भारत-पाकिस्तान युद्ध (1971)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sanh 1971 ka yuddh bharat aur pakistan ke bich ek sainy sngharsh tha. hathiyarabnd ladaee ke do morchon par 14 dinon ke bad, yuddh pakistan sena aur poorvi pakistan ke alag hone ki poorvi kaman ke samarpan ke sath khatm hua, bangladesh ke svatntr rajy pahachanane, 97,368 pashchim pakistaniyon jo apani svatntrata ke samay poorvi pakistan men the, kuchh 79,700 pakistan sena ke sainikon aur arddhasainik balon ke karmiyon aur 12,500 nagarikon, sahit lagabhag bharat dvara yuddh ke kaidiyon ke roop men le jaya gaya.

rajanitik halachal

ladaee shuroo hone se do mahine pahale aktoobar 1971 men nausena adhyaksh edamiral esem nnda bharat ki tatkalin pradhanamntri indira gandhi se milane ge. nausena ki taiyariyon ke bare men batane ke bad unhonne shrimati gandhi se poochha agar nausena karachi par hamala karen, to kya isase sarakar ko rajanitik roop se koee apatti ho sakati hai. indira gandhi ne han ya n kahane ke bajae saval poochha ki ap aisa poochh kyon rahe hain. nnda ne javab diya ki 1965 men nausena se khas taur se kaha gaya tha ki vah bharatiy samudri sima se bahar koee karravaee n karen, jisase usake samane kee pareshaniyan uth khadi huee thin. indira gandhi ne kuchh der socha aur kaha, 'vel edamiral, if deyar iz a var, dear iz a var.' yani agar ladaee hai to ladaee hai. edamiral nnda ne unhen dhanyavad diya aur kaha, ‘maidam mujhe mera javab mil gaya.’[1]

hamale ki yojana

sild lifafe men hamale ke adesh karachi par hamale ki yojana banaee gee aur 1 disnbar 1971 ko sabhi poton ko karachi par hamala karane ke sild lifaphe men adesh de die ge. poora vestarn flit 2 disnbar ko munbee se kooch kar gaya. unase kaha gaya ki yuddh shuroo hone ke bad hi vah us sild lifafe ko kholen. yojana thi ki nausainik beda din ke dauran karachi se 250 kilomitar ke vritt par rahega aur sham hote-hote usake 150 kilomitar ki doori par pahunch jaega. andhere men hamala karane ke bad pau phatane se pahale vah apani tivratam raftar se chalate hue karachi se 150 door a jaega, taki vah pakistani bamavarshakon ki pahunch se bahar a jae aur hamala bhi roos ki osa klas misail bot se kiya jaega. vah vahan khud se chal kar nahin jaengi, balki unhen nailon ki rassiyon se khinch kar le jaya jaega. aaupareshan traident ke tahat pahala hamala nipat, nirghat aur vir misail bots ne kiya. pratyek misail bot char-char misailon se lais thin. skvardan kamandar babaroo yadav nipat par maujood the. ban ki shakl banate hue nipat sabase age tha usake pichhe baeen taraf nirghat tha aur dahina chhor vir ne snbhala hua tha. usake thik pichhe aeeenes kiltan chal raha tha.[1]

khaibar dooba

vijay jerath ke netritv men karachi par hamala hua tha. karachi se 40 kilomitar door yadav ne apane radar par harakat mahasoos ki. unhen ek pakistani yuddh pot apani taraf ata dikhaee diya. us samay rat ke 10 baj kar 40 minat hue the. yadav ne nirghat ko adesh diya ki vah apana rasta badale aur pakistani jahaz par hamala kare. nirghat ne 20 kilomitar ki doori se pakistani vidhvnsak pienes khaibar par misail chalaee. khaibar ke navikon ne samajha ki unaki taraf ati huee misail ek yuddhak viman hai. unhonne apani viman bhedi topon se misail ko nishana banane ki koshish ki lekin vah apane ko misail ka nishana banane se n rok sake. tabhi kamandar yadav ne 17 kilomitar ki doori se khaibar par ek aur misail chalane ka adesh diya aur kiltan se bhi kaha ki vah nirghat ke bagal men jae. doosari misail lagate hi khaibar ki gati shoony ho gee. pot men ag lag gee aur usase gahara dhuna nikalane laga. thodi der men khaibar pani men doob gaya. us samay vah karachi se 35 naautikal mil door tha aur samay tha 11 bajakar 20 minat. udhar nipat ne pahale vinas chailenjar par ek misail dagi aur phir shahajahan par doosari misail chalaee. vinas chailenjar turnt doob gaya jabaki shahajahan ko nuqasan pahuncha. tisari misail ne kimari ke tel tainkars ko nishana banaya jisase do tainkaron men ag lag gee. is bich vir ne pakistani main svipar pien es muhafiz par ek misail chalaee jisase usamen ag lag gee aur vah bahut tezi se doob gaya. is hamale ke bad se pakistani nausena satark ho gee aur usane din rat karachi ke charon taraf chhote vimanon se nigarani rakhani shuroo kar di. 6 disnbar ko nausena mukhyalay ne pakistani nausena ka ek sndesh pakada jisase pata chala ki pakistani vayusena ne ek apane hi pot pienes zulfikar ko bharatiy yuddhapot samajhate hue us par hi bamabari kar di. pashchimi bede ke flaig aaufisar kamanding edamiral kuruvila ne karachi par doosara misail bot hamala karane ki yojana banaee aur use aaupareshan paithan ka nam diya gaya.[1]

'vinash' ka hamala

is bar akeli misail bot vinash, do frigets trishool aur talavar ke sath gee. 8 disnbar 1971 ki rat 8 bajakar 45 minat ka samay tha. aeeenes vinash par kamanding aaufisar vijay jerath ke netritv men 30 nausainik karachi par doosara hamala karane ki taiyari kar rahe the. tabhi bot ki bijali fel ho gee aur kntrol aautopailat par chala gaya. vah abhi bhi baitari se misail chala sakate the lekin vah apane lakshy ko radar se dekh nahin sakate the. vah apane ap ko is snbhavana ke lie taiyar kar hi rahe the ki qarib 11 baje bot ki bijali vapas a gee. jerath ne radar ki taraf dekha. ek pot dhire dhire karachi bndaragah se nikal raha tha. jab vah pot ki pozishan dekh hi rahe the ki unaki nazar kimari tel dipo ki taraf gee. misail ko janchane-parakhane ke bad unhonne renj ko mainual aur maiksimam par set kiya aur misail fayar kar di. jaise hi misail ne tel tainkaron ko hit kiya vahan jaise pralay hi a gee. jerath ne doosari misail se poton ke ek samooh ko nishana banaya. vahan khade ek british jahaz haramataun men ag lag gee aur panama ka pot galf star barabad hokar doob gaya. chauthi misail pienes dhaka par dagi gee lekin usake kamandar ne kaushal aur buddhi ka parichay dete hue apane pot ko bacha liya. lekin kimari tel dipo men lagi ag ki lapaton ko 60 kilomitar ki doori se bhi dekha ja sakata tha. aaupareshan khatm hote hi jerath ne sndesh bheja, 'for pijns haipi in d nest. rijvaining.' unako javab mila, ’ef 15 se vinash ke lie: isase achchhi divali hamane aj tak nahin dekhi.’ karachi ke tel dipo men lagi ag ko sat dinon aur sat raton tak nahin bujhaya ja saka. agale din jab bharatiy vayu sena ke viman chalak karachi par bamabari karane ge to unhonne riport di, ‘yah eshiya ka sabase bada bonafayar tha.’ karachi ke oopar itana dhuan tha ki tin dinon tak vahan sooraj ki roshani nahin pahunch saki.[1]

yuddh parinam

3 disnbar 1971 ko pakistan ki or se bharatiy thikanon par hamale ke bad bharatiy sainikon ne poorvi pakistan ko mukt karane ka abhiyan shuroo kiya. bharatiy sena ke samane dhaka ko mukt karane ka lakshy rakha hi nahin gaya. isako lekar bharatiy janaralon men kafi matabhed bhi the pichhe jati huee pakistani sena ne pulon ke tod kar bharatiy sena ki abhiyan rokane ki koshish ki lekin 13 disnbar ate-ate bharatiy sainikon ko dhaka ki imaraten nazar ane lagi thin. pakistan ke pas dhaka ki raksha ke lie ab bhi 26400 sainik the jabaki bharat ke sirf 3000 sainik dhaka ki sima ke bahar the, lekin pakistaniyon ka manobal girata chala ja raha tha. 1971 ki ladaee men sima suraksha bal aur mukti bahini ne pakistani sainikon ke atmasamarpan men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. phir bhi yah ek tarafa lada़ee nahin thi. hili aur jamalapur sektar men bharatiy sainikon ko pakistan ke kade pratirodh ka samana karana pada. ladaee se pahale bharat ke lie palayan karate poorvi pakistani sharanarthi, ek samay bharat men bangladesh ke qarib dedh karod sharanarthi pahunch ge the. lakhon bngaliyon ne apane gharon ko chhod kar sharanarthi ke roop men padosi bharat men sharan lene ka faisala kiya. mukti bahini ne pakistani sainikon par kee jagah ghat laga kar hamala kiya aur pakad men ane par unhen bharatiy sainikon ke havale kar diya. razakaron aur pakistan samarthit tatvon ko sthaniy logon aur mukti bahini ka kop bhajan banana pada.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 'if dear iz a vaaur, dear iz a vaaur' (hindi) bi.bi.si. hindi. abhigaman tithi: 15 faravari, 2013.
  2. terah din ka yuddh aur ek rashtr ka janm (hindi) bi.bi.si. hindi. abhigaman tithi: 15 faravari, 2013.

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