नूर मुहम्मद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

noor muhammad dilli ke badashah muhammad shah ke samay men the aur 'sabarahad' namak sthan ke rahane vale the jo jaunapur, ajamagadh ki sarahad par hai. pichhe sabarahad se ye apani sasural bhadon[1] chale ge. inake shvasur 'shamasuddin' ka aur koee varis n tha, isase ve sasural hi men rahane lage. noor muhammad ke bhaee muhammad shah sabarahad hi men rahe. noor muhammad ke do putr hue gulam husain aur nasiruddin. nasiruddin ki vnsh parnpara men shekh phidahusain abhi vartaman hain jo sabarahad aur kabhi kabhi bhadon men bhi raha karate hain. avastha inaki 80 varsh ki hai.

hindi kavyabhasha

noor muhammad pharasi ke achchhe alim the aur inaka hindi kavyabhasha ka bhi gyan aur sab soophi kaviyon se adhik tha. pharasi men inhonne ek divan ke atirikt 'raujatul hakayak' ityadi bahut si kitaben likhi thin jo asavadhani ke karan nasht ho geen.

  • inhonne 1157 hijari (snvath 1801) men 'indravati' namak ek sundar akhyan kavy likha jisamen 'kalinjar' ke rajakumar rajakunvar aur agamapur ki rajakumari indravati ki premakahani hai. kavi ne prathanusar us samay ke shasak muhammadashah ki prashnsa is prakar ki hai -

karaun muhammadashah bakhanoo . hai sooraj dehali sulatanoo॥
dharamapnth jag bich chalava . nibar n sabare son du:kh pava॥
bahutai salatin jag kere. ai sahas bane hain chere॥
sab kahoo paradaya dharee . dharam sahit sulatani karee॥
kavi ne apani kahani ki bhoomika is prakar bandhi hai॥
man drig son ik rati majhara . soojhi para mohin sab snsara॥
dekheun ek nik phulavari . dekheun tahan purush au nari॥
dou mukh sobha barani n jaee . chnd suruj utare bhuin aee॥
tapi ek dekheutehi thaoon . poochheun tasaun tinhakar naoon॥
kaha ahai raja au rani . indravati au kunvar giyani॥
agamapur indravati, kunvar kalinjar ras॥
prem hunte dounh kahn, dinha alakh milay॥

  • kavi ne jayasi ke pahale ke kaviyon ke anusar panch panch chaupaiyon ke uparant dohe ka kram rakha hai. isi grnth ko soophi paddhati ka antim grnth manana chahie.
  • noor muhammad ka ek aur grnth pharasi aksharon men likha mila hai, jisaka nam hai 'anurag bansuri'. yah pustak kee drishtiyon se vilakshan hai. pahali bat to isaki bhasha hai jo soophi rachanaon se bahut adhik snskrit garbhit hai. doosari bat hai hindi bhasha ke prati musalamanon ka bhav.
  • 'indravati' ki rachana karane par shayad noor muhammad ko samay samay par yah upalnbh sunane ko milata tha ki tum musalaman hokar hindi bhasha men rachana karane kyon ge. isi se 'anurag bansuri' ke arnbh men unhen yah saphaee dene ki zaroorat padi

janat hai vah sirajanahara . jo kichhu hai man maram hamara॥
hindoo mag par panv n rakheun . ka jau bahutai hindi bhakheu॥
man islam mirikalain manjeun . din jenvari karakas bhanjeun॥
jahn rasool allah piyara . ummat ko muktavanahara॥
tahan doosaro kaise bhavai . jachchh asur sur kaj n avai॥

  • snvath 1800 tak ate ate musalaman hindi se kinara khinchane lage the. hindi hinduon ke lie chhodakar apane likhane padhane ki bhasha ve videshi arthath pharasi hi rakhana chahate the. jise 'urdoo' kahate hain, usaka us samay tak sahity] men koee sthan n tha, isaka spasht abhas noor muhammad ke is kathan se milata hai

kamayab kah kaun jagava . phir hindi bhakhai par ava||
chhandi parasi knd navatain . arujhana hindi ras batain||

  • 'anurag bansuri' ka rachanakal 1178 hijari arthath 1821 hai. kavi ne isaki rachana adhik pandityapoorn rakhane ka prayatn kiya hai aur vishay bhi isaka tatvgyan snbndhi hai.
  • noor muhammad ko hindi bhasha men kavita karane ke karan jagah jagah isaka saboot dena pada hai ki ve islam ke pakke anuyayi the.
  • soophi akhyan kavyon ki akhndit parnpara ki yahin samapti mani ja sakati hai. is parnpara men musalaman kavi hi hue hain. keval ek hindoo mila hai. soophi mat ke anuyayi sooradas namak ek pnjabi hindoo ne shahajahan ke samay men 'nal damaynti katha' nam ki ek kahani likhi thi, par isaki rachana atynt nikrisht hai.
  • sahity ki koee akhnd parnpara samapt hone par bhi kuchh din tak us parnpara ki kuchh rachanaen idhar udhar hoti rahati hain. is dhng ki pichhali rachanaon men 'chaturmukut ki katha' aur 'yoosuph julekha' ullekh yogy hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. zila-ajamagadh

achary, ramachndr shukl “prakaran 3”, hindi sahity ka itihas (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: kamal prakashan, nee dilli, prishth sn. 86-88.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh


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