मुक्त छंद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mukt chhnd ka prayog hindi kavyakshetr men ek vidroh ka pratik raha hai. ise 'svachchhnd chhnd' bhi kaha gaya hai. atukant kavita utani vidrohatmak siddh nahin huee, jitana mukt chhnd, kyonki atukant ke paksh men snskrit ka vipul kavy sahity uddhrit kiya ja sakata tha, parntu 'mukt chhnd' chhnd:shastr ke anek paramparagat sarvasvikrit niyamon ka ullnghan karata hua dikhaee diya. charanon ki aniyamit, asaman svachchhnd gati aur bhavanukool yatividhan, yahi mukt chhnd ki mukhy visheshataen hain, jinhen prachin shastriy drishti se vihit nahin mana gaya aur mukt chhnd ka prayog karane vale kaviyon par nana prakar ke vyngy vidroop hote rahe.[1]

hindi kavy men sthapana

mukt chhnd ki svachchhnd pravritti ka parihas karate hue ise rabad chhnd, kenchua, kngaroo chhnd ityadi anek nam diye gaye, phir bhi chhnd-svatntryabhavana ke yuganuroop hone ke karan isaki satta unmoolit nahin ki ja saki. angrezi[2] aur bangla sahity men vikasit unmukt chhnd-pranali ne hindi mukt chhnd ki udbhavana aur sthiti men paryapt prerana evn sahayog diya. sooryakant tripathi 'nirala' aur sumitranandan pnt ko mukt chhnd ko hindi kavy men snsthapit karane ka shrey hai. jayashnkar prasad ne bhi kuchh kavitaen mukt chhnd men rachin, jaise- 'peshola ki pratidhvani', parntu vyapak roop se ve mukt chhnd ko svikar n kar sake. nirala ne apane 'parimal' ki bhoomika men isaka parichay nimnalikhit roop men diya hai-

"mukt chhnd to vah hai, jo chhnd ki bhoomi men rahakar bhi mukt hai. is pustak ke tisare khand men jitani kavitaen hain, sab isi prakar ki hain. inamen koee niyam nahin. keval pravah kavitt chhnd ka sa jan padata hai. kahin-kahin ath akshar ap-hi-ap a jate hain. mukt chhnd ka samarthak usaka pravah hi hai. vahi use chhnd siddh karata hai aur usaka niyamarahity usaki 'mukti".[1]

pnt tatha nirala ka matabhed

sumitranndan pnt ki suprasiddh pnktiyan svayn chhndobaddh hote hue bhi mukt chhnd ka unmukt udghosh karati hain- "khul gaye chhnd ke bandh, prasake rajat pash. ab git mukt au, yugavani bahati ayas".[3] pnt ne mukt chhnd ka adhar matrik sngit ko bhi mana, parntu sooryakant tripathi 'nirala' ka agrah raha ki mukt chhnd keval varnik athava akshar-chhnd par hi adharit hona chahiye, kyonki usaki prakriti stri-prakriti n hokar purush-prakriti hai. donon men is sambandh men paryapt vad-vivad bhi chala, jisaka parichay nirala ki 'pnt aur pallav' namak rachana se milata hai. kuchh ansh drashtavy hai-

"pnt ji ki kavitaon men svachchhnd chhnd ki ek ladi bhi nahin, parntu ve kahate hain, 'pallav' men meri adhikansh rachanaen isi chhnd men hain, jinamen 'uchchhas', 'ansoo' tatha 'parivartan' vishesh badi hain. yadi giti kavy aur svachchhnd chhnd ka bhed, donon ki visheshataen pnt ji ko maloom hotin to ve aisa n likhate.... pnt ji ne jo likha hai ki svachchhnd hrasv-dirgh matrik sngit par chal sakata hai, yah ek bahut bada bhram hai. svachchhnd chhnd men 'art aauf myoojik' nahin mil sakata, vahan hai 'art aauf riding', vah svar pradhan nahin, vynjan pradhan hai. vah kavita ki stri-sukumarata nahin, kavitv ka purush-garv hai'[4] sooryakant tripathi 'nirala' ki uparyukt sthapanaen is bat ka praman hain ki ve hindi men mukt chhnd ke sabase adhik ojasvi pravakta rahe hain aur is sambandh men unaki dharanaen svatntr mahattv rakhati hain. nirala ke vyaktitv men mukt chhnd ne apani sarthakata upalabdh ki, isamen sandeh nahin. unaki 'jagaran' shirshak kavita men mukt chhnd ki vyakhya mukt chhnd men hi ki gayi hai- "alnkar lesh-rahit, shleshahin. shoony visheshanon se- "nagn nilima-si vyakt. bhasha surakshit vah vedon men aj bhi. mukt chhnd, sahaj prakash vah man ka. nij bhavon ka akritrim chitr".[5]

mahavir prasad dvivedi ne atukant kavita ka to paksh liya, parntu mukt chhnd ka samarthan ve n kar sake aur 'ajakal ki kavita' namak ek nibandh men unhonne mukt chhnd ke prayokta kaviyon ko ahnvadi ghoshit kiya. unaka virodh bhi mukt chhnd ki pragati ko kunthit n kar saka. chhayavadottar kal men hindi kavita ki ek pramukh dhara ne mukt chhnd ko apanaya aur ab adhikansh prayog mukt chhnd men hi ho rahe hain, jinase usake svaroop vaividhy aur samarthy men vikas parilakshit hone laga hai.

pashchimi bij ka poorvi ankur

mukt chhnd ke lie kaha gaya hai ki "yah pashchimi bij ka poorvi ankur hai".[6] is kathan men bahut-kuchh saty hai, kyonki pashchimi mukt chhnd ki kavitaon ne adhunik bharatiy kavita ke roop vidhan ko avashy prabhavit kiya hai. ameriki kavi valt hvitamain (1819-1892) ne apane kavita sngrah 'ghas ki pattiyan' men, jise vah jivanabhar parivardhit karata raha, mukt chhnd ka agrahapoorvak vyavahar kiya hai. us kal men angrezi ke prachalit chhnd vidhan ke viruddh usaka mukt chhnd ek krantikari tattv ke roop men samane aya. mukt chhnd ki pnktiyan ghas ki pattiyon ki tarah asaman hote hue bhi sahaj saundary se yukt hoti hain, kadachith isi sadrishy se hvitamain ne apane sngrah ka ukt namakaran kiya hoga, aisi kalpana ki jati hai. 'd myoojik aauf poitri' shirshak nibandh men ti. es. eeliyat ne likha hai ki "mukt chhnd ke nam se bahut-sa aparipakv gady bhi likha gaya hai, jo anapekshit hai. mukt chhnd ka svagat us kavy roop ko punarujjivit karane ya naye roop ko vikasit karane ki drishti se hi avirbhoot hua. brahya ekata ke viruddh kavita ki antarik ekata par mukt chhnd bal deta hai, jo pratyek kavy-rachana ke lie saty hai. kavita apane 'roop' se poorv hi janm le chukati hain, is arth men ki 'roop' kuchh kahane se hi utpann hota hai".[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 hindi sahity kosh, bhag 1 |prakashak: gyanamandal limited, varanasi |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |snpadan: daau. dhirendr varma |prishth snkhya: 504 |
  2. blank verse
  3. natradrishti
  4. pri. 44
  5. parimal, pri. 264
  6. lakshminarayan sudhanshu: jivan ke tattv aur kavy ke siddhant

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