रणजीत सिंह  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ranajit sinh
ranajit sinh
poora nam maharana ranajit sinh
any nam 'shere pnjab'
janm 13 navambar, 1780
janm bhoomi gujaranvala
mrityu tithi 27 joon, 1839
mrityu sthan lahaur
pita/mata pita- mahasinh
pati/patni zindan rani[1]
sntan dilip sinh
upadhi maharana
shasan kal 1801-1839
prashasan ranajit sinh ka prashasan bhi mahattvapoorn raha. vah nirnkush hote hue bhi 'khalasa' ke nam par shasan karate the. unaki sarakar ko 'sarakar khalasa' kaha jata tha.
any janakari ek fransisi paryatak 'viktar jaikomant' ne ranajit sinh ki tulana nepoliyan bonapart se ki hai.

ranajit sinh (angrezi: Ranjit Singh, janm: 13 navambar, 1780, gujaranvala; mrityu: 27 joon, 1839, lahaur) sikkh samrajy ke sarvadhik prasiddh raja the. ve "sher-e pnjab" ke nam se prasiddh hain. maharaja ranajit sinh aise vyakti the, jinhonne n keval pnjab ko ek sashakt soobe ke roop men ekajut rakha, balki apane jivit rahate hue angrezon ko apane samrajy ke pas bhi nahin phatakane diya. 12 aprail, san 1801 ko ranajit sinh ne maharaja ki upadhi grahan ki thi. guru nanak ke ek vnshaj ne unaki tajaposhi snpann karaee thi. unhonne lahaur ko apani rajadhani banaya aur 1802 men amritasar ki or rookh kiya. british itihasakar je. ti. vhilar ke anusar "agar vah ek pidhi purane hote, to poore hindoostan ko hi fateh kar lete." maharaja ranajit sinh padhe-likhe nahin the, lekin unhonne apane rajy men shiksha aur kala ko bahut protsahan diya. unhonne pnjab men qanoon evn vyavastha kayam ki aur kabhi bhi kisi ko saza-e-maut nahin di.

parichay

maharaja ranajit sinh ka janm 13 navambar, san 1780 ko badarookhan ya gujaranvala, bharat men hua tha. ve pnjab ke sikkh rajy ke snsthapak aur maharaj (1801-1839 ee.) the. ranajit sinh sikkhon ki barah misalon men se ek 'sukar chakiya' se sambandhit the. unhonne 1797 ee. men ravi nadi evn chinab nadi ke pradeshon ke prashasan ka karyabhar snbhala tha. unake pita mahasinh sukar chakiya misal ke mukhiya the. jis samay ranajit sinh ki ayu keval 12 varsh thi, usi samay unake pita ka dehant ho gaya aur balyavastha men hi vah sikkh misalon ke ek chhote se samooh ke saradar bana diye ge. 15 varsh ki ayu men 'kanhaya misal' ke saradar ki beti se unaka vivah hua aur kee varsh tak unake kriya-kalap unaki mahattvakankshi vidhava sas sadakaur dvara hi nirdeshit hote rahe. nakkiyon ki beti ke sath doosare vivah ne ranajit sinh ko sikkh rajavadon (samanton) ke bich mahattvapoorn bana diya. zindan rani ranajit sinh ki panchavi rani tatha unake sabase chhote bete dalip sinh ki man thin.

shasan niti

arambh men unaka shasan keval ek chhote-se bhookhand par tha aur sainy bal bhi simit tha. 1793 ee. se 1798 ee. ke bich afagan shasak jamanashah ke nirantar akramanon ke phalasvaroop pnjab men itani arajakata phail gee ki unnis varshiy ranajit sinh ne 1799 ee. ke julaee mas men lahaur par adhikar kar liya aur jamanashah ne paristhitivash unako vahan ka upashasak svikar karate hue raja ki upadhi pradan ki. 1798 - 1799 ee. men afaganistan ke shasak 'jamanashah' ne pnjab par akraman kiya. vapas jate hue usaki kuchh topen chinab nadi men gir gayin. ranajit sinh ne unhen nikalava kar usake pas bhijava diya. is seva ke badale jamanashah ne ranajit sinh ko lahaur ka shasak niyukt kiya tatha raja ki upadhi pradan ki. ranajit sinh ne kuchh sikkh misalon se vaivahik sambandh sthapit kar apane prabhav ko badhane ka prayatn kiya. 1805 ee. men unhonne amritasar evn jammoo par adhikar kar liya. ab pnjab ki rajanitik rajadhani (lahaur) tatha dharmik rajadhani (amritasar), donon hi unake adhin a gayi thin. is samay tak phrans ka nepoliyan apane charamotkarsh par tha, atah usaka prabhav bharat par n pade, isake lie tatkalin gavarnar-janaral laaurd minton ne pnjab, eeran v afaganistan men apane doot bheje. 25 aprail, 1809 ko 'charls maitakaauf' aur maharaja ranajit sinh ke madhy 'amritasar ki sandhi' sampann huee. sandhi ki sharton ke anusar sataluj nadi ke poorvi tat ke kshetr angrezon ke adhikar men a gaye.
rajasabha men fransisi bhade ke sainikon ke sath ranajit sinh
choonki nepoliyan ki satta kamazor pad gayi thi, aur eeran ke inglaind se sambandh sudhar gaye the. isalie in sthitiyon men ranajit sinh ke lie amritasar ki sandhi avashyak ho gayi thi.


1804 ee. men kangada ke saradar 'snsar chand katoch' ko harakar ranajit sinh ne hoshiyarapur par adhikar kar liya. snsar chand katoch ke kahalood ke raja par akraman karane par jab kahalood ke raja ne nepal ke gorakha se sahayata mangi aur 'amar sinh thapa' ke netritv men gorakhon ne kangada ka qila gher liya, to ranajit sinh ne snsar chand katoch ki sahayata isi shart par ki, ki vah unhen kangada ka durg de dega. divan mohakam chand ke adhin ek sikkh sena ne gorakhon ko parast kar diya. is prakar kangada par sikkhon ka adhikar ho gaya aur snsar chand usaki suraksha men a gaya. 1800 ee. ke pashchath afaganistan ki rajanitik shakti ka patan ho gaya aur 1809 ee. men shahashuja ko kabul se bhagana pada. shahashuja ne kabul ka rajy prapt karane ke lie ranajit sinh se sahayata mangi aur unhen kohinoor hira bhent karane ka vachan kiya. ranajit sinh ne sindh ke pashchimi tat ke kshetr apane rajy men vilay ki shart par sahayata ka vachan diya tatha 1837 ee. men peshavar jit liya. isake poorv vah 1818 ee. men multan evn 1819 ee. men kashmir par adhikar kar chuke the.

dooradarshi vyakti

ranajit sinh

1805 ee. men jab laaurd lek yashavantarav holkar ka pichha kar raha tha, holkar bhagakar pnjab men ghus gaya. kintu ranajit sinh ne is khatare ka nivaran badi dooradarshita aur rajanitigyta se kiya. unhonne angrezon ke sath sandhi kar li, jisake anusar pnjab holkar ke prabhav kshetr se mukt mana gaya aur angrezon ne sataluj nadi ke uttar pnjab ke samast bhoo-bhag par ranajit sinh ki prabhusatta svikar kar li.

rajy vistar

un dinon sataluj ke is par ki chhoti-chhoti sikkh riyasaton men paraspar jhagade hote rahate the aur unamen se kuchh ne ranajit sinh se sahayata ki yachana bhi ki. ranajit sinh bhi in samast sikkh riyasaton ko apane netritv men snghabaddh karana chahate the. is karan se unhonne in kshetron men kee sainik abhiyan kiye aur 1807 ee. men ludhiyana par adhikar kar liya. unaka is riti se sataluj ke is par ki kuchh chhoti-chhoti riyasaton par sattavistar angrezon ko ruchikar n hua.

angrezon se sandhi

us samay angrezon ka rajy vistar dilli tak ho chuka tha. unhonne charls metakaauf ke netritv men ek dootamandal aur usake pichhe-pichhe devid aktaraloni ke netritv men angrezi sena ranajit sinh ke rajy men bheji. is bar bhi ranajit sinh ne rajanitik soojh-boojh ka parichay diya aur angrezon se 1809 ee. men chirasthayi maitri sandhi kar li, jo amritasar ki sandhi ke nam se vikhyat hai. isake anusar unhonne ludhiyana par se adhikar hata liya aur apane rajyakshetr ko sataluj nadi ke uttar aur pashchim tak hi simit rakhana svikar kiya. sath hi unhonne sataluj ko dakshinavarti riyasaton ke jhagadon men hastakshep n karane ka vachan diya. parinamasvaroop ye sabhi riyasaten angrezon ke snrakshan men a geen.

prashasan

maharaja ranajit sinh

ranajit sinh ka prashasan bhi mahattvapoorn raha. vah nirnkush hote hue bhi 'khalasa' ke nam par shasan karate the. unaki sarakar ko 'sarakar khalasa' kaha jata tha. unhonne guru nanak aur guru govind sinh ke nam ke sikke chalaye, kintu unhonne gurumat ko protsahan nahin diya. unhonne dogaron evn musalamanon ko uchch pad pradan kiye. fakir 'ajijuddin' unaka videshamntri tatha divan 'dinanath' unaka vitamntri tha.

rajasv ke srot

ranajit sinh ke rajasv ka pramukh srot 'bhoo-rajasv' tha, jisamen navin pranaliyon ka samavesh hota rahata tha. maharaja ranajit sinh ne nilami ke adhar par sabase oonchi boli bolane vale ko bhoo-rajasv vasooli ka adhikar pradan kiya. rajy ki or se lagan upaj ka 2/5 se 1/3 bhag liya jata tha. ranajit sinh ka rajy 4 soobon men bnta tha - peshavar, kashmir, multan, aur lahaur . nyay prashasan ke kshetr men rajadhani men 'adalat-e-ala' (adhunik uchch nyayalay ke saman) khola gaya tha, jahan uchch adhikariyon dvara vivadon ka nipatara kiya jata tha.

sainy vyavastha

ranajit sinh ne apani sainy vyavastha par vishesh dhyan diya tha. unhonne apani sena ko fransisi sainikon se prashikshit karavaya. unhonne apani paidal sena ko do fransisi sainy adhikariyon 'alard' evn 'vantoora' ke adhin rakha. vantoora 'phauj-e-khas' ki padati tatha arlad 'ghudasavar' pakshon ke karyavahak the. isi prakar ranajit sinh ne ek topakhane ka bhi gathan karavaya, jisaka karyavahak 'ilahi bakhsh' tha. unhonne 1827 evn 1832 ee. men kramashah janaral kort evn karnal gardanar ki niyukti kar is topakhane ka punargathan karavaya. ranajit sinh ki sena men do tarah ke ghudasavar the- ghudachadhakhas aur misaladar. ranajit sinh ki sena men vibhinn videshi jatiyon ke 39 afasar kary karate the, jisamen fransisi, jarman, ameriki, yoonani, roosi, angrez, englo-indiyan, speni adi sammilit the. in videshiyon ko pnjab men basane ke lie bhinn-bhinn prakar ke protsahan die ge. inamen se jin logon ko utkrisht pad prapt tha, unamen - vantoora, alard, kort, gardanar aur evitebal pramukh the. kort aur gardanar ne topakhane ka punargathan kiya tha. ranajit sinh ne lahaur aur amritasar men top, gola aur barood banane ke karakhane lagavaye. isake atirikt unhonne sena men masik vetan, jise 'mahadari' kahate the, dene ki pranali prarambh ki aur sena ki saj-sajja tatha gatishilata par bal diya.

kohinoor aur ranajit sinh

san 1812 men jab pnjab par maharaja ranajit sinh ka shasan tha, us samay unhonne kashmir ke soobedar atamohammad ke shiknje se kashmir ko mukt karane ka abhiyan shuroo kiya. is abhiyan se bhayabhit hokar atamohammad kashmir chhodakar bhag gaya. kashmir abhiyan ke pichhe sirph yahi ekamatr karan nahin tha. darasal isake pichhe asali vajah to tha beshakimati 'kohinoor' hira.[2] atamohammad ne mahamood shah dvara parajit afaganistan ke shasak shahashuja[3] ko sheragadh ke qile men kaid kar rakha tha. use kaid khane se azad karane ke lie usaki begam vapha begam ne lahaur akar maharaja ranajit sinh se prarthana ki aur kaha ki- "meharabani kar ap mere pati ko atamohammad ki kaid se riha karava den, is ahasan ke badale beshakimati kohinoor hira apako bhent kar doongi." shahashuja ke kaid ho jane ke bad vapha begam hi un dinon afaganistan ki shasika thi. maharaja ranajiti sinh svayn chahate the ki ve kashmir ko atamohammad se mukt karavaen. sahi vakt ane par maharaja ranajit sinh ne kashmir ko azad kara liya. unake divan mohakamachnd ne sheragadh ke qile ko gherakar vapha begam ke pati shahashuja ko riha kar vapha begam ke pas lahaur pahuncha diya aur apana vada poora kiya.


rajakumar khadgasinh ne unhen mubarak haveli men thaharaya. par vapha begam apane vade ke anusar kohinoor hira maharaja ranajit sinh ko bhent karane men vilamb karati rahi. yahan tak ki kee mahine bit ge. jab maharaja ne shahashuja se kohinoor hire ke bare men poochha to vah aur usaki begam donon hi bahane banane lage. jab zyada zor diya gaya to unhonne ek nakali hira maharaja ranajit sinh ko saunp diya, jo jauhariyon ke janch ki kasauti par nakali sabit hua. ranajit sinh krodh se bhar uthe aur mubarak haveli gher li gee. do din tak vahan khana nahin diya gaya. varsh 1813 ee. ki pahali joon thi, jab maharaja ranajit sinh shahashuja ke pas ae aur phir kohinoor ke vishay men poochha. dhoort shahashuja ne kohinoor apani pagadi men chhipa rakha tha. kisi tarah maharaja ko isaka pata chal gaya. unhonne shahashuja ko kabul ki rajagaddi dilane ke lie gurugrnth sahab par hath rakhakar pratigya ki. phir use 'pagadi-badal bhaee' (ek rashm) banane ke lie usase pagadi badal kar kohinoor prapt kar liya.


parde ki ot men baithi vapha begam maharaja ranajit sinh ki chaturaee samajh gee. ab kohinoor maharaja ranajit sinh ke pas pahunch gaya tha aur ve sntusht the ki unhonne kashmir ko azad kara liya tha. unaki ichchha thi ki ve kohinoor hire ko jagannathapuri ke mndir men pratishthit bhagavan jagannath ko arpit karen. hindoo mndiron ko manon sona bhent karane ke lie ve prasiddh the. lekin unaki ye ichchha poori na ho saki. ranajit sinh ki mrityu ke pashchath angrezon ne san 1845 men sikkhon par akraman kar diya. firozapur kshetr men sikkh sena viratapoorvak angrezon ka mukabala kar rahi thi, kintu sikkh sena ke hi senapati lalasinh ne vishvasaghat kiya aur morcha chhodakar lahaur palayan kar gaya. is karan sikkh sena har gee. angrezon ne sikkhon se kohinoor hira le liya. kuchh logon ka kathan hai ki ranajiti sinh ke putr dilip sinh se hi angrezon ne lndan men kohinoor hadapa tha. kohinoor ko 1 mah 8 din tak jauhariyon ne tarasha aur phir use rani viktoriya ne apane taj men jadava liya.

rajanitigy

ranajit sinh yatharthavadi rajanitigy the, jinhen sambhav aur asambhav ki bhali parakh thi. isi karan unhonne 1831 ee. men angrezon se pun: sandhi ki, jisamen chirasthayi maitri sandhi ki sharton ko duharaya gaya. is prakar ranajit sinh ne n to angrezon se koee yuddh kiya aur n hi unaki sena ko kisi bhi bahane se apane rajy men andar ghusane diya. 1838 men unhonne kabul ki afagan gaddi par shahashuja ko phir se baithane ke lie angrez vaisaray laaurd aaukalaind se ek sandhi ki. is samajhaute ke tahat sindhu sthit british faujon ne dakshin disha se aur ranajit sinh ki sena ne khaibar darre se afaganistan men pravesh karake kabul ke vijay pradarshan men hissa liya.

vijay abhiyan

ranajit sinh

maharaja ranajit sinh ke vijay abhiyanon ka vivaran nimn prakar hain-

  • lahaur ki vijay - 1793-1798 ee. men afaganistan ke shasak jamanashah ne lahaur par akraman kar diya aur badi asani se us par adhikar kar liya, parantu apane sautele bhaee mahamood ke virodh ke karan jamanashah ko shighr hi kabul lautana pada. lautate samay usaki kuchh topen jhelam nadi men gir padin. ranajit sinh ne in topon ko surakshit kabul bhijava diya. is par jamanashah bada prasann hua aur usane ranajit sinh ko lahaur par adhikar kar lene ki anumati de di. at: ranajit sinh ne lahaur par akraman kiya aur 7 julaee, 1799 ko lahaur par adhikar kar liya.[4]
  • any misalon par vijay - shighr hi ranajit sinh ne pnjab ki anek misalon par adhikar kar liya. 1803 men unhonne akalagadh, 1804 men kasoor tatha jhng par aur 1805 men amritasar par adhikar kar liya. amritasar par adhikar kar lene se pnjab ki dharmik evn adhyatmik rajadhani ranajit sinh ke hathon men a gayi. 1809 men unhonne gujarat par adhikar kiya.
  • sataluj nadi ke par vijay - maharaja ranajit sinh sataluj nadi ke par ke pradeshon par bhi apana adhipaty kar lena chahate the. 1806 men unhonne lagabhag 20,000 sainikon sahit sataluj ko par kiya aur dolaghi ganv par adhikar kar liya. patiyala ke naresh sahib sinh ne ranajit sinh ki madhyasthata svikar kar li aur bahut si dhanarashi bhent ki. lautate samay ranajit sinh ne ludhiyana ko bhi jit liya. 1807 men unhonne sataluj ko par kiya aur narayanagadh, jira badani, firozapur adi pradeshon par bhi adhikar kar liya.
  • amritasar ki sndhi - ranajit sinh ke sainik abhiyanon se bhayabhit hokar sataluj nadi ke par ki sikkh riyasaton ne angrezon se snrakshan dene ki prarthana ki. is par gavarnar-janaral laaurd minto ne sar charls metakaauf ko ranajit sinh se sndhi karane ko bheja. prarambh men ranajit sinh sndhi ke lie sahamat nahin hue, lekin jab laaurd minto ne charls metakaauf ke sath aktaraloni ke netritv men sainik tukadi bheji tatha unhonne sainik shakti ki dhamaki di to ranajit sinh ko jhukana pada. ant men 25 aprail, 1809 ee. ko ranajit sinh ne angrezon se sndhi kar li, jise 'amritasar ki sndhi' kahate hain.
  • kangada vijay - jab 1809 ee. men amarasinh thapa ne kangada par akraman kar diya to kangada ke shasak snsarachandr ki prarthana par ranajit sinh ne ek vishal sena kangada bhej di. sikkh sena ko dekhakar amarasinh thapa bhag nikala. is prakar 1809 ee. men kangada ke durg par ranajit sinh ka adhikar ho gaya.
  • multan vijay - 1818 ee. men ranajit sinh ne mishr divanachnd aur khadgasinh ko multan ki vijay ke lie bheja. yadyapi multan ke shasak mujaffar khan ne sikkh sena ka viratapoorn mukabala kiya, parantu use parajit hona pada. is prakar 1818 ee. men multan par bhi maharaja ranajit sinh ka adhikar ho gaya.
  • atak ki vijay - ranajit sinh ne kootaniti se kam lete hue 1813 ee. men katak par bhi adhikar kar liya. unhonne katak ke gavarnar jahadand ko ek lakh rupaye ki rashi dekar 1813 men katak par bhi adhikar kar liya.
  • kashmir vijay - 1819 ee. men ranajit sinh ne mishr divanachnd ke netritv me vishal sena kashmir ki vijay ke lie bheji. kashmir men afagan shasak jabbar khan ne sikkh sena ka mukabala kiya, parantu use parajay ka mukh dekhana pada. is prakar kashmir par bhi ranajit sinh ka adhikar ho gaya.
  • derajat ki vijay - kashmir ki vijay ke bad 1820-21 men maharaja ranajit sinh ne deragaji khan, ismail khan aur bannoo par bhi adhikar kar liya.
  • peshavar ki vijay - 1823 ee. men ranajit sinh ne peshavar ki vijay ke lie ek vishal sena bheji. sikkhon ne jahangir aur naushahara ki ladaiyon men pathanon ko parajit kar diya aur peshavar par adhikar kar liya. 1834 ee. men peshavar ko poorn sikkh samrajy men sammalit kar liya gaya.
  • laddakh ki vijay - 1836 ee. men sikkh senapati joravar sinh ne laddakh par akraman kiya aur laddakhi sena ko parajit karake laddakh par adhikar kar liya.

dharmik sadbhav

pnjab ke lok jivan aur lok kathaon men maharaja ranajit sinh se sambandhit anek kathaen kahi v suni jati hain. isamen se adhikansh kahaniyan unaki udarata, nyayapriyata aur sabhi dharmon ke prati samman ko lekar prachalit hain. unhen apane jivan men praja ka bharapoor pyar mila. apane jivan kal men hi ve anek lok gathaon aur janashrutiyon ka kendr ban gaye the.

ek musalaman khushanavis ne anek varshon ki sadhana aur shram se 'quran sharif' ki ek atynt sundar prati sone aur chandi se bani syahi se taiyar ki. us prati ko lekar vah pnjab aur sindh ke anek navabon ke pas gaya. sabhi ne usake kary aur kala ki prashnsa ki, parantu koee bhi us prati ko kharidane ke lie taiyar n hua. khushanavis us prati ka jo bhi mooly mangata tha, vah sabhi ko apani samarthy se adhik lagata tha. nirash hokar khushanavis lahaur aya aur maharaja ranajit sinh ke senapati se mila. senapati ne usake kary ki badi prashnsa ki, parantu itana adhik mooly dene men usane khud ko asamarth paya. maharaja ranajit sinh ne bhi yah bat suni aur us khushanavis ko apane pas bulavaya. khushanavis ne quran sharif ki vah prati maharaj ko dikhaee. maharaja ranajit sinh ne bade samman se use uthakar apane mastak men lagaya aur vazir ko agya di- "khushanavis ko utana dhan de diya jay, jitana vah chahata hai aur quran sharif ki is prati ko mere sngrahalay men rakh diya jay." maharaj ke is kary se sabhi ko ashchary hua. faqir ajijaddin ne poochha- "hujoor, apane is prati ke lie bahut badi dhanarashi di hai, parantu vah to apake kisi kam ki nahin hai, kyonki ap sikkh hain aur yah musalamanon ki dharm pustak hai." maharaj ne uttar diya- "faqir sahab, eeshvar ki yah ichchha hai ki main sabhi dharmon ko ek nazar se dekhoon."[5]

mrityu evn sikkh rajy

ranajit sinh ki samadhi

59 varsh ki ayu men 7 joon, 1839 ee. men apani mrityu ke samay tak unhonne ek aise sngathit sikkh rajy ka nirman kar diya tha, jo peshavar se sataluj tak aur kashmir se sindh tak vistrit tha. kintu is vistrit samrajyon men vah koee mazaboot shasan vyavastha prachalit nahin kar sake aur n hi sikkhon men vaisi rashtriy bhavana ka snchar kar sake, jaisi shivaji ne maharashtr men utpann kar di thi. phalat: unaki mrityu ke keval 10 varsh ke uparant hi yah samrajy nasht ho gaya. phir bhi yah svikar karana hoga ki afaganon, angrezon tatha apane kuchh sahadharmi sikkh saradaron ke virodh ke bavajood ranajit sinh ne jo mahanh saphalataen prapt kin, unake adhar par unaki ganana unnisavin shatabdi ke bharatiy itihas ki mahanh vibhootiyon men ki jani chahie.

nepoliyan se tulana

ek fransisi paryatak 'viktar jaikomant' ne ranajit sinh ki tulana nepoliyan bonapart se ki hai. ranajit sinh ki mrityu ke bad ka samay pnjab ke lie ghor arajakata ka kal tha. snghavaliya, dogara, ataravaliya, jo ranajit sinh ke shasan kal men prashasan ke mahattvapoorn ang the, ne unake kamazor uttaradhikariyon 'khadak sinh', 'naunihal sinh' v 'sher sinh' men ek doosare ka samarthan karana shuroo kar diya. is bich sena ka hastakshep bhi prashasan men badhane laga. isake alava, choonki angrez pahale se pnjab ko lalachayi drishti se dekh rahe the, isalie yah unake hastakshep ka uchit karan bana. in sabhi karanon ka parinam hi angl-sikkh yuddh tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ranajit sinh ki panchavi rani
  2. is sikkh raja ki chalaki se bharat aya tha kohinoor (hindi) firkee.in. abhigaman tithi: 22 march, 2017.
  3. shahashuja ahamadashah abdali ka hi vnshaj tha, jise yah hira shaharookh mirza ne diya tha, tab se yah abdali ke vnshajon ke pas hi tha.
  4. ranajit sinh ke vijay abhiyan (hindi) gajabkhabar.com. abhigaman tithi: 19 march, 2017.
  5. sher-e-pnjab maharaja ranajit sinh ki jivani (hindi) nayichetana.com. abhigaman tithi: 22 march, 2017.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah