आलमशाह द्वितीय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

alamashah dvitiy
alamashah dvitiy
poora nam abdullah jalal ud-din abdul muzaffar ham ud-din muhammad ali gauhar shah-e-alam dvitiy
janm 25 joon, 1728
janm bhoomi shahajahannabad, mugal samrajy
mrityu tithi 19 navambar, 1806
pita/mata pita- alamagir dvitiy, mata- jinat mahal
dharmik manyata islam
vnsh mugal vnsh
shasan kal 1759-1806
any janakari shahalam dvitiy ne apane takht ke lie abdali ko sabase zyada khataranak samajha. isalie usane abdali se bachane ke lie marathon ko apana snrakshak bana liya. lekin 1761 ee. men panipat ki tisari ladaee men abdali ne marathon ko hara diya.

alamashah dvitiy ya shahalam dvitiy (shasan kal 1759-1806 ee., janm- 25 joon, 1728, shahajahannabad; mrityu- 19 navambar, 1806) 17van mugal badashah tha. isaka asali nam shahazada ali gauhar tha. yah alamagir dvitiy ke uttaradhikari ke roop men 1759 ee. men gaddi par baitha. badashah shahalam dvitiy ne eest indiya kampani se ilahabad ki sandhi kar li thi aur vah eest indiya kampani ki penshan par jivan-yapan kar raha tha.

khitab tatha snkatagrast samay

1759 ee. men rajagaddi par baithane ke sath hi ali gauhar ne badashah hone par 'alamashah dvitiy' ka khitab dharan kiya. itihas men vah 'shahalam dvitiy ke nam se prasiddh hai.' usaka rajyakal bharatiy itihas ka ek snkatagrast kal kaha ja sakata hai. usake pita alamagir dvitiy ko usake sattalolup aur kuchakri vazir gaziuddin ne takht se utar diya tha. vah naye badashah ko bhi apani mutthi men rakhana chahata tha. alamashah dvitiy ke gaddi par baithane ke do sal pahale plasi ki ladaee men eest indiya kampani ki vijay ho chuki thi, jisake phalasvaroop bngal, bihar aur udisa par usaka shasan ho gaya tha. uttar-pashchim men ahamadashah abdali ne apane hamale shuroo kar diye the. 1756 ee. men usane dilli ko loota aur 1759 ee. men marathon ko, jinhonne 1758 ee. men pnjab par adhikar kar liya tha, vahan se nikal bahar kiya. dakshin men peshava balaji bajirav ke netritv men marathe mugalon ke sthan par apana samrajy sthapit karane ka prayas kar rahe the. is prakar se jis samay shahalam dvitiy gaddi par baitha, us samay usaka apana vazir usake khilaf gaddari kar raha tha. poorv men eest indiya kampani ki taqat badh rahi thi tatha pnjab men ahamadashah abdali tak lagaye baitha tha.

eest indiya kampani se sandhi

shahalam dvitiy ne apane takht ke lie abdali ko sabase zyada khataranak samajha. isalie usane abdali ke pnje se bachane ke lie marathon ko apana snrakshak bana liya. lekin 1761 ee. men panipat ki tisari ladaee men abdali ne marathon ko hara diya. usane shahalam dvitiy ko dilli ke takht par bane rahane diya. yadyapi bad men usaki ichchha huee ki vah use hatakar svayn dilli ka takht hastagat kar le, tathapi usaki yah yojana poori nahin huee. kintu, abdali ki is viphalata se badashah shahalam dvitiy ko koee labh prapt nahin hua. 1764 ee. men usane apani shakti badhane ka doosara prayas kiya aur bngal se angrezon ko nikal bahar karane ke lie avadh ke navab shujauddaula aur bngal ke bhagode navab mir qasim se sandhi kar li, parantu angrezon ne baksar ki ladaee (1764 ee.) men shahi sena ko hara diya aur badashah shahalam dvitiy ne eest indiya kampani se ilahabad ki sandhi kar li. is sandhi ke dvara badashah ko koda aur ilahabad ke zile avadh se mil gaye aur badashah ne bngal, bihar aur udisa ki divani (rajasv vasoolane ka adhikar) kampani ko is shart par saunp di, vah use 26 lakh rupaye salana khiraj degi. lekin shahalam ko yah labh thode samay tak hi mila.

kampani ki penshan par jivan-yapan

panipat ki tisari ladaee men marathon ki shakti ko kshati avashy pahunchi thi, kintu shighr hi unhonne phir se apani shakti arjit kar li. badashah shahalam dvitiy apane vazir najibuddaula (gaziuddin) ki sazishon se dilli nahin laut pa raha tha. usane marathon ki madad lene ke lie koda aur ilahabad ke zile maratha saradar mahadaji shinde ko saunp diye. is prakar marathon ki sahayata se 1771 ee. men shahalam dvitiy pun: dilli lauta, lekin ab usaki haisiyat marathon ke hath ki kathaputali ke saman thi. atev eest indiya kampani ne ilahabad ki sandhi tod di aur shahalam dvitiy se koda aur ilahabad ke zile vapas le liye aur use salana 26 lakh rupaye ki khiraj dena bhi bnd kar diya, jise angrezon ne 1764 ee. men bngal ki divani ke badale men dene ka vayada kiya tha. isase badashah shahalam dvitiy ki halat aur bhi patali ho gee aur vah doosare angl-maratha yuddh (1803-1805 ee.) tak marathon ki sharan men raha.

mrityu

doosare maratha yuddh men eest indiya kampani ki faujon ne janaral sek ke netritv men mahadaji shinde ki sena ko dilli ke nikat parajit kiya. isake bad shahalam dvitiy aur usaki rajadhani dilli donon par eest indiya kampani ka niyntran sthapit ho gaya. badashah ab boodha ho chala tha aur andha bhi ho gaya tha. vah poornataya ni:sahay tha. vah eest indiya kampani ki penshan par jivan-yapan kar raha tha. ant men 1806 ee. men usaki mrityu ho gee.


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