लाहौर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

lahaur qila

lahaur purane pnjab ki rajadhani hai jo ravi nadi ke dahine tat par basa hua hai. lahaur bahut prachin nagar hai. lahaur karachi ke bad pakistan men doosara sabase bada abadi vala shahar hai. ise pakistan ka dil nam se bhi snbodhit kiya jata hai kyonki is shahar ka pakistani itihas, snskriti evn shiksha men atynt vishisht yogadan raha hai. ise aksar pakistan bagon ke shahar ke roop men bhi jana jata hai. lahaur ko snbhavatah eesavi sanh ki prarambhik shatabdiyon men basaya gaya tha aur satavin shatabdi ee. men yah itana mahattvapoorn tha ki usaka ullekh chini yatri hven tsang ne kiya hai. shatrunjay ke ek abhilekh men lavapur ya lahaur ko lamapur kaha gaya hai. lahaur shahar ravi evn vagha nadi ke tat par bharat-pakistan sima par sthit hai.

sthapana

hindoo anushrutiyon ke anusar lahaur nagar ka prachin nam lavapur ya lavapuri tha, aur ise shriramachandr ke putr lav ne basaya tha. kaha jata hai, ki lahaur ke pas sthit kusoor namak nagar ko lav ke bade bhaee kush ne basaya tha. vaise valmiki ramayan se is lokashruti ki pushti spasht roop se nahin hoti, kyonki is mahakavy men shriram ke dvara lav ko uttar aur kush ko dakshin kosal ka rajy die jane ka ullekh hai-[1] dakshin-kosal men kush ne kushavati namak nagari basaee thi. lav ke dvara kisi nagari ke basae jane ka ullekh ramayan men nahin hai.

itihas

lahaur ka musalamanon ke poorv ka itihas prayah andhakaramay aur agyat hai. keval itana avashy pata hai, ki 11vin shati ke pahale yahan ek rajapoot vnsh ki rajadhani thi. lahaur par pahale gazani aur phir gor ke shasakon ne aur phir dilli ke sultanon ne adhikar kar kiya. mugal kal men lahaur mahattvapoorn nagar ho gaya aur shahi nivas sthan ban gaya. 1022 ee. men mahamood gazanavi ki senaon ne lahaur par akraman karake ise loota. sambhavatah isi kal ke itihasakaron ne lahaur ka pahali bar ullekh kiya hai. gulam vnsh tatha paravarti rajavnshon ke shasanakal men bhi kabhi-kabhi lahaur ka nam sunaee pad jata hai. 1206 ee. men muhammad gori ki mrityu ke pashchath lahaur par adhikar karane ke lie kee saradaron men sngharsh hua, jisamen antatah kutubaddin aibak saphal hua. taimoor ne 14vin shati men lahaur ke bazaron ko loota aur 1524 ee. men babar ne is nagar ko lootakar jala diya. kintu usake bad shighr hi purane nagar ke sthan par naya nagar bas gaya.

mahattv

ranajit sinh ki samadhi

vastav men, lahaur ko akabar ke samay se hi mahattv milana shuroo hua. 1584 ee. ke pashchath akabar kee varshon tak lahaur men raha aur jahangir ne to lahaur ko apani rajadhani banakar apane shasanakal ka adhikansh samay vahin par bitaya. mugalon ke samay men uttari-pashchimi simant par hone vale yuddhon ke sucharoo snchalan ke lie bhi lahaur men shasan ka kendr banana avashyak ho gaya. isake sath hi jahangir ko kashmir ghati ke akarshak saundary ne bhi agara chhodakar lahaur men rahane ko prerit kiya, kyonki yahan se kashmir apekshakrit nazadiq tha. shahajahan ko bhi lahaur ka kafi akarshan tha, kintu aurngazeb ke samay men lahaur ke mugalakalin vaibhav vilas ka kshay prarambh ho gaya. akabar, jahangir aur shahajahan, sabhi ko lahaur nagar men rahana achchha lagata tha, isase yah sundar nagar ban gaya tha, jahan qila v anek khoobasoorat bag the. isaka shahadara bag jahangir ne aur shalimar bag shahajahan ne lagavaya.

hamale

  • 1707 se 1799 ee. ke bich lahaur nagar men bar- bar hamale hue. pahale nadirashah aur phir ahamadashah abdali ne hamala kar is par dakhal kar liya.
  • 1738 ee. men nadirashah ne lahaur par akraman kiya, kintu apar dhan-rashi lekar usane yahan par lootamar machane ka irada chhod diya.
  • 1768 ee. men sikkhon ka adhikar ho gaya aur 1799 ee. men yah ranajit sinh ke adhikar men a gaya. ranajit sinh ne apani rajadhani banaya. 1799 ee. men pnjab kesari ranajit sinh ke samay men lahaur ko phir ek bar pnjab ki rajadhani banane ka gaurav mila.
  • 1849 ee. men doosare sikkh yuddh ki samapti par lahaur british bharatiy samrajy men mila liya gaya aur 1947 ee. tak pnjab ki rajadhani raha. desh ka vibhajan hone par lahaur pashchimi pakistan ki rajadhani bana. ab pakistan ki rajadhani ravalapindi hai.
  • 1849 ee. men pnjab ko british bharat men mila liya gaya aur lahaur ka soobe ka mukhy shasan kendr banaya gaya.

prachin smarak

jahangir ka maqabara, lahaur, pakistan

lahaur ke prachin smarak hain—qila, jahangir ka maqabara, shalimar bag aur ranajit sinh ki samadhi. lahaur ka qila tatha isake antargat bhavanadi mukhy roop men akabar, jahangir, shahajahan aur aurngazeb ke banavae hue hain. hathipanv dvar ke andar pravesh karane par pahale lav ke prachin mandir ke darshan hote hain. yahin auragazeb ka banavaya hua naulakha bhavan hai, jo sngamaramar ka bana hai. isake age musamman burz hai, jahan se maharaja ranajit sinh ravi nadi ka drishy dekha karate the. pas hi shahajahan ke samay men bana shishamahal hai. yahan ranajit sinh ke uttaradhikari ne sar jan larens ko kohinoor hira bhent men diya tha.

qile ke andar any ullekhaniy imaraten hain—badi khvabagah, divaneam, mati masjid, hazoori bag aur baradari. hazoori bag se badashahi masjid ko, jise 1674 ee. men auragazeb ne banavaya tha, rasta jata hai. shahadara, jahan jahangir ka maqabara avasthit hai, ravi ke doosare tat par lahaur se 3 mil door hai. maqabare ke nikat hi noorajahan ke banavae hue dilakusha udyan ke khandahar hain. maqabara lal patthar ka bana hua hai. jis par safed sngamaramar ka kam hai. isamen gumbad nahin hai. isaki minaren athakon hain. jahangir ke samadhi ke charon or sngamaramar ki naqqashi jali ke par hai. chhat par bhi bahut hi sundar shilpakari hai. is maqabare ko jahangir ki priy begam noorajahan ne banavaya tha. noorajahan ki samadhi jahangir ke maqabare ke nikat hi sthit hai. is par koee bhi maqabara nahin hai, aur begam tatha usaki ekamatr santan ladali begam ki qabren analnkrit aur sade roop men sab or se khule hue mandap ke andar bani hain. ye shahajahan ke zamane men bani thin. shahajahan ka banavaya hua shalimar bag kashmir ke isi nam ke bag ki anukriti hai. yah lahaur se 6 mil door hai. ranajit sinh ki tatha unaki ath raniyon ki samadhiyan qile ke nikat hi ek chhatari ke niche bani huee hain. ye raniyan ranajit sinh ki mrityu ke pashchath sati ho gee thin.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. -"kosaleshukushn viramuttareshu tathalavamh" uttar kand

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