कथा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

katha sahity ki ek pramukh vidha hai. snskrit sahity shastriy drishti se vichar ke poorv dhyan dene ki ek vichitr bat yah hai ki pray: samast charit kavyon men rachayitaon dvara apane kavy ka katha ke nam se ullekh hai. purane samay se prachalit charit kavy ko 'katha' kahane ki pratha bahut bad tak chalati rahi.

shabd prayog

tulasidas ka 'ramacharitamanas' charit kavy bhi hai aur katha bhi. tathy yah hai ki prachin sahity men spasht roop se do arthon ko lekar 'katha' shabd vyavahrit hai-

  1. sadharan kahani
  2. alnkrit kavy[1]

sadharan kahani ke arth men 'pnchatntr' ki kathaen bhi katha hain. mahabharat aur puranon ke akhyan bhi katha hain aur subndhu ki 'vasavadatt', ban ki 'kadambari', gunadhy ki 'brihatkatha' adi bhi katha hain. par vishisht arth men yah shabd alnkrit gady kavy ke lie prayukt hua hai.[2] ukt arth men katha shabd ka prayog bahut prachin kal se chala a raha hai aur aj bhi anek arthon men vah prayukt hai. parntu is samany arth ke alava alnkrit gady kavy ki kahani ke arth men katha shabd ka jo shastriy arthaparak prayog hai, mukhyat: usaka ullekh yahan karana hai. lakshanakar acharyon ne jin lakshanon ko niroopit kiya hai, unaki parikalpana asndigdh roop se unake samane vartaman lakshy kritiyon ke adhar par hi huee hogi.[3]

bhed

katha ki shastriy charcha men sabase pahale agni puran[4] ka ullekh kiya ja sakata hai, jahan panch bhedon ke nam hain-

  1. katha
  2. akhyayika
  3. khndakatha
  4. parikatha
  5. kathanak

lekin age chalakar katha aur akhyayika, do hi bhed alnkarikon dvara charchit aur paribhashit hue. akhyayika ka ullekh bahut purana hai. eesa se lagabhag 400 varsh poorv vaiyakaran vararuchi ke vartikon tatha patnjali[5] ke mahabhashy[6] men akhyan aur akhyayika shabd milate hain. vahan yah snket bhi jhalak jata hai ki patr[7] ke nam par grnth shirshak bhi diya jata tha. patnjali ne 'vasavadatta', 'sumanottari' aur 'bhaimarathi', in tin akhyayika kritiyon ke namon ka bhi snket kiya hai. snbhavat: ye gady kritiyan rahi hongi.

akhyayika

rudradama ka shilalekh bhi gady kavy ka achchha namoona hai. ho sakata hai, akhyayika bhi purane jamane ki snskrit gady-kavy kriti rahi ho. snskrit sahity ke purane achary bhamah ne sabase pahale apane kavyalnkar men akhyayika aur katha ka antar batate hue inake lakshan likhe. sundar gady men likhit rasamay kahani vali kriti akhyayika kahi jati hai. isaki katha ka vibhajan 'uchhavas' namak adhyayon men hota hai. varny vishay kalyaharan, sngram, virodh adi rahata hai aur ant men nayak apane prayas men saphal ya vijayi dikhaya jata hai. isake bich-bich men ya uchhavason ke adi ant men vaktr aur aparavaktr chhand bhi a jate hain. isaki katha ka adhar yatharth[8] vritt hota hai. phalat: kalpana ki atirnjana isamen kam ya nahin ke barabar hoti hai. isaki katha ka vakta bhi aur koee aur nahin varanh svayn nayak hi hota hai. akhyayika ki bhasha bhi snskrit hi honi chahie. nayak ke vakta hone aur yatharth par kathanak adharit hone ke karan kalpanik vritt ya kathanak roodhiyon ke adhik prayog ka avasar nahin rahata hai. katha ka kavy roop isase thoda bhinn hota hai. usaki kathavastu kalpit hoti hai.[3]

bhasha

katha ki kahani kahane vala nayak n hokar, vahan vakta shrota any hote hain. inhin do (vakta shrota) vyaktiyon ki batachit ya prashnottar ke roop men katha kahi jati hai. katha ki bhasha bhi snskrit, prakrit ya apabhrnsh, kuchh bhi ho sakati hai. usamen bhasha ke madhyam ka koee bndhan nahin hota. bhamah ke lakshan ko dekhakar manon usaki alochana athava usamen snshodhan karate hue dndi ne apane kavyadarsh[9] men kaha hai- "katha aur akhyayika donon vastut: ek hi koti ki sahityik rachanaen hain. kahani ka kahane vala chahe nayak ho ya aur koee, adhyay chahe uchhavason ke nam se vibhakt hon ya lnbhak nam se, bich-bich men chahe vaktr aparavaktr chhand aen ya n aen, in sabase kahani men kya antar padata hai? at: in oopari aur bahari antaron ke adhar par katha aur akhyayika men bhed manane ka koee khas karan nahin hai."

dndi svayn bhi gady kavy ki 'dashakumaracharit' namak kahani vali ek pustak ke nirmata the. nishchay hi unake kathan ka yah snket ho sakata hai ki apane samakalin kahani ke lakshy grnthon ka adhar lekar bhamah ne katha akhyayika ke jo lakshan batae the, snbhavat: dndi ke kal tak ate-ate lakshyakaron ne unako bhulakar ya upekshit samajhakar kadaee se un lakshanon ka palan karana chhod diya tha. phir bhi bhamah ke kathan men kuchh sar hai. akhyayika ke lie shayad snskrit aur gady ka madhyam hi many raha. par katha ke lie ve bndhan nahin the. gunadhy ki 'brihatkatha'[10] snskrit men nahin balki prakrit men aur gady men nahin, pady men thi. rudrat aur unake tikakar namisadhu ne kavyalnkar men ise niroopit karate hue bataya hai ki snskrit-nibaddh-kathaon ke lie gady madhyam avashyak hai, parntu any bhasha arthath‌ prakrit, apabhrnsh adi ki kathaon ko agady men likhana chahie. vaise prakrit ki, gady men likhi, vasudevahindi namak prachin katha upalabdh bhi hai. isake alava prakrit men likhit padyabaddh katipay any kathaen bhi prapt huee hain aur unamen se anek prakashit bhi ho chuki hain.

katha ya mahakatha

anuman kiya ja sakata hai, rudrat ke katha lakshan aur kavyalnkar ke tikakar namisadhu ki vyakhya men batae ge lakshan us kal ke upalabdh lakshyon ko dekhakar hi niroopit hain.[11] bataya gaya hai ki katha ya mahakatha ke katharnbh men devata ya guru ki vndana karane aur snkshep men svakul parichay dene ke pashchath‌ katha lekhan ka uddeshy varnan rahana chahie. prarnbh men ek kathantar bhi rahana chahie, jo kahani ka prastav kare. katha gady aur agady men bhi ho sakati hai. saras varnan yukt kanyaprapti hi isaka pratipady hota hai. akhyayika men vnsh varnan adi vistrit rahata hai. katha akhyayika ke bare men aur bhi bahut-si baten bataee gee hain. rudrat se poorv ki, kautoohal kavi ki 'lilavati' aj upalabdh hai, jisamen rudrat ka katha lakshan pray: poora ka poora dekha ja sakata hai. kavi aur kavipatni ki batachit dvara kahani upasthit ki gee hai. is desh ke katha kathan ki yah purani pratha hai.[3]

puranon men aur sabase badhakar 'mahabharat' men vyas ne isi roop se prashnottaratmak batachit dvara katha hi nahin, sab kuchh bata dala hai. hemachndr ne apane 'kavyanushasan'[12] men pray: isi prakar ke lakshanon dvara akhyayika aur katha ko paribhashit kiya. akhyayika ki rachana snskrit men honi avashyak hai. any baten pray: poorvavath‌ hain. prachin alnkariyon ne aur hemachndr ne bhi ban ke 'harshacharit' ko akhyayika ka pratiman mana hai aur kavikalpanaprasoot lokottar, asnbhav evn adbhut patron tatha unake chariton se yukt ban ki kadambari, lilavati adi ko katha kaha hai. yah bhi spasht roop se hemachndr ne kaha hai ki katha gady ya pady men aur sabhi bhashaon[13] men likhi ja sakati hai. unhonne anek grnthon ke nam likhakar katha aur akhyayika ke atirikt akhyan, nidarshan, pravahlika, manikulya, parikatha, khndakatha, samastakatha, upakatha adi ka bhi sodaharan parichay diya hai. akhyayika ka nayak akhyatavritt evn dhiraprashant hota hai, par katha ka dhirashant.[14]

lakshan

nishkarsh itana hi hai ki katha aur akhyayika ke bhamah aur dndi dvara soochit anek lakshan upekshit rahe ya bhula die ge athava kathorata ke sath unaka palan nahin hua. par bhamah dvara kuchh baten marke ki kahi gee thin, jinaki goonj bhavishyat ke lakshanon men bhi hai. pahali bat yah hai ki akhyayika svayn nayak dvara kathit hoti hai aur aitihasik ya yatharth vritt par adharit. unake kahane ka kadachith‌ snket yah tha ki isi karan vah adhikat: yatharthashnsi hoti hain; usamen alaukik, asamany ya divy ghatanaon aur charitrik utkarshon ke aropan ka sthan kam hota hai. par katha ke isase bhinn aur kalpanadharit hone se usamen kathanak roodhiyon ke lie paryapt avakash aur avasar rahata hai. patron men asnbhav shaury-viry-tyagadi gunon ke charitankan ki suvidha rahati hai aur adbhut asamany usamen goonth diya ja sakata hai. isaka ek karan yah bhi tha ki usaka kahane vala nayak n hokar any shrota vakta hote the, jo suni-sunaee ya janashruti ki kahani hoo-b-hoo ya thoda bahut idhar-udhar karake shrota ke samane rakh dete the. isamen kavi aur nayak donon ka uttaradayitv kam ho jata tha. doosari bat yah hai ki snskrit ke alnkarikon ki manyata ke anusar akhyayika ki bhasha mukhyat: snskrit rahi hai aur rachanaroop usaka gady raha hai. par katha men n to bhasha ka pratibndh hai aur n gady pady ka. jab-jab jaisi rachanaen hoti geen, tab-tab katha akhyayika ke lakshyanusari lakshan banae ge. lakshanon ke anusar rachana karane ki kalakaron ne kabhi badhyata svikar nahin ki. bhasha, kathavastu aur usaka vibhajan, chhand adi ke sndarbh men akhyayika-kathakaron ne apani ruchi ka anusaran kiya.[3]

lok vyavahar men katha shabd

sahityashastriy arth se bhinn ek arth ko lekar lok vyavahar men 'katha' shabd ka prayog milata hai. isake anusar katha shabd se un kathaon ka bodh hota hai, jo pauranik, sanskritik lok parnpara ke anusar[15] katha madhyam se vrat, dan, tirthayatra, devadarshan, snan, dharmanushthan, svarg prapti, manorath poorti adi ki mahima auruladayita batakar tattatkarmanushthan adi ki prerana deti hai; jaise, mahalakshmi vrat katha, haritalika vrat katha, satyanarayan vrat katha adi. yah prayog hindoo dharm aur bharatiy sanskriti parnpara se snbaddh hai. jatak kathaen adi bhi bahut kuchh isi koti ki kathaen hain. vastut: katha shabd ka bade vyapak aur anek arthon men prayog hota hai. yahan shastriy tatha kuchh hindi bhashi kshetr ke laukik arth ka snket matr kiya ja saka hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jisamen kahani ka bhi tatv vartaman ho
  2. hindi sahity ka adikal, daau. hajariprasad dvivedi, pri. 52
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 katha (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 27 julaee, 2014.
  4. agni puran 173
  5. lagabhag 150 ee.poo.
  6. mahabhashy (4.2.60 evn 4.3.187)
  7. mukhyat: nayika
  8. aitihasik ya kabhi-kabhi pauranik
  9. kavyadarsh (1.23-30)
  10. jisaki kathavastu ke rini subndhu, dndi aur banabhatt, tin pramukh snskrit-gady-sahity-lekhak kahe jate hain
  11. 16.20-30
  12. kavyanushasan (adhya. 8)
  13. snskrit, prakrit, magadhi, shauraseni, paishachi, apabhrnsh adi
  14. nayakakhyatavrittabhavyarth shnsivadi: sochhh‌vasa snskrita gadyayukta akhyayika. dhirashantanayaka gadyen padyen sarvabhasha katha
  15. athava mithak ke anusar

snbndhit lekh

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