रुबाई  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

urdoo aur farasi ka ek chhnd vishesh jisaka mool vazan 1tagan, 1yagan, 1sagan aur 1magan hota hai. isake pahale, doosare aur chauthe pad men qafiya hota hai, kabhi kabhi charon hi sanupras hote hain, parntu achchha yahi hai ki chautha sanupras n ho.

charan

rubaee men char, samavritt charan hote hain. qasida athava gazal ke prarambhik char pad rubaee ho sakate hain. char charanon athava misaron men se pratham-dvitiy aur chaturth sam-tukant, arthat ek hi qafiye aur radiph men hote hain, keval tisara charan bhinn-tukant hota hai.

chhnd

rubaee ke lie vishesh chhandon ka vidhan hai aur unamen mukhy hai 'hajaj'. parantu urdoo men 'iqabal' ne is niyam ka palan nahin kiya hai.

muktak

rubaee muktak hai aur apane-ap men poorn bhi. isake char charanon men do bait hote hain, isalie isaka nam 'do-baiti' hai aur char misare hote hain, at: rubaee kahalati hai. rubaee farasi ka sarvadhik lokapriy rachanavidhan hai. farasi men ise 'tarana' bhi kahate hain.

umar khaiyam ka anuvad

umar khaiyam ki 'rubaiyat' ke phitjajerald-krit angrezi anuvad ko inglaind aur amerika men adhik prashnsa prapt huee aur umar khaiyam ki rahasyatmakata ka prachar hua. apane desh men umar khaiyam ki prasiddhi ganitgy, jyotishi aur darshanik ke roop men thi, phitjerald ke karan usaki khyati rahasyavadi kavi ke roop men bhi huee.

prasiddhi

hindi men bhi phitjajerald-krit anuvad ke anek anuvad hue hain aur unamen harivnsh ray 'bachchan' krit 'khaiyam ki madhushala' adhik prasiddh aur lokapriy huee. maithilisharan gupt tak ne isaka anuvad kiya hai. 'bachchan' krit 'madhushala' isi rachana-vidhan men hai -

"jitani dil ki gaharaee ho utana gahara hai pyala,
jitani man ki madakata ho, utani madak hai hala,
jitani ur ki bhavukata ho, utana sundar saki hai,
jitana ho jo rasik, use hai, utani rasamay madhushala."

yon to rubaee men sab baten kahi ja sakati hain, lekin urdoo ke shayaron ne isamen zyadatar naitik baten hi likhi hain. rubaiyan qarib-qarib urdoo ke sabhi shayaron ne likhi hain, lekin inamen anis, dabir, iqabal, jagatamohan 'khan' aur josh adi ne vishisht sthan prapt kiya hai. hindi men umar khaiyam ki rubaiyon ke anek anuvad hue hain aur unake prabhav se anek prasiddh kaviyon ne rubaiyan likhi hain. naye kavi 'muktak' nam se bhi rubaiyan likhate hain. rubaiyon men pray: sookti ya uktivaichitry ki pradhanata rahati hai.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh


varma, dhirendr hindi sahity kosh, bhag - 1 (hindi), 568.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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