thi
  2. raibarti, jild 1, prishth 642
  3. brigs, jild 1, prishth 220
  4. 'kraaunikals aauf d pathan kings', prishth snkhya 106

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