बक्सर का युद्ध  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

baksar ka yuddh 1763 ee. se hi arambh ho chuka tha, kintu mukhy roop se yah yuddh 22 aktoobar, sanh 1764 ee. men lada gaya. eest indiya kampani tatha bngal ke navab mir qasim ke madhy kee jhadapen hueen, jinamen mir kasim parajit hua. phalasvaroop vah bhagakar avadh a gaya aur sharan li. mir kasim ne yahan ke navab shujauddaula aur mugal samrat shah alam dvitiy ke sahayog se angrezon ko bngal se bahar nikalane ki yojana banayi, kintu vah is kary men saphal nahin ho saka. apane kuchh sahayogiyon ki gaddari ke karan vah yah yuddh har gaya.

angrezon ki kootaniti

is yuddh men ek or mugal samrat shah alam dvitiy, avadh ka navab shujauddaula tatha mir qasim the, doosari or angrezi sena ka netritv unaka kushal senapati 'kaiptan munaro' kar raha tha. donon senayen bihar men baliya se lagabhag 40 kimi. door 'baksar' namak sthan par amane-samane a pahunchin. 22 aktoobar, 1764 ko 'baksar ka yuddh' prarambh hua, kintu yuddh prarambh hone se poorv hi angrezon ne avadh ke navab ki sena se 'asad khan', 'sahoomal' (rohatas ka soobedar) aur jainul abadin ko dhan ka lalach dekar alag kar diya. lagabhag tin ghante men hi yuddh ka nirnay ho gaya, jisaki bazi angrezon ke hath men rahi. shah alam dvitay turnt angrezi dal se ja mila aur angrezon ke sath sandhi kar li. mir qasim bhag gaya tatha ghoomata-phirata zindagi katata raha. dilli ke samip 1777 ee. men agyat avastha men usaki mrityu ho gee.

bharatiy dasata ki shuruat

aisa mana jata hai ki, baksar ke yuddh ka sainik evn rajanitik mahatv plasi ke yuddh se adhik hai. mugal samrat shah alam dvitiy, bngal ka navab mir qasim evn avadh ka navab shujauddaula, tinon ab poorn roop se kathaputali shasak ho gaye the. unhen angrezi sena ke samaksh apane baunepan ka ahasas ho gaya tha. thoda bahut virodh ka svar marathon aur sikkhon me sunaee diya, kintu vah bhi samapt ho gaya. niahsandeh is yuddh ne bharatiyon ki hatheli par dasata shabd likh diya, jise svatantrata prapt karane ke bad hi mitaya ja saka. pi.ee. rabart ne baksar ke yuddh ke bare men kaha hai ki- "plasi ki apeksha baksar ko bharat men angrezi prabhuta ki janmabhoomi manana kahin adhik upayukt hai".

sandhi

mir qasim ko navab ke pad se hatakar ek bar punah mir jafar ko angrezon ne bngal ka navab banaya. 5 faravari, 1765 ee. ko mir jafar ki mrityu ho gee. usaki mrityu ke bad kampani ne usake ayogy putr najamuddaula ko bngal ka navab banakar faravari, 1765 ee. men usase ek sandhi kar li. sandhi ki sharton ke anusar raksha vyavastha, sena, vittiy mamale, vahy sambandhon par niyntran adi ko angrezon apane adhikar men kar liya tatha badale men navab ko 53 lakh rupaye varshik penshan dene ka vada kiya. angrez snrakshan prapt bngal ka pratham navab najamuddaula tha, tatha bngal ka antim navab mubarakuddaula (1770-1775 ee.) tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah