जयशंकर प्रसाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jayashnkar prasad
Jaishankar-Prasad.jpg
poora nam mahakavi jayashnkar prasad
janm 30 janavari, 1889 ee.
janm bhoomi varanasi, uttar pradesh
mrityu 15 navambar, sanh 1937 (ayu- 48 varsh)
mrityu sthan varanasi, uttar pradesh
abhibhavak deviprasad sahu
karm bhoomi varanasi
karm-kshetr upanyasakar, natakakar, kavi
mukhy rachanaen chitradhar, kamayani, ansoo, lahar, jharana, ek ghoont, vishakh, ajatashatru, akashadip, andhi, dhruvasvamini, titali aur knkal
vishay kavita, upanyas, natak aur nibandh
bhasha hindi, brajabhasha, khadi boli
nagarikata bharatiy
shaili varnanatmak, bhavatmak, alnkarik, sooktiparak, pratikatmak
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

jayashnkar prasad (angrezi: Jaishankar Prasad, janm: 30 janavari, 1889, varanasi, uttar pradesh - mrityu: 15 navambar, 1937) hindi naty jagath aur katha sahity men ek vishisht sthan rakhate hain.[1] katha sahity ke kshetr men bhi unaki den mahattvapoorn hai. bhavana-pradhan kahani likhane valon men jayashnkar prasad anupam the.

janm

jis samay khadi boli aur adhunik hindi sahity kishoravastha men padarpan kar rahe the us samay jayashnkar prasad ka janm sanh 1889 ee. (magh shukl dashami, snvath 1946 vi.) varanasi, uttar pradesh men hua tha.[2] kavi ke pitamah shiv ratn sahu varanasi ke atyant pratishthit nagarik the aur ek vishesh prakar ki surati (tambakoo) banane ke karan 'sunghani sahu' ke nam se vikhyat the. unaki danashilata sarvavidit thi aur unake yahan vidvanon kalakaron ka samadar hota tha. jayashnkar prasad ke pita deviprasad sahu ne bhi apane poorvajon ki parampara ka palan kiya. is parivar ki ganana varanasi ke atishay samriddh gharanon men thi aur dhan-vaibhav ka koee abhav n tha. prasad ka kutumb shiv ka upasak tha. mata-pita ne unake janm ke lie apane ishtadev se badi prarthana ki thi. vaidyanath dham ke jharakhand se lekar ujjayini ke mahakal ki aradhana ke phalasvaroop putr janm svikar kar lene ke karan shaishav men jayashnkar prasad ko 'jharakhandi' kahakar pukara jata tha. vaidyanathadham men hi jayashnkar prasad ka namakaran snskar hua.

shiksha

jayashnkar prasad ki shiksha ghar par hi arambh huee. snskrit, hindi, farasi, urdoo ke lie shikshak niyukt the. inamen rasamay siddh pramukh the. prachin snskrit granthon ke lie dinabandhu brahmachari shikshak the. kuchh samay ke bad sthaniy kvins kaaulej men prasad ka nam likh diya gaya, par yahan par ve athavin kaksha tak hi padh sake. prasad ek adhyavasayi vyakti the aur niyamit roop se adhyayan karate the.

parivarik vipattiyan

prasad ki barah varsh ki avastha thi, tabhi unake pita ka dehant ho gaya. isi ke bad parivar men grihaklesh arambh hua aur paitrik vyavasay ko itani kshati pahunchi ki vahi 'sunghanisahu ka parivar, jo vaibhav men lotata tha, rin ke bhar se dab gaya. pita ki mrityu ke do-tin varshon ke bhitar hi prasad ki mata ka bhi dehant ho gaya aur sabase durbhagy ka din vah aya, jab unake jyeshth bhrata shambhooratan chal base tatha satrah varsh ki avastha men hi prasad ko ek bhari uttaradayitv sambhalana pada. prasad ka adhikansh jivan varanasi men hi bita tha. unhonne apane jivan men keval tin-char bar yatraen ki thi, jinaki chhaya unaki katipay rachanaon men prapt ho jati hain. prasad ko kavyasrishti ki arambhik prerana ghar par hone vali samasya poortiyon se prapt hueen, jo vidvanon ki mandali men us samay prachalit thi.

bahumukhi pratibha

prasad ji ka jivan kul 48 varsh ka raha hai. isi men unaki rachana prakriya isi vibhinn sahityik vidhaon men pratiphalit huee ki kabhi-kabhi ashchary hota hai. kavita, upanyas, natak aur nibandh sabhi men unaki gati saman hai. kintu apani har vidya men unaka kavi sarvatr mukharit hai. vastutah ek kavi ki gahari kalpanashilata ne hi sahity ko any vidhaon men unhen vishisht aur vyaktigat prayog karane ke liye anuprerit kiya. unaki kahaniyon ka apana prithakh aur sarvatha maulik shilp hai, unake charitr-chitran ka, bhasha-saushthav ka, vakyagathan ka ek sarvatha niji pratishthan hai. unake natakon men bhi isi prakar ke abhinav aur shlaghy prayog milate hain. abhineyata ko drishti men rakhakar unaki bahut alochana ki gee to unhonne ek bar kaha bhi tha ki rngamnch natak ke anukool hona chahiye n ki natak rngamnch ke anukool. unaka yah kathan hi natak rachana ke antarik vidhan ko adhik mahattvapoorn sidv kar deta hai.

kavita, natak, kahani, upanyas-sabhi kshetron men prasad ji ek navin 'skool' aur navin jivan-darshan ki sthapana karane men saphal huye hain. ve 'chhayavad' ke snsthapakon aur unnayakon men se ek hain. vaise sarvapratham kavita ke kshetr men is nav-anubhooti ke vahak vahi rahe hain aur pratham virodh bhi unhin ko sahana pada hai. bhasha shaili aur shabd-vinyas ke nirman ke liye jitana sngharsh prasad ji ko karana pana hai, utana doosaron ko nahi.[2]

arambhik rachanaen

kaha jata hai ki nau varsh ki avastha men hi jayashnkar prasad ne 'kaladhar' upanam se brajabhasha men ek savaiya likhakar apane guru rasamayasiddh ko dikhaya tha. unaki arambhik rachanaen yadyapi brajabhasha men milati hain. par kramash: ve khadi boli ko apanate gaye aur is samay unaki brajabhasha ki jo rachanaen upalabdh hain, unaka mahattv keval aitihasik hi hai. prasad ki hi prerana se 1909 ee. men unake bhanje ambika prasad gupt ke sampadakatv men "indu" namak masik patr ka prakashan arambh hua. prasad isamen niyamit roop se likhate rahe aur unaki arambhik rachanaen isi ke ankon men dekhi ja sakati hain.

snskaran

Blockquote-open.gif himadri tung shrring se, prabuddh shuddh bharati svayn prabho samujjvala, svatntrata pukarati

amarty vir putr ho, dridh pratigya soch lo prashast puny pnth hai, badhe chalo badhe chalo

asnkhy kirti rashmiyan, vikirn divy dah si sapoot matrabhoomi ke, ruko n shoor sahasi

arati sainy sindhu men, suvadh vagni se jalo pravir ho jayi bano, badhe chalo badhe chalo Blockquote-close.gif

kalakram ke anusar 'chitradhar' prasad ka pratham sngrah hai. isaka pratham snskaran 1918 ee. men hua. isamen kavita, kahani, natak, nibandh sabhi ka snkalan tha aur bhasha braj tatha khadi boli donon thi. lagabhag das varsh ke bad 1928 men jab isaka doosara snskaran aya, tab isamen brajabhasha ki rachanaen hi rakhi gayin. sath hi isamen prasad ki arambhik kathaen bhi snkalit hain. 'chitradhar' ki kavitaon ko do pramukh bhagon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai. ek khand un akhyanak kavitaon athava katha kavyon ka hai, jinamen prabandhatmakata hai. ayodhya ka uddhar, vanamilan, aur premarajy tin kathakavy isamen sngrahit hain. 'ayodhya ka uddhar' men lav dvara ayodhya ko pun: basane ki katha hai. isaki prerana kalidas ka 'raghuvnsh' hai. 'vanamilan' men 'abhigyanashakuntalam' ki prerana hai. 'premarajy' ki katha aitihasik hai. 'chitradhar' ki sphut rachanaen prakritivishayak tatha bhakti aur premasambandhini hai. 'kanan kusum' prasad ki khadiboli ki kavitaon ka pratham sngrah hai. yadyapi isake pratham snskaran men braj aur khadi boli donon ki kavitaen hain, par doosare snskaran (1918 ee.) tatha tisare snskaran (1929 ee.) men anek parivartan dikhayi dete hain aur ab usamen keval khadiboli ki kavitaen hain. kavi ke anusar yah 1966 vi. (sanh 1909 eesavi) se 1974 vi. (sanh 1917 eesavi) tak ki kavitaon ka sngrah hai. isamen bhi aitihasik tatha pauranik kathaon ke adhar par likhi gayi kuchh kavitaen hain.

rachanaen

prasad ji ki rachanaon ka snkshipt parichay nimn prakar hai-

kamayani

kamayani mahakavy kavi prasad ki akshay kirti ka stambh hai. bhasha, shaili aur vishay-tinon hi ki drishti se yah vishv-sahity ka advitiy granth hai. 'kamayani' men prasadaji ne pratikatmak patron ke dvara manav ke manovaigyanik vikas ko prastut kiya hai tatha manav jivan men shraddha aur buddhi ke samanvit jivan-darshan ko pratishtha pradan ki hai.

ansoo

ansoo kavi ke marmasparshi viyogaparak udagaron ka prastutikaran hai.

lahar

yah muktak rachanaon ka sngrah hai.

jharana

prasad ji ki chhayavadi shaili men rachit kavitaen isamen sngrahit hain.

chitradhar

chitradhar prasad ji ki braj men rachi gayi kavitaon ka sngrah hai.

gady rachanaen

prasad ji ki pramukh gady rachanaen nimnalikhit hain-

natak

chandragupt, dhruvasvamini, skandagupt, janamejay ka nagaygy, ek ghoont, vishakh, ajatashatru adi.

kahani-sngrah

pratidhvani, chhaya, akashadip, andhi tatha indrajal apake kahani sngrah hain.

upanyas

titali aur knkal.

nibandh

kavy aur kala.

any rachanaen

any kavitaon men vinay, prakriti, prem tatha samajik bhavanaen hain. 'kanan kusum' men prasad ne anubhooti aur abhivyakti ki nayi dishaen khojane ka prayatn kiya hai. isake anantar kathakavyon ka samay aya hai. 'prem pathik' ka brajabhasha svaroop sabase pahale 'indoo' (1909 ee.) men prakashit hua tha aur 1970 vi. men kavi ne ise khadiboli men roopantarit kiya. isaki vigypti men unhonne svayn kaha hai ki "yah kavy brajabhasha men ath varsh pahale mainne likha tha." 'prem pathik' men ek bhavamoolak katha hai. jisake madhyam se adarsh prem ki vynjana ki gayi hai.

prakashan

'karunalay' ki rachana gitinaty ke adhar par huee hai. isaka pratham prakashan 'indu' (1913 ee.) men hua. 'chitradhar' ke pratham snskaran men bhi yah hai. 1928 ee. men isaka pustak roop men svatantr prakashan hua. isamen raja harishchandr ki katha hai. 'maharana ka mahattv' 1914 ee. men 'indu' men prakashit hua tha. yah bhi 'chitradhar' men snkalit tha, par 1928 ee. men isaka svatantr prakashan hua. isamen maharana pratap ki katha hai. 'jharana' ka pratham prakashan 1918 men hua tha. agami snskaranon men kuchh parivartan kie ge. isaki adhikansh kavitaen 1914-1917 ke bich likhi gayin, yadyapi kuchh rachanaen bad ki bhi pratit hoti hain. 'jharana' men prasad ke vyaktitv ka pratham bar spasht prakashan hua hai aur isamen adhunik kavy ki pravrittiyon ko adhik mukhar roop men dekha ja sakata hai. isamen chhayavad yug ka pratishthapan mana jata hai. 'ansoo' prasad ki ek vishisht rachana hai. isaka pratham snskaran 1982 vi. (1925 ee.) men nikala tha. doosara snskaran 1990 vi. (1933 ee.) men prakashit hua. 'ansoo' ek shreshth gitikavy hai, jisamen kavi ki premanubhooti vyajit hai. isaka moolasvar vishad ka hai. par antim pnktiyon men asha-vishvas ke svar hain. 'lahar' men prasad ki sarvottam kavitaen snkalit hain. isamen kavi ki praundh rachanaen hain. isaka prakashan 1933 ee. men hua. 'kamayani' prasad ka nibandh kavy hai. isaka pratham snskaran 1936 ee. men prakashit hua tha. kavi ka gaurav is mahakavy ki rachana se bahut badh gaya. isamen adi manav manu ki katha hai, par kavi ne apane yug ke mahattvapoorn prashnon par vichar kiya hai.

paksh

prasad ji ke kavy ki bhavapakshiy tatha kalapakshiy visheshataen nimnavath hain-

bhav paksh

Blockquote-open.gif biti vibhavari jag ri!
ambar panaghat men dubo rahi
tara ghat oosha nagari.

khag-kul kul-kul sa bol raha
kisalay ka anchal dol raha
lo yah latika bhi bhar la‌ee
madhu mukul naval ras gagari.

adharon men rag amnd piye
alakon men malayaj bnd kiye
too ab tak so‌ee hai ali
ankhon men bhare vihag ri. Blockquote-close.gif

prasad ji ki rachanaon men jivan ka vishal kshetr samahit hua hai. prem, saundary, desh-prem, rahasyanubhooti, darshan, prakriti chitran aur dharm adi vividh vishayon ko abhinav aur akarshak bhngima ke sath apane kavyapremiyon ke sammukh prastut kiya hai. ye sabhi vishay kavi ki shaili aur bhasha ki asadharanata ke karan achhoote roop men samane aye hain. prasad ji ke kavy sahity men prachin bharatiy snskriti ki garima aur bhavyata bade prabhavashali dhng se prastut huee hai. apake natakon ke git tatha rachanaen bharatiy jivan moolyon ko badi shalinata se upasthit karati hain. prasad ji ne rashtriy gaurav aur svabhiman ko apane sahity men sarvatr sthan diya hai. apaki anek rachanaen rashtr prem ki utkrisht bhavana jagane vali hain. prasad ji ne prakriti ke vividh pakshon ko badi sajivata se chitrit kiya hai. prakriti ke saumy-sundar aur vikrit-bhayanak, donon svaroop unaki rachanaon men prapt hote hain.

isake atirikt prakriti ka alnkarik, manavikrit, uddipak aur upadeshika svaroop bhi prasadaji ke kavy men prapt hota hai. 'prasad' prem aur anand ke kavi hain. prem-manobhav ka bada sookshm aur bahuvidh niroopan apaki rachanaon men hua hai. prem ka viyog-paksh aur snyog-paksh, donon hi poorn chhavi ke sath vidyaman hain. 'ansoo' apaka prasiddh viyog kavy hai. usake ek-ek chhand men virah ki sachchi pida ka chitr vidyaman hai; yatha-

jo dhanibhoot pida thi, mastak men smriti-si chhayi.
durdin men ansoo banakar, vah aj barasane ayi..

prasadaji ka saundary varnan bhi sajiv, satik aur manamohak hota hai. shraddha ke saundary ka ek shabd chitr darshaniy hai-

nil paridhan bich sukumar, khul raha mridul adhakhula ang.
khila ho jyon bijali ka phool, megh-van bich gulabi rng..

'prasad' hindi kavy men chhayavadi pravritti ke pravartak hain. 'ansoo' aur 'kamayani' apake chhayavadi kavitv ke parichayak hain. chhayavadi kavy ki sabhi visheshataen apaki rachanaon men prapt hoti hain.

prasadaji bhavon ke tivrata aur moortata pradan karane ke lie pratikon ka satik prayog karate hain. prasad ka kavy manav jivan ko purusharth aur asha ka sndesh deta hai. prasad ka kavy manavata ke samagr utthan aur chetana ka pratinidhi hai. usamen manav kalyan ke svar hain. kavi 'prasad' ne apani rachanaon men nari ke vividh, gauravamay svaroopon ke abhinav chitr upasthit kie hain.

kala paksh

'prasad' ke kavy ka kalapaksh bhi poorn sashakt aur sntulit hai. unaki bhasha, shaili, alnkaran, chhand-yojana, sabhi kuchh ek mahakavi ke staranukool hain.

bhasha

prasad ji ki bhasha ke kee roop unake kavy ki vikas yatra men dikhaee padate hain. apane arambh brajabhasha se kiya aur phir khadiboli ko apanakar use parishkrit, pravahamayi, snskritanishth bhasha ke roop men apani kavy bhasha bana liya. prasad ji ka shabd chayan dhvanyatmak saundary se bhi samanvit hai; yatha-

khag kul kul kul-sa bol raha,
kisalay ka anchal dol raha.

prasad ji ne lakshanik shabdavali ke prayog dvara apani rachanaon men marmik saundary ki srishti ki hai.

shaili

prasad ji ki kavy shaili men paramparagat tatha navy abhivyakti kaushal ka sundar samanvay hai. usamen oj, madhury aur prasad-tinon gunon ki susngati hai. vishay aur bhav ke anukool vividh shailiyon ka praudh prayog unake kavy men prapt hota hai. varnanatmak, bhavatmak, alnkarik, sooktiparak, pratikatmak adi shaili-roop unaki abhivyakti ko poornata pradan karate hain. varnanatmak shaili men shabd chitrankan ki kushalata darshaniy hoti hai.

alnkaran

prasad ji ki drishti samyamoolak alnkaron par hi rahi hai. shabdalnkar anayas hi ae hain. roopak, roopakatishayokti, upama, utpreksha, pratik adi apake priy alnkar hain.

chhand

prasad ji ne vividh chhandon ke madhyam se kavy ko saphal abhivyakti pradan ki hai. bhavanusar chhand-parivartan 'kamayani' men darshaniy hai. 'ansoo' ke chhand usake vishay men sarvadha anukool hain. giton ka bhi saphal prayog prasadaji ne kiya hai. bhasha ki tatsamata, chhand ki geyata aur lay ko prabhavit nahin karati hai. 'kamayani' ke shilpi ke roop men prasadaji n keval hindi sahity ki apitu vishv sahity ki vibhooti hain. apane bharatiy snskriti ke vishvajanin sandarbhon ko prastut kiya hai tatha itihas ke gauravamay prishthon ko samaksh lakar har bharatiy hriday ko atm-gaurav ka sukh pradan kiya hai. hindi sahity ke lie prasad ji man sarasvati ka prasad hain.

chhayavad ki sthapana

upanyas samrat premachnd ke sath jayashnkar prasad

jayashnkar prasad ne hindi kavy men chhayavad ki sthapana ki jisake dvara khadi boli ke kavy men kamaniy madhury ki rasasiddh dhara pravahit huee aur vah kavy ki siddh bhasha ban gee. ve chhayavad ke pratishthapak hi nahin apitu chhayavadi paddhati par saras sngitamay giton ke likhanevale shreshth kavi bhi bane. kavyakshetr men prasad ki kirti ka mooladhar 'kamayani' hai. khadi boli ka yah advitiy mahakavy manu aur shraddha ko adhar banakar rachit manavata ko vijayini banane ka sndesh deta hai. yah roopak kathakavy bhi hai jisamen man, shraddha aur ida (buddhi) ke yog se akhnd annd ki upalabdhi ka roopak pratyabhigya darshan ke adhar par snyojit kiya gaya hai. unaki yah kriti chhayavad or khadi boli ki kavyagarima ka jvalnt udaharan hai. sumitranandan pnt ise 'hindi men tajamahal ke saman' manate hain. shilpavidhi, bhashasaushthav evn bhavabhivyakti ki drishti se isaki tulana khadi boli ke kisi bhi kavy se nahin ki ja sakati hai. jayashnkar prasad ne apane daur ke parasi rngamnch ki parnpara ko asvikarate hue bharat ke gauravamay atit ke anamol charitron ko samane late hue avismaraniy natakon ki rachana ki. unake natak skndagupt, chndragupt adi men svarnim atit ko samane rakhakar manon ek soye hue desh ko jagane ki prerana di ja rahi thi. unake natakon men deshaprem ka svar atynt darshaniy hai aur in natakon men kee atynt sundar aur prasiddh git milate hain. 'himadri tung shring se', 'arun yah madhumay desh hamara' jaise unake natakon ke git suprasiddh rahe hain.[3]

nidhan

jayashnkar prasad ji ka dehant 15 navambar, sanh 1937 ee. men ho gaya. prasad ji bharat ke unnat atit ka jivit vatavaran prastut karane men siddhahast the. unaki kitani hi kahaniyan aisi hain jinamen adi se ant tak bharatiy snskriti evn adarsho ki raksha ka saphal prayas kiya gaya hai. aur ‘ansoo’ ne unake hriday ki us pida ko shabd die jo unake jivan men achanak mehaman banakar aee aur hindi bhasha ko samriddh kar gee.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi sahity (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 19 aktoobar, 2010.
  2. 2.0 2.1 shabdanjali (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 19 aktoobar, 2010.
  3. urmila shrivastav ki fesabuk vaaul se (dinank- 31 janavari, 2015)

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