सिक्किम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

India-flag.gif
sikkim
Sikkim-map.jpg
rajadhani gngatok
rajabhasha(en) leph‍cha, bhootiya, limh‍boo
sthapana 16 mee, 1975
janasnkhya 5,40,493 [1]
· ghanatv 76 [1] /varg kimi
kshetraphal 7,096 varg kimi
bhaugolik nirdeshank 27°20′N 88°37′E
jalavayu ushnakatibndhiy aur shitoshn
tapaman 18 °C
· grishm 28 °C
· sharad 0 °C
zile 4
sabase bada nagar gngatok
ling anupat 1000:875[1] ♂/♀
saksharata 69.68 [1]%
· stri 61.46%
· purush 76.73%
rajyapal shrinivas patil[1]
mukhyamntri pavan kumar chamaling[1]
vidhanasabha sadasy 32
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Sikkim Logo.png

sikkim bharat ka ek parvatiy rajy hai. sikkim ki janasnkhya bharat ke rajyon men nyoonatam hai aur kshetraphal gova ke bad nyoonatam hai. sikkim namagyal rajatantr dvara shasit svatantr rajy tha. 1975 men hue janamat-sngrah ke bad yah bharat men vilin ho gaya. is janamat sngrah ke bad rajashahi ka ant aur bharatiy snvidhan ki niyam-pranali ke antargat yahan prajatantr ka uday hua.

buddh mndir, sikkim

angoothe ke akar ka yah rajy pashchim men nepal, uttar aur poorv men chini tibbat kshetr aur dakshin-poorv men bhootan se ghira hua hai. bharat ka pashchim bngal rajy isake dakshin men hai. angrezi, nepali, lepcha, bhootiya, linboo tatha hindi isaki adhikarik bhashaen hain, parantu shasakiy kary men angrezi ka hi prayog hota hai. hindoo dharm aur vajrayan bauddh dharm yahan ke pramukh dharm hai. rajy ki rajadhani aur sabase bada shahar 'gngatok' hai.

namagyal rajavnsh 1642 men sthapit hua isake bad ke agale 150 varshon men rajy par nepali akramanakari ate rahe, chhape marate rahe aur pradesh ne bahut hani uthayi. usake bad se hi yah prant bharat ke british shasakon ke sath snbaddh tha. is tarah sikkim ek british snrakshit rajy bana aur 1975 men ek janamat sngrah ke bad isaka vilay bharat ganarajy men ho gaya.

chhote akar ka hone ke bad bhi sikkim bhaugolik drishti se vibhinntaon se bhara hai. 'knchanajnga' jo duniya ki tisari sabase oonchi pahadi choti hai, sikkim ke uttari pashchimi bhag men nepal ki sima par hai. is parvat shikhar ko pradesh ke kee bhagon se dekha ja sakata hai. sikkim rajy ka saf suthara hona, prakritik sundarata se bhara hua aur rajanitik sthirata hona, inhin visheshataon se yah bharat ke paryatan ka pramukh kendr mana ja hai.

itihas

sikkim ka prarnbhik itihas 13vin shatabdi men uttari sikkim ke kab lungatsok lepcha raja thekaaung tek aur tibbati yuvaraj khye boomasa ke bich rakt snbndh aur bhaee chare ke samajhaute par hastakshar karane se arnbh hota hai. sanh 1641 men tibbat ke mananiy lama snton ne pashchimi sikkim ke yukasam namak prant ki aitihasik yatra ki, vahan unhonne khe-hoomasa ke chhathi pidhi ke vnshaj phuntsog namagyal ka sikkim ke pahale raja ke roop men abhishek kiya. is prakar sikkim ke 'namagyal' rajavnsh ka uday hua. samay samay par parivartan ke sath sikkim prant ke nagarikon ne lokatantrik prakriya ko apanaya aur 1975 men vah bharatiy sngh ka abhinn ang ban gaya.

gngatok ghati, sikkim

sikkim men sabhi samudayon ke log apasi prem aur sadbhavana se rahate hain. sikkim men vibhinn dharmon se jude log hain aur yah bharatiy sngh men sampradayik sadbhav aur sarvadhik shanti vala rajy hai.

bhoogol

rajy ka kul kshetraphal 7,096 varg kilomitar hai. isaka bhoo bhag uttar se dakshin tak 112 kilomitar tatha poorv se pashchim tak 64 kilomitar men phaila hua hai. yah uttar-poorv himachal men 27 digri 00'46" se 28 digri 07'48" uttari akshansh aur 88 digri 00'58" se 88 digri 55'25" poorv deshantar ke madhy sthit hai.

vishv ki tisari sabase badi aur oonchi choti 'knchanajnga', jise sikkim ki raksha devi mana jata hai, apani prakritik saundary ki chhata bikherati hai. jaiv vividhataon se bhare duniya ke 18 pramukh kshetron men se ek sikkim hai. sikkim himalay jaiv vividhata se bharapoor hai. rajy men avrittabiji vanaspatiyon ki 5000 prajatiyan milati hain. sikkim ki dogikya shreni men hi nathula darra sthit hai. desh bhar men paee jane vali avrittabiji prajatiyon ki ye ek tihaee hai. sikkim men phooladar paudhon ki 4000 prajatiyan, 300 parnang aur sambndhit prajatiyan, aaurchid ki 450 se 500 prajatiyan, rododendron ki 36 prajatiyan, banj ki 40 prajatiyan, praimuls aur bans ki 30 se 40 prajatiyan, stanadhariyon ki 144 prajatiyan, pakshiyon ki 500 se 600 prajatiyan, titaliyon aur kiton ki 400 se adhik prajatiyan aur sarisripon ki bahut si prajatiyan paee jati hai. durlabh nili bhed, tibbati mastiph, yal aur lal panda bhi yahan par pae jate hain.

krishi

  • tista nadi ko sikkim ki jivan rekha kaha jata hai.
  • sikkim moolat: krishi pradhan hai. rajy ki 64 pratishat se adhik janasnkhya jivanayapan ke lie krishi par hi nirbhar hai.
  • sikkim men krishi yogy bhoomi lagabhag 1,09,000 hekteyar hai. yah kul bhaugolik kshetr ka 15.36 pratishat hai. krishak
  • samanyat: milijuli fasalen ugate hain. makka, chaval, gehoon, aloo, badi ilayachi, adarak aur sntara yahan ki pramukh fasalen hain. desh men badi ilayachi ka sabase adhik utpadan karane vala rajy sikkim hai. isake adhikansh bhoo-bhag men ilayachi ka utpadan hota hai. adarak, aloo, sntara tatha gair-mausami sabjiyan yahan ki any nakadi fasalen hain.

udyog

sikkim audyogik roop se pichhada rajy ghoshit kiya gaya hai, kintu kee sadiyon pahale yahan dastakari par adharit parnparagat sikkim kutir udyog hain. lepcha log bans ke saman, lakadi ke saman, dhaga bunaee aur galiche ki bunaee parnparagat tarikon se bahut hi kushalata se karate hain, bhootiya jati ke logon ko galicha aur knbal bunaee ki prachin tibbati paddhati men maharat hasil hain aur nepali log dhatu, chandi aur lakadi ke saman ki karigari men bahut hi nipun hote hain. 'sikkim jvailas limited' rajy ka nazuk upakaran banane vala udyog hai. yahan pani tatha bijali ke mitaron aur ghadiyon ke lie jvail biyarings banaee jati hain. rajy men is udyog ki 10 sahayak ikaiyan sthapit hain jinamen ghadiyon ke lie purje banae jate hain. 'sikkim audyogik vikas' tatha 'nivesh nigam limited (sidiko)' kutir, laghu udyog, hotal, aspatal, narsing hom aur taiksiyan kharidane ke lie dirghavadhi rin upalabdh karata hai.

sinchaee aur bijali

dasavin pnchavarshiy yojana men 34,118 hekteyar krishi bhoomi ko sinchaee suvidha upalabdh karane ka lakshy hai. rajy men bijali ki kul kshamata 36 megavaaut hai. yah 123 em vi e ki trans phaaurameshan kshamata ke sath panabijali paradharit hai. rngit haidril pariyojana ki 560 megavaaut kshamata hai. rajy ki kul vidyut lagabhag 8,000 megavaaut hai. tista ghati pariyojana poorvi zile ke nadi ke bahav par hai aur isaki kshamata 510 megavaaut hai.

parivahan

  • gngatok sadak marg se darjiling, kalinpong, siligudi tatha sikkim ke sabhi zila mukhyalayon se juda hai. 41 ki.mi. rashtriy rajamarg sahit, rajy men sadakon ki kul lnbaee 2,383 kimi hai. isamen se 873.40 kimi sadaken sima sadak sngathan ne banavayi hai. rashtriy rajamarg 31A siligudi aur gngatok ko jodata hai . yah marg sikkim men rngpo men pravesh karane ke bad tista nadi ke samanantar chalata hai.
sikkim ka manachitr
  • melli se ane vale rajamarg ki ek shakha pashchimi sikkim ko jodati hai. sikkim ke dakshini aur pashchimi shahar sikkim ko uttari pashchimi bngal ke parvatiy shahar kalimpong aur darjiling se jodate hain. rajy men chaupahiya vahan lokapriy hain, kyonki ye chattani chadhaiyon ko asani se par karane men saksham hote hain. chhoti basen rajy ke chhote shaharon ko rajy aur zila mukhyalayon se jodati hain .
  • rajy ke nikatavarti relave steshan siligudi (113 kimi) aur nyoo jalapaeegudi (125 kimi) hain jahan se kolakata, dilli, guvahati, lakhanoo tatha desh ke any mahattvapoorn shaharon ke lie aya jaya ja sakata hai.
  • sikkim men koee havaee adda nahin hai. samipatam havaeeadda bagadogara havaeeadda, siligudi, pashchim bngal men hai . yah havaeeadda gngatok se 124 kimi door hai. gngatok aur bagadogara ke bich rajy dvara bahut hi sasti daron par helikaauptar seva upalabdh karaee gee hai, jisaki udan 30 minat lambi hai, din men keval ek bar chalati hai aur keval 4 logon ko le ja sakati hai . gngatok hailipaid rajy ka ekamatr asainik hailipaid hai. rajy men zila tatha upamndal mukhyalayon, mahattvapoorn paryatan sthalon ko jodane ke lie kee helipedon ka nirman karaya gaya hai.

soochana praudyogiki

rajy men ek naya vibhag 'soochana praudyogiki vibhag' banaya gaya hai aur is vibhag ko pramukhata dene ke lie vrihad pariyojanaen chalayi gee hain. vibhag ne sikkim ke vishay men vebasait bananii shuroo ki hain. soochana upakaranon ke sath rajy ki ee-shasan yojana bhi chal rahi hai.

tyohar

sikkim ke nagarik bharat ke sabhi pramukh hindoo tyohar dipavali aur dashahara manate hain . bauddh dharm ke lhosar, loosong, saga dava, lhabab dyuchen, drupaka teshi aur bhoomachoo ve tyohar hain jo manaye jate hain . sikkim rajy men mukhy roop se bhotiya, lepcha aur nepali samudayon ke log hain. maghe snkranti, durgapooja, lakshmipooja aur chaitr dasaee/ram navami, dasee tyohar, sonam losoong, namasoong, tendog halo room phat (tendong parvat ki pooja), losar, tibbati nav varsh, jo madhy disnbar men ata hai. is samay adhikatar sarakari karyalay evn paryatak kendr hafte bhar ke liye bnd hote hain . losar rajy ke pramukh tyohar hai. any tyoharon men sakeva ( ray), sonam lochar (gurung), barahimazog (magar), adi shamil hain.

paryatan

phodong math, sikkim

sikkim apane prakritik hare-bhare paudhon, jngalon, darshaniy ghatiyon aur parvatamalaon aur bhavy sanskritik dharohar ke lie prasiddh hai. yahan ke shantipriy logon ke karan se yah pradesh paryatakon ke lie surakshit svarg ke saman hai. rajy sarakar paryavaran se mitratapoorn paryatan tatha tirth paryatan ko protsahan de rahi hai, jisase yahan ane vale log sikkim ki jivanashaili aur prakritik paryatan ka annd le saken. rajy sarakar dakshin sikkim men chaimachey ganv men 'himalayan sentar phaaur edavenchar toorizm' ki sthapana kar rahi hai.

enchey math

'enchey math' gngatok ke prasiddh bauddh dharmik sthalon men se ek hai. yah math pooja ka bahut hi pavitr aur sundar sh‍than hai. ek pauranik katha ke anusar, yah math jo bauddh dharm ke vajrayana nyingama samaj ke antargat ata hai, ek aise sthan men maujood hai, jis par lama drupatheb karapo ka ashirvad barasata hai. 'enchey math' ka arth hai- 'ekant math' aur isake atirikt ek aur kathan hai ki yah jagah hamari raksha karane vale devataon 'kangachenh‍dajonga' aur 'yabadiyan' ki upasthiti ke lie pavitr hai.

namagyal tibbat adhyayan snsthan

yah' sikkim rajy ki rajadhani gngatok sthit ek tibbati sngrahalay hai. yah tibbati sahity aur shilp ka anootha bhndar hai. varsh bhar yahan paryatakon ka ana-jana hota hai. bharat men is prakar ka yah ekamatr snsthan hai. yah samudr tal se lagabhag 5500 phut ki oonchaee par sthit hai. sikkim ke shasak 11ven chogayal, sar tashi namagyal ne 1958 men isaki sthapana ki thi. desh ke pratham pradhanamntri javahar lal neharoo ne 1 aktoobar, 1958 ko is snsthan ka vidhivat udghatan kiya tha.

tashiding math

pashchimi sikkim men prasiddh tashiding math bhi hai, jo sikkim ke sabhi mathon men sabase pavitr mana jata hai. bauddh grnthon ke anusar guru padmasnbhav ne 8vin shatabdi men yahin par sikkimavasiyon ko ashirvad diya tha. yahan ek prasiddh chortan hai, jisake liye tashiding prasiddh hai. ise 'thong-varng-dol' kaha jata hai, jisaka arth hai- 'ek jhalak men mukti dene vala' aur tadanusar yah mana jata hai ki chortan ki ek jhalak se shraddhaluon ke sare pap dhul jate hain.

dubdi math

sikkim ke prasiddh dharmik nagar yukasom men sthit yah prasiddh bauddh math hai. yah sikkim men pahala sthapit aur sabase purana math hai. is math ki sthapana 1701 ee. men huee thi. dubdi math ek pahadi ke oopar sthit hai aur yukasom se adhe ghnte paidal chalakar yahan pahuncha ja sakata hai. is math ko "sannyasiyon ka math" bhi kaha jata tha. isake snsthapak 'lh‍hatasun namakha jigme' the. sikkim men apani sthapana ke samay ke dauran se yah char any nirmit mathon ke bich jivit math hai.

sikkim ka pramukh bauddh math peling men sthit pemayngatse hai. rajy ka sabase prachin math 'yukasom' hai, jise 'drabadi math' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. yah lahatasun chempon (sikkim ke pramukh snt) ka vyaktigat ashram tha, jo lagabhag 1700 eesvi men bana tha. any mathon ke nam hain- pemayngatse, rumatek, nagadak, phodong, ahaly, tsukalakhang, ralong, lachen, inche, do-drool chorten.

isake atirikt kuchh hindoo mndir bhi hain- gngatok ke madhy men sthit pramukh roop se jana jane vala 'thakurabadi'. isake bad dakshin zile ki ek pavitr gufa hai, jisamen ek shivaling hai jo is gufa ko jagamata hai, jahan koee roshani nahin pahunch pati hai. rajy men kuchh mahattvapoorn gurudvare aur masjiden bhi hain aur unamen se pramukh gngatok aur ravanagala men hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 sikkim (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 17 mee, 2012.

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