अक्साई चिन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

aksaee chin
aksaee chin
vivaran 'aksaee chin' hindukush tatha karakoram parvatashreniyon men sthit vichchhinn, bnjar aur adhikanshat: anivasy maidan hai. yah kshetr jammoo aur kashmir ke kul kshetraphal ke panchaven bhag ke barabar hai.
sthiti bharatiy upamahadvip ke uttari chhor par.
oonchaee 17 hazar phit
vishesh 1960 men bharat aur chin ke bich sima varta men aksaee chin par charcha huee thi. 1962 men bharat-chin sngharsh ke dauran yahan laddakh men bhari ladaee ladi gee.
any janakari aksaee chin ke bhaugolik halat aise hain ki yahan insan rah nahin sakata. yah kshetr bharat ke jammoo-kashmir se tatha chin ke jinajiyang prant se sata hua hai.

aksaee chin athava 'aksechin' (angrezi: Aksai Chin) bharatiy upamahadvip ke uttari chhor par hindukush tatha karakoram parvatashreniyon men sthit vichchhinn, bnjar aur adhikanshat: anivasy maidan hai. laddakh ke ek hisse ke roop men svikrit yah sthan bhaugolik roop se tibbat ke pathar ka vistar hai. chini log ise "safed pattharon ka registan" kahate hain.

aitihasikata

aitihasik roop se aksaee chin bharat ko resham marg se jodane ka zariya tha aur bharat hazaron sal se madhy eshiya ke poorvi ilakon, jinhen turkistan bhi kaha jata hai, aur bharat ke bich snskriti, bhasha aur vyapar ka rasta raha hai. bharat se turkistan ka vyapar marg laddakh aur aksaee chin ke raste se hote hue kashgar shahar jaya karata tha. varsh 1950 ke dashak se yah kshetr chin ke qabze men hai. bharat barabar is par apane dave ki pushti karata raha hai aur ise jammoo aur kashmir ka uttar-poorvi hissa manata hai. aksaee chin jammoo aur kashmir ke kul kshetraphal ke panchaven bhag ke barabar hai. chin ne ise prashasanik roop se shinajiyang prant ke kashgar vibhag ke kargilik zile ka hissa banaya hai. 1960 men bharat aur chin ke bich sima varta men aksaee chin par charcha huee thi aur 1962 men bharat-chin sngharsh ke dauran yahan laddakh men bhari ladaee huee thi.

namakaran

aksaee chin ka nam ueegur bhasha se aya hai, jo ek turki bhasha hai. ueegur men 'aq' ka arth 'safed' hota hai aur 'saee' ka arth 'ghati' ya 'nadi ki vadi'. ueegur ka ek aur shabd 'choal' hai, jisaka arth hai 'virana' ya 'registan', jisaka purani khitani bhasha men roop 'chin' tha. 'aksaee chin' ke nam ka arth 'safed patharili ghati ka registan' nikalata hai. chin ki sarakar is kshetr par adhikar jatalane ke lie 'chin' ka arth 'chin ka safed registan' nikalati hai, lekin any log is par vivad rakhate hain.

bhaugolik dashaen

17 hazar phit ki oonchaee par aksaee chin ke bhaugolik halat aise hain ki yahan insan rah nahin sakata. yah kshetr bharat ke jammoo-kashmir se tatha chin ke jinajiyang prant se sata hua hai. isi aksaee chin se hokar gujarata hai jinajiyang-tibbat haive. yah sadak chin ki hai, jo is ilake men chin ke adhipaty ki kahani likhati hai. aksaee chin ka ye ilaka darasal sadiyon purana vyaparik rasta bhi hai. maujooda daur men yahan chin ka kabza hai.[1]

sarahadi vivad

bharat aur chin sarahad ke mudde par ek-doosare par bharosa nahin kar pate. donon mulk bar-bar batachit ke bavajood kisi ek rekha ko apani sarahad manane ko taiyar nahin hote. donon deshon ke bich kee-kee bar nakshe par sarahad ki lakiren khinchi gee hain, lekin kabhi aksaee chin to kabhi arunachal pradesh ya sikkim ka mudda in lakiron ko ne vivad men la deta hai. is vivad ki jad kafi pahale 1834 ee. men hi pad gee thi. bharat ka kahana hai ki chin ne jammoo-kashmir ki 41180 varg kilomitar zamin par gair qanooni kabza kar rakha hai. isamen 5180 varg kilomitar aksaee chin ka laddakhi kshetr hai. chin, sima ka nirdharan karane vali 'maikamohan rekha' ko nahin manata. vah arunachal pradesh ki 90 hazar varg kilomitar zamin par bhi apana dava karata raha hai.

bharat-chin sima vivad ki jad salon pahale padi thin. ye san 1834 ee. ka samay tha. pnjab men sikkhon ka raj tha. 1834 men ve laddakh tak ja pahunche the aur laddakh ko jammoo men milane ka ailan kar diya. sikkhon ki phauj ne bakayada tibbat par hamala kar diya, lekin chin ki senaon ne unhen hara diya aur khadedate hue laddakh aur leh par kabza kar liya. sikkh aur chiniyon ke bich 1842 ee. men ek samajhauta hua, jisamen tay hua ki ek-doosare ki simaon ka ullnghan nahin kiya jaega. varsh 1846 ee. men sikkhon ko angrezon dvara bhi parajay jhelani padi aur laddakh par british raj kayam ho gaya. unhonne chin ke adhikariyon se milakar sarahad ka mudda sulajhane ki koshish ki. tay hua ki prakritik chinhon ke jarie hi sarahad tay ki jaegi aur sima par bad ki zaroorat nahin hai. yahin se asali sarahad gayab ho gee aur kee lakiron men donon desh ulajh kar rah ge.[1]

sima rekhaen

  • nakshe par bani sarahad ki pahali lakir 'jaaunasan rekha' hai. 1865 men sarve aauf indiya ke aphasar dabloo ech jaaunasan ne ek dimagi rekha khinchi, jisake anusar aksaee chin ka ilaka jammoo-kashmir men ata hai. jaaunasan ne nakshe par ukeri ye rekha jammoo-kashmir ke maharaja ko dikhaee. lekin jaaunasan ke kam ki alochana huee. use british raj ne naukari se nikal diya, chin ne kabhi ise nahin mana aur bharat ne hamesha apanaya.
  • nakshe par bani sarahad ki doosari lakir 'jaau़nasan-aradag rekha' hai. 1897 men british phauj ke aphasar sar jaaun aradag ne kunalun pahadon se gujarati huee ek aur sarahad khinchi. ye vo daur tha, jab british raj ko roos ke badhate prabhutv se khatara lagane laga tha. chin kamazor tha. aradag ne british raj ko samajhaya ki ye sarahad phayademnd hogi, lekin ye lakir sirph kitabon tak rah gee.
  • nakshe par bani sarahad ki tisari lakir 'maikkartani-maikdaaunald rekha' hai. 1890 men briten aur chin dost ban ge. briten ko chinta sata rahi thi ki kahin aksaee chin ka ilaka roos n kabza le. 1899 men chin ne aksaee chin ke ilake men dilachaspi dikhaee, isilie briten ne sarahad men badalav ka irada banaya. ye badalav sujhaya jaaurj maikakartani ne aur aksaee chin ka jyadatar ilaka chin men dal diya. chin ne is par khamoshi laga li, british raj ne ise chin ki sahamati samajh liya. ye rekha hi maujooda vastavik niyntran rekha hai.
  • nakshe par bani saraharad ki chauthi lakir 'maikamohan rekha' hai. 1913-1914 men briten, chin aur tibbat ke pratinidhi shimala men mile aur sarahad par baten hueen. british aphasar henari maikamohan ne samajhaute ke sath ek naksha pesh kiya, jo tibbat aur bharat ki poorvi sarahad tay kar raha tha. chin ko ye mnjoor nahin hua, vah samajhaute ke lie taiyar n hua. maikamohan rekha ka adhar himalay tha, himalay ke dakshini hisse bharat se jode ge.[1]

1947 ke bad ki sthiti

1947 men bharat ki azadi ke bad se hi sarakar ne jaaunasan rekha ko hi adhikarik sarahad mana, jisamen aksaee chin bharat ka hissa tha. udhar, chin ne jinajiyang aur pashchimi tibbat ko jodane vala 1200 kilomitar lnba haive bana dala. isaka 179 kilomitar ka hissa jaaunasan rekha ke dakshini hisse ko katate hue aksaee chin se hokar gujarata tha. 1957 tak to bharat ko ye tak pata nahin chal saka ki chin ne aksaee chin ke isi vivadit hisse men sadak tak bana li hai. 1958 men chin ke nakshe men pahali bar ye sadak prakat huee. bharat aur chin ke bich sarahad ke jhagade ka doosara morcha hai bharat ke poorvottar men. ye vo ilaka hai, jahan se kalpanik maikamohan rekha gujarati hai aur donon mulkon ko alag karati hai. nakshe par ukeri gee yahi lakir darasal 1996 men elesi yani vastavik niyntran rekha ke taur par dekhi gee, jise bharat chin ke sath apani sarahad manata hai. pahale is ilake ko naaurth eest phrntiyar ejensi kaha jata tha, yani aj ka arunachal pradesh. lekin chin arunachal pradesh ko bhi apana ilaka karar deta hai aur sikkim men bhi dakhalndaji karata rahata hai. 1962 men isi ilake men bharat-chin ki jng bhi huee thi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 chin ne sikhon ko harakar hathiyae laddakh-leh (hindi) aeebien khabar. abhigaman tithi: 05 joon, 2015.

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