आंग्ल-अफ़ग़ान युद्ध  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

angl-afagan yuddh ko 'afagan yuddh' bhi kaha jata hai. itihas men tin afagan yuddh (1838-1842 ee., 1878-1880 ee., 1919 ee.) lade gaye the. bharat ke padosi desh afaganistan par roos ka prabhav dhire-dhire badh raha tha, aur yah prabhav kafi had tak bharat ke lie khataranak siddh ho sakata tha. roos ke badhate hue prabhav ko rokane ke lie aur afaganistan ko british samrajy men milane ke uddeshy se angrezon ne afaganon ke viruddh apani bharatiy chauki se tin bar hamale kie. pahale yuddh men vijay unhen asani se mil to gee, lekin us par niyntran banaye rakhana kathin ho gaya. doosare yuddh men vijay ke lie angrezon ko bhari qimat chukani padi. angrez afaganistan par sthayi qabza to nahin kar sake, lekin unhonne usaki niti par niyntran banaye rakha. tritiy aur antim yuddh afaganistan ki karari har aur 'ravalapindi ki sandhi' (agast, 1919 ee.) ke sath samapt hua. isake pashchath hi afaganistan poorn roop se svatntr ho gaya.

yuddh

itihas men tin angl-afagan yuddh hue hain, jinaka vivaran is prakar hai-

  1. pratham angl-afagan yuddh (1838-1842 ee.)
  2. dvitiy angl-afagan yuddh (1878-1880 ee.)
  3. tritiy angl-afagan yuddh (1919 ee.)

pratham angl-afagan yuddh

afaganistan ka bhootapoorv amir shahashuja angrezon ka penshanayaphta hokar pnjab ke ludhiyana nagar men rahata tha. us samay roos ke gupt samardhan se faras ki sena ne afaganistan ke simavarti nagar herat ko gher liya. herat bahut samarik mahattv ka nagar mana jata tha aur use 'bharat ka dvar' samajha jata tha. jab us par roos ki sahayata se faras ne qabza kar liya to inglaind ki sarakar ne use bharat ke british samrajy ke lie khatara mana. halanki us samay faras aur bharat ke british samrajy ke bich men pnjab men ranajit sinh aur afaganistan men dost muhammad ka svatntr rajy tha.

dvitiy angl-afagan yuddh

yah yuddh vayasaray laaurd litan pratham ke shasan kal se prarambh hokar aur usake uttaradhikari laaurd ripan (1880-1884 ee.) ke shasan kal men samapt hua. amir dost muhammad ki mrityu 1863 ee. men ho gee thi aur usake beton men uttaradhikar ke lie yuddh shuroo ho gaya. uttaradhikar ka yah yuddh (1863-1868 ee.) panch varsh tak chala. is bich bharat sarakar ne poorn nishkriyata ki niti ka palan kiya aur qabul ki gaddi ke pratidvandviyon men kisi ka paksh nahin liya. ant men 1868 ee. men jab dost mahammad ke tisare bete sherali ne qabul ki gaddi prapt kar li to bharat sarakar ne usako afaganistan ka amir man liya. lekin isi bich madhy eshiya men roos ka prabhav bahut badh gaya. roos ne bukhara par 1866 men, tashaknd par 1867 men aur samarakand par 1868 ee. men adhikar kar liya. is prakar roos ka prabhutv badhata hi ja raha tha.

tritiy angl-afagan yuddh

yah yuddh keval do mahine tak chala. bharat ki british sena ne bamon, vimanon, betar ke tar ki snchar vyavastha aur adhunik shastrastron ka prayog karake afaganon ko hara diya. afaganon ke pas adhunik shastrastr nahin the. unhen majaboor hokar shanti sndhi ke lie jhukana pada. isake parinamasvaroop 'ravalapindi ki sndhi' (agast, 1919 ee.) huee. ravalapindi ki sndhi ke bad se hi angl-afagan snbndh pray: maitripoorn raha, aur eshiya men shanti sthapit ho gee.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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