तुकाराम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

tukaram
tukaram
poora nam snt tukaram
janm nishchit tithi agyat
janm bhoomi pune zile ke antargat 'dehoo' namak gram
mrityu nishchit tithi agyat
karm bhoomi maharashtr
karm-kshetr kavi
prasiddhi bhakti andolan ke ek pramukh stnbh
nagarikata bharatiy
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

tukaram (angrezi: Tukaram) maharashtr ke ek mahanh snt aur kavi the. ve tatkalin bharat men chale rahe 'bhakti andolan' ke ek pramukh stnbh the. unhen 'tukoba' bhi kaha jata hai. inake janm adi ke vishay men vidvanon men matabhed hain. tukaram ko chaitany namak sadhu ne 'ramakrishn hari' mntr ka svapn men upadesh diya tha. isake uparant inhonne 17 varsh snsar ko saman roop se upadesh dene men vyatit kie. tukaram ke mukh se samay-samay par sahaj roop se parisphutit hone vali 'abhng' vani ke atirikt inaki any koee vishesh sahityik kriti upalabdh nahin hai. apane jivan ke uttarardh men inake dvara gae ge tatha usi kshan inake shishyon dvara likhe ge lagabhag 4000 'abhng' aj upalabdh hain. tukaram ne apani sadhak avastha men snt gyaneshvar aur namadev, in poorvakalin snton ke grnthon ka gaharaee tatha shraddha se adhyayan kiya tha. in tinon snt kaviyon ke sahity men ek hi adhyatm sootr piroya hua hai.

jivan parichay

tukaram ka janm maharashtr rajy ke pune zile ke antargat 'dehoo' namak gram men shake 1520; sanh 1598 men hua tha. inake pita ka nam 'bolhoba' aur mata ka nam 'kanakaee' tha. tukaram ki janmatithi ke snbndh men vidvanon men matabhed hai tatha sabhi drishtiyon se vichar karane par shake 1520 men inaka janm hona hi many pratit hota hai. poorv ke athaven purush vishvnbhar baba se inake kul men vitthal ki upasana barabar chali a rahi thi. inake kul ke sabhi log 'pndharapur' ki yatra (vari) ke liye niyamit roop se jate the.

vipattiyan

dehoo gram ke mahajan hone ke karan tukaram ke kutumb ko pratishthit mana jata tha. inaki balyavastha mata 'kanakaee' v pita 'baheba' ki dekharekh men atynt dular ke sath vyatit huee thi, kintu jab ye pray: 18 varsh ke the, tabhi inake mata-pita ka svargavas ho gaya. isi samay desh men hue bhishan akal ke karan inaki pratham patni v chhote balak ki bhookh ke karan tadapate hue mrityu ho gee. tukaram chahate to akal ke samay men apani mahajani se aur bhi dhan adi ekatr kar sakate the, kintu unhonne aisa nahin kiya. vipattiyon ki jvalaon men jhulase hue tukaram ka man prapnch se oob gaya.

sukhon se virakti

tukaram sansarik sukhon se virakt hote ja rahe the. inaki doosari patni 'jijabaee' dhani parivar ki putri aur badi hi karkasha svabhav ki thi. apani pahali patni aur putr ki mrityu ke bad tukaram kafi du:khi the. ab abhav aur pareshani ka bhaynkar daur shuroo ho gaya tha. tukaram ka man vitthal ke bhajan gane men lagata, jis karan unaki doosari patni din-rat tane deti thi. tukaram itane dhyan magn rahate the ki ek bar kisi ka saman bailagadi men lad kar pahunchane ja rahe the. pahunchane par dekha ki gadi men ladi boriyan raste men hi gayab ho gee hain. isi prakar dhan vasool karake vapas lautate samay ek garib brahman ki karun katha sunakar sara rupaya use de diya.[1]

mata-pita se viyog

tukaram ji satrah varsh ke the, tab unake vatsaly moorti pita shri bolhoba is duniya se uth ge, jinhonne tukaram ji ko zamindar banaya tha.

pita ne kiya snchit dhan. jivan ki n paravah kar.
ki mahajani - pratha pradan. bojh uthaya kati-kndhon par॥
jinaki chhatrachhaya men snsar-tap se bache, vah saya hi hat gaya.
akasmath chhod ge pita. thi tab nahin koee chinta॥

tukaram ji atynt duahkhi hue. vah duahkh kam hone se pahale hi arthath pita ki maut ke ek varsh pashchath mata kanakaee ka svargavas hua. tukaram ji par duahkhon ka pahad toot pada. man ne ladale ke lie kya nahin kiya tha? usake bad atharah baras ki umr men jyeshth bndhu savaji ki patni (bhavaj) chal basi. pahale se hi ghar-grihasthi men savaji ka dhyan n tha. patni ki mrityu se ve ghar tyagakar tirthayatra ke lie nikal ge. jo ge, vapas laute hi nahin. parivar ke char sadasyon ko unaka bichhoh sahana pada. jahan kuchh kami n thi, vahan apanon ki, ek ek ki kami khalane lagi. tukaram ji ne sabr rakha. ve himmat n hare. udasinata, nirasha ke bavajood umr ki 20 sal ki avastha men saphalata se ghar-grihasthi karane ka prayas karane lage. parntu kal ko yah bhi mnjoor n tha. ek hi varsh men sthitiyon ne pratikool roop dharan kiya. dakkhin men bada akal pada. mahabhaynkar akal samay tha 1629 eesvi ka[2] deri se barasat huee. huee to ativrishti men phasal bah gee. logon ke man men ummid ki kiran baki thi. par 1630 eesvi men bilkul varsha n huee. charon or hahakar mach gaya. anaj ki kimaten asaman chhoone lagin. hari ghas ke abhav men anek prani maut ke ghat utare. ann ki kami saikadon logon ki maut ka karan bani. dhani parivar mitti chatane lage. durdasha ka pher phir bhi samapt n hua. sanh 1631 eesvi men prakritik apattiyan charam sima par kar geen. ativrishti tatha badh ki chapet se kuchh n bacha. akal tatha prakriti ka prakop lagatar tin sal jhelana pada. akal ki is durdasha ka varnan mahipati baba is tarah karate hain -

hua abhav, anaj-bij. log ath ser ko munhataj॥
badal laute bina gire. ghas-abhav men bail mare॥

bhishan akal ki chapet men tukaram ji ka karobar, grihasthi samool nasht huee. pashudhan nasht hua, sahookari doobi, dhndha chaupat hua, samman, pratishtha ghat gee. aise men pratham patni 'rakhamabaee' tatha ikalauta beta 'sntoba' kal ke gras bane. amataur par akal ki sthiti sahookar aur vyapariyon ke lie sunahara mauka hota hai. chijon ka kritrim abhav nirman kar ve apani jeben bharate hain. par tukaramaji aise pattharadil nahin the. apana duahkh, durdasha bhoolakar ve akal piditon ki seva men, madad men jut ge.[3]

abhng ki rachana

apani doosari patni ke vyavahar aur parivarik kalah se tng akar tukaram narayani nadi ke uttar men 'manatirth parvat' par ja baithe aur bhagavat bhajan karane lage. isase ghabarakar patni ne devar ko bhejakar inhen ghar bulavaya aur apane tarike rahane ki chhoot de di. ab tukaram ne 'abhng' rachakar kirtan karana arnbh kar diya. isaka logon par bada prabhav pada. kuchh log virodh bhi karane lage. kaha jata hai ki rameshvar bhatt namak ek kannad brahman ne inase kaha ki tum 'abhng' rachakar aur kirtan karake logon ko vaidik dharm ke viruddh bahakate ho. tum yah kam bnd kar do. usane snt tukaram ko dehoo ganv se nikalane ka bhi hukm jari karava diya. is par tukaram ne rameshvar bhatt se jakar kaha ki main to vitth ji ki agya se kavita karata hoon. ap kahate hain to main yah kam bnd kar doonga. yah kahate hue unhonne svarachit abhngon ka basta nadi men duba diya. kintu 13 din bad logon ne dekha ki jab tukaram dhyan men baithe the, unaka basta sookha hi nadi ke oopar tair raha hai. yah sunakar rameshvar bhatt bhi unaka shishy ho gaya. abhng chhnd men rachit tukaram ke lagabhag 4000 pad prapt hain. inaka marathi janata ke hriday men bada hi samman hai. log inaka path karate hain. inaki rachanaon men 'gyaneshvari' aur 'ekanami bhagavat' ki chhap dikhaee deti hai. kavy ki drishti se bhi ye rachanaen utkrisht koti ki mani jati hain.[1]

avastha

tukaram

tukaram ka abhng vadmay atynt atmaparak hone ke karan usamen unake paramarthik jivan ka snpoorn darshan hota hai. kautunbik apattiyon se trast ek samany vyakti kis prakar atmasakshatkari snt ban saka, isaka spasht roop tukaram ke abhngon men dikhalaee padata hai. unamen unake adhyatmik charitr ki sakar roop men tin avasthaen dikhalaee padati hain.

pratham avastha

pratham sadhak avastha men tukaram man men kie kisi nishchayanusar snsar se nivrit tatha paramarth ki or pravrit dikhalaee padate hain.

doosari avastha

doosari avastha men eeshvar sakshatkar ke prayatn ko asaphal hote dekhakar tukaram atyadhik nirasha ki sthiti men jivan yapan karane lage. unake dvara anubhoot is charam nairashy ka jo savistar chitran anbhng vani men hua hain usaki hridayavedhakata marathi bhasha men sarvatha advitiy hai.

tisari avastha

kinkartavyamoodhata ke andhakar men tukaram ji ki atma ko tadapanevali ghor tamasvini ka shighr hi ant hua aur atm sakshatkar ke soory se alokit tukaram brahmannd men vibhor ho ge. unake adhyatmik jivanapath ki yah antim evn chiravanchhit saphalata ki avastha thi.

alochana

is prakar eeshvaraprapti ki sadhana poorn hone ke uparant tukaram ke mukh se jo upadeshavani prakat huee vah atynt mahattvapoorn aur arthapoorn hai. svabhavat: spashtavadi hone ke karan inaki vani men jo kathorata dikhalaee padati hai, usake pichhe inaka pramukh uddeshy samaj se dushton ka nirdalan kar dharm ka snrakshan karana hi tha. inhonne sadaiv saty ka hi avalnban kiya aur kisi ki prasannata aur aprasannata ki or dhyan n dete hue dharmasnrnkshan ke sath sath pakhndakhndan ka kary nirntar chalaya. dabhik snt, anubhavashoony pothipndit, durachari dharmaguru ityadi samajakntakon ki unhonne atynt tivr alochana ki hai. tukaram man se bhagyavadi the at: unake dvara chitrit manavi snsar ka chitr nirasha, viphalata aur udveg se rnga hua hai, tathapi unhonne sansarikon ke liye 'snsar ka tyag karo' is prakar ka upadesh kabhi nahin diya. inake upadesh ka yahi sar hai ki snsar ke kshanik sukh ki apeksha paramarth ke shashvat sukh ki prapti ke liye manav ka prayatn hona chahie.

kavy rachana

tukaram ki adhikansh kavy rachana kaibal abhng chhnd men hi hai, tathapi unhonne roopakatmak rachanaen bhi ki hain. sabhi roopak kavy ki drishti se utkrisht hain. inaki vani shrotaon ke kan par padate hi unake hriday ko pakad lene ka adbhut samarthy rakhati hai. inake kavyon men alnkaron ka ya shabdachamatkar ka prachury nahin hai. inake abhng sootrabaddh hote hain. thode shabdon men mahanh arthon ko vyakt karane ka inaka kaushal marathi sahity men advitiy hai. tukaram ki atmanishth abhngavani janasadharan ko bhi param priy lagati hai. isaka pramukh karan hai ki samany manav ke hriday men udbhoot hone vale sukh, du:kh, asha, nirasha, rag, lobh adi ka prakatikaran isamen dikhalaee padata hai. gyaneshvar, namadev adi snton ne bhagavat dharm ki pataka ko apane kndhon par hi liya tha kintu tukaram ne use apane jivanakal hi men adhik oonche sthan par phahara diya. unhonne adhyatmgyan ko sulabh banaya tatha bhakti ka dnka bajate hue abal vriddho ke liye sahaj sulabh sadhy aise bhakti marg ko adhik ujjval kar diya.

snt gyaneshvar dvara likhi gee 'gyaneshvari' tatha ekanath dvara likhit 'ekanathi bhagavat' ke barakari snpradayavalon ke pramukh dharm grnth hain. is vandmay ki chhap tukaram ke anbhngon par dikhalaee padati hain. tukaram ne apani sadhak avastha men in poorvakalin snton ke grnthon ka gaharaee tatha shraddha se adhyayan kiya. in tinon snt kaviyon ke sahity men ek hi adhyatm sootr piroya hua hai tatha tinon ke paramarthik vicharon ka antarng bhi ekaroop hai. gyanadev ki sumadhur vani kavyalnkar se mndit hai, ekanath ki bhasha vistrit hai, par tukaram ki vani sootrabaddh, alpakshar, ramaniy tatha marmabhedak hain.

prerana srot

tukaram keval varakari snpraday ke hi shikhar nahin varanh duniyabhar ke sahity men bhi unaki jagah asadharan hai. unake 'abhng' angrezi bhasha men bhi anuvadit hue hain. unaka kavy aur sahity yani ratnon ka khazana hai. yahi vajah hai ki aj 400 sal bad bhi ve am adami ke man men sidhe utarate hain. duniyadari nibhate hue ek am adami snt kaise ban gaya, sath hi kisi bhi jati ya dharm men janm lekar utkat bhakti aur sadachar ke bal par atmavikas sadha ja sakata hai. yah vishvas am insan ke man men nirman karane vale the- snt tukaram yani tukoba. apane vicharon, apane acharan aur apani vani se arthapoorn talamel sadhate apani zindagi ko paripoorn karane vale tukoba janasamany ko hamesha kis prakar jina chahie, isaki sahi prerana pradan karate hain.[1]

zindagi ke poorvarddh men ae hadason se tukaram harakar nirash ho chuke the. zindagi se unaka bharosa uth chuka tha. aise men unhen kisi sahare ki behad zaroorat thi, laukik sahara to kisi ka tha nahin. isilie padurng par unhonne apana sara bhar saunp diya aur sadhana shuroo ki, jabaki us vakt unaka guru to koee bhi nahin tha. vitthal bhakti ki parapnra ka jatan karate namadev ki bhakti karate 'abhng' ki rachana ki. duniyadari se lagav chhodane ki bat bhale hi tukoba ne kahi ho, lekin duniyadari mat karo, aisa unhonne kabhi nahin kaha. sach kaha jaye to kisi bhi snt ne duniyadari chhodane ki bat ki hi nahin. ulte snt namadev aur ekanath ne sahi vyavasthit tarike se duniyadari nibhaee. "adhi prapnch karava netaka" to samarth ramadas ne bhi kaha hai. duniyadari vah uchit karm hai, kartavy hai jise achchhi tarah se karana chahie, lekin use karate vakt auchity, vivek, samabhav rakhana hota hai. kahan rukana hai, yah maloom hona chahie. bhakti bhi duniya men rahate hue hi karana chahie. duniyadari ke lie tukoba kahate hain- "prapnch har insan ko khud ko siddh karane ka ranangan hai." isilie ve duniyadari ka svagat karate hain. nivritti ka arth nirasan karana hai, sukh v duahkh donon ko saman manate jina.

tukaram ki gahari anubhav drishti behad gahare v eeshaparak rahi thi, jisake chalate unhen kuchh bhi kahane men snkoch nahin tha ki unaki vani svaynbhoo, eeshvar ki vani hai. ve to mazadoor ki tarah ji rahe the.       duniya men koee bhi dikhavati chij nahin tikati. jhooth lnbe samay tak snbhala nahin ja sakata. jhooth se sakht parahej rakhane vale tukoba ko snt namadev ka roop mana gaya hai. inaka samay 17vin sadi ke poorvarddh ka raha. ve samarth ramadas v chhatrapati shivaji ke samakalin the. inaka vyaktitv bada maulik v preranaspad hai. nimn varg men janm lene ke bavajood ve kee shastrakaron v samakalin snton se bahut age the. ve dharm v adhyatm ke sakar vigrah the.[1]

dehavisarjan

tukaram ko 'chaitany' namak sadhu ne magh sudi 10 shake 1541 men 'ramakrishn hari' mntr ka svapn men upadesh diya. isake uparant inhonne 17 varsh snsar ko saman roop se upadesh dene men vyatit kie. sachche vairagy tatha kshamashil ant:karan ke karan inaki ninda karane vale nindak bhi pashchatap karate hooe inake bhakt ban ge. is prakar 'bhagavat dharm' ka sabako upadesh karate v paramarth marg ko alokit karate hue adharm ka khndan karane vale tukaram ne phalgun badi (krishn) dvadashi, shake 1571 ko dehavisarjan kiya. inaka dehoo gram tirth mana jata hai aur prativarsh panch din tak unaki nidhan tithi manaee jati hai.

grnth path aur karmakand se kahin door tukaram prem ke jarie adhyatmikata ki khoj ko mahatv dete the. unhonne anaginat 'abhngon' ki rachana ki thi. unaki kavitaon ke ant men likha hota tha ki- "tuka mane" yani "tuka ne kaha…". unaki rah par chalakar 'varakari snpraday' bana, jisaka lakshy tha- samajaseva aur harisnkirtan mndal. is snpraday ke anuyayi sadaiv prabhu ka dhyan karate the. tukaram ne kitane 'abhng' likhe, inaka praman nahin milata, lekin marathi bhasha men hazaron 'abhng' to logon ki juban par hi hain. pahala prakashit roop 1873 men samane aya tha. is snkalan men 4607 'abhng' snkalit kie ge the. snt tukaram bhale hi ab nahin hain, lekin unake likhe ge git aj bhi maharashtr men poori bhakti ke sath gae jate hain. tukaram ne akele hi maharashtr men 'bhakti andolan' ko phailane men aham bhoomika nibhaee thi.[4]

tukaram par film

film tukaram

maharashtr ke 'varakari snpraday' ke log jab pndharapur ki yatra par jate hain, to "gyanoba maooli tukaram" ka hi jayaghosh karate hai. yah sthan snt tukaram ke marathi bhakton ke dilon men basa hua hai. tukaram ke snt jivan par adharit pahali film vishnupnt paganis ne 1940 ke dashak men banayi thi. film ka nam tha- "snt tukaram". yah film marathi hi nahin balki bharatiy film jagath men mil ka patthar sabit huee thi. kyonki pratishthapoorn "kans films festivhal" men ise sammananiy 'suvarn kamal padak' se puraskrit kiya gaya tha. yah puraskar pane vali yah pahali bharatiy film thi. maharashtr men is film ne suvarn mahotsav poora kiya tha. is film ka prabhav itana adhik tha ki jab log film dekhane thiyetar men jate to apane joote bahar utarakar jate the. film ka nirman karane vale vishnupnt ko hi snt tukaram manakar log unaki pooja karate the. is film ke sattar sal bad phir se snt tukaram ke jivan charitr par adharit ek aur film marathi men banaee gayi. is bich sirf ek bar aisa prayas kannad men hua tha. is film ka nam tha- "bhakt tukaram". san 2012 men chndrakant kulakarni nirdeshit 'tukaram' film pradarshit huee. varsh 1940 ki film snt tukaram ke snt charitr par adharit thi tatha nayi film unake samany manushy se snt ke safar par adharit hai. isiliye kisi bhi film samikshak ne donon filmon ki tulana karana uchit nahin samajha. logon ke man men yahi shnka thi ki parade par isase pahale bhi "snt tukaram" a chuki hai, ab kulakarniji kya naya dikhane vale hai? film ko dekhakar aisa mahasoos hota hai ki nirdeshak jis uddeshy ko lekar yah film bana rahe the, vah unhonne hasil kiya. snt tukaram ke janm se lekar snt jivan ka safar is film men prabhavashali roop se prastut kiya gaya.[5]

film ki shurooat hi tukaram ke balajivan se hoti hai. unake mata-pita tatha bhaee savaji, kanha aur donon patniyon ka charitr bhi is film men saransh roop men nazar ata hai. unake jivan par kin ghatanaon ka asar hua tatha kin vyaktiyon ka prabhav tha, yah sab baten nirdeshak ne bahut hi achchhi tarah se parade par dikhaeen. film tin ghnte ki hone ke bavajood kahi par bhi, tham nahin jati. madhyantar tak ki film tukaram ke vyavaharik jivan par adharit hai. isamen unake jivan ki sabhi ghatanayen filmaee gayi hain. yah keval ek manornjan karane vali film nahin balki jivan ki kahani prastut karane vali film hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 bharatiy charit kosh |lekhak: liladhar sharma 'parvatiy' |prakashak: shiksha bharati, madarasa rod, kashmiri get, dilli |prishth snkhya: 358 |
  2. shake 1550-51
  3. mata-pita se viyog- tukaram (hindi) (e.es.pi) tukaram daaut kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 22 march, 2013.
  4. snt tukaram-snt samaj ke shiromani (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 24 march, 2013.
  5. tukaram (film)-jagadguru ka safar (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 24 march, 2013.

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