स्वयंभू देव  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

svaynbhoo dev (athavin shatabdi) avivad roop se apabhrnsh ke sarvashreth kavi mane gaye hain. unaki mahatta ko svikar karate hue apabhrnsh ke hi paravarti kavi pushpadnt ne unhen vyas, bhas, kalidas, bharavi, ban adi pramukh kaviyon ki shreni men virajaman kar diya hai. bharatiy snskriti ke jane mane samikshak rahul sankrityayan ne apabhrnsh bhasha ke kavyon ko adikalin hindi kavy ke antargat sthan dete hue kaha hai - 'hamare isi yug men nahin, hindi kavita ke panchon yugon ke jitane kaviyon ko hamane yahan sngrahit kiya hai, yah ni:snkoch kaha ja sakata hai ki unamen svaynbhoo sabase bade kavi the. vastut: ve bharat ke ek darjan amar kaviyon men se ek the.'

parichay

svaynbhoo dev ke pita ka nam 'marutidev' aur mata ka nam 'padmini' tha. marutidev bhi kavi the. apane pita ka snket karate hue [1] ve svaynbhoo - vyakaran men unaka ek doha udaharan ke roop men dete hain.[2]svaynbhoo dev svayn apabhrnsh ke chhnd shastr aur vyakaran shastr ke achary the. ve apane acharon men bhikshu ya muni nahin the, ve ek shreshth upasak the. 'pum chariu' sndhi (sarg) 42 aur 20 ke padon men unaki do patniyon ka ullekh milata hai. pratham ka nam 'aichchnba' (adityamba) aur doosari ka nam 'samianbba' tha. sambhavat: unaki aur bhi patniyan rahi hon. in patniyon se unake anek putr hue jinamen sabase chhote ka nam 'tribhuvan svaynbhoo' tha. ye tribhuvan svaynbhoo bhi kavi the. is prakar is kul men kavy ki parampara ka vishesh man tha. tribhuvan kavi hone ke sath hi bade vidvan aur vaiyakaran the. inhonne apane pita svaynbhoo dev ki rachanaon ki saphalata ke sath poorti ki. yadyapi yah poorti pita ke adhoore grnthon ki nahin thi tathapi jahan kahin prasng spasht nahin hue, vahan unaki spashtata ke lie tribhuvan ne anek 'kadavakon' aur 'sndhiyon' ki rachanaen ki.[3]

upadhiyan

svaynbhoo dev 'mahakavi', 'kaviraj', 'kaviraj-chakravarti' adi anek upadhiyon se sammanit the.

rachanaen

svaynbhoo ne apabhrnsh men 'pumacharit' likhakar jahan ramakatha parampara ko samriddh banaya hai, vahin 'ritthanemichariu' prabandh kavy likhakar krishnakavy ki parampara ko age badhaya hai. doosare shabdon men ham kah sakate hain ki prabandhakavy ke kshetr men svaynbhoo apabhrnsh ke adi kavi hain. vah apabhrnsh ke ramakathatmak kavy ke yadi 'valmiki' hain to krishn kavy ke vyas hain. apabhrnsh ka koee bhi paravarti kavi aisa nahin hai jo svaynbhoo se prabhavit n hua ho. svaynbhoo dev ne char grnthon ki rachana ki hai -

  1. pum chariu - (padm charitr - jain ramayan)
  2. ritthanemi chariu - (arishtanemi charitr - harivnsh puran)
  3. pnchami chariu - (nagakumar charit)
  4. svaynbhoo chhnd

samay

hindi ke jain kaviyon men sabase pahala nam svaynbhoo dev ka ata hai. ye apabhrnsh bhasha ke mahakavi the. kintu inhonne apana grnth 'pum chariu' (padm charitr - jain ramayan) men aisi apabhrnsh bhasha ka prayog kiya hai jisamen prachin hindi ka roop ingit hai. inaka samay vikram ki athavin shatabdi gyat hota hai. isaka karan yah hai ki inhonne apane grnth 'pum chariu' aur 'ritthinemi chariu' men apane poorvavarti kaviyon aur unaki rachanaon ka ullekh kiya hai. in kaviyon men ek 'ravishenachary' hain. ravishen ke 'padm charit' ka lekhan kal vikram samvat 734 hai. at: svaynbhoo dev ka samay samvat 734 ke bad hai. sarvapratham svaynbhoo dev ka ullekh mahakavi 'pushpadnt' ne kiya hai. [4] mahakavi pushpadant ne apane mahapuran ka prarambh sn. 1016 men kiya. at: svaynbhoo dev ka samay sn. 734 se 1016 ke bich thaharata hai. lagabhag 300 varshon ki lambi avadhi men thik samvat khojana kathin hai. shri nathooram 'premi' is avadhi men svaynbhoo dev ka kal samvat 734 se 840 ke bich manate hain. rahul sankrityayan sn. 847 ke lagabhag anuman karate hain. is sambndh men paryapt aitihasik samragi prapt nahin hai. abhi hamen isi se sntosh karana chahie ki svaynbhoo dev vikram ki athavin shatabdi men hue. svaynbhoo ne apani rachanaon men apane pradesh ya janmasthan ka spasht ullekh nahin kiya hai.

  • sv. daau. hiralal jain ka mat tha ki 'harivnshapuran ke karta jinasen tatha adipuran ke karta jinasen ki tarah kavi svaynbhoo bhi dakshin pradesh ke nivasi rahe honge kyonki unhonne apane kavyon men dhannjay, dhavaliya aur vandiya adi jin ashrayadataon ka ullekh kiya hai ve nam se dakshinaty pratit hote hain.'
  • sv. pn. nathooram premi ka vichar tha ki 'svaynbhoo kavi pushpadnt ki tarah hi barar ki taraph ke rahe honge aur vahan se ve rashtrakoot ki rajadhani men pahunche honge.'
  • svaynbhoo ki kritiyon men aise antarng sakshy milate hain jisase unhen maharashtr ya godavari ke nikat ke kisi pradesh ka mana ja sakata hai.

kala saushthav

svaynbhoo dev bahut achchhe kavi the. unhonne jivan ki vividh dashaon ka bada hridayakarshak varnan kiya hai. 'pum chariu' men ve vilap aur yuddh likhane men vishesh patu hain. unhonne nari vilap, bandhu vilap, dasharath vilap, ram vilap, bharat vilap, ravan vilap, vibhishan vilap adi bade sundar dhng se likhe hain. yuddh men ve yoddhaon ki umngen, ran yatra, meghavahan yuddh, hanuman yuddh, kumbhakarn yuddh, lakshman yuddh bade viratv poorn dhng spasht karate hain. prem virah git, prakriti varnan, nagar varnan aur vastu varnan bhi ve bade vistar aur svabhavik dhng se likhate hain.

ravan ki mrityu par mandodari vilap (karun ras)

aehin soariyahi, attharah hiv juvah sahasehin.
nav ghan mala dnbarehi, chhaiu vijju jem chupasehin॥
rovi lnkapur paramesir. ha ravan! tihuyan jan kesari॥
pi vinu samar turu kahon vajji. pi vinu balakil kaho chhajji॥
pi vinu navagah ekkikaranu. ko parihesi knthaharanu॥
pivinu ko vijja arahi. pi vinu chandrahasu ko sahi॥
ko gndhavv vapi adohi. kannahon chhavi sahasu snkhohi॥
pan vinu ko kuver bhnjesi. tijag vihusanu kahon vasen hosi॥
pan vinu ko jamu vinavaresee. ko kilasu ddharan karesee॥
sahas kiranu nal kubvar sakkahu. ko ari hosi sasi varunakkahu॥
ko nihan rayani palesi. ko vahuroovini vijjan lesi॥
ghatta - samiy pin bhavien vinu, puphph vimapon chadavi gurubhattien.
meru siharen jin mndirin, ko mi nesi vndan hattie.

hanuman ka yuddh varnan - (viraras)

hanuvnt rane parivedijji nisiyarehin. nn gayan yale bal divayaru jalaharehin.
par - valu anntu hanuvnt ekku. gay joohahon nai indu thakku॥
arokki kokki samuhu dhai. jahi jahi jethatt tahi tahi jen thai.
gay - ghad bhad thad bhnjuntu jai. vnsatthalen laggu davaggi nai॥
ekkoo rahu mahanhaven ras visattu . paribhami nain valen bhiy vatt.
so navi bhadu jasu n maliu manu. so n dhayu jamu n lagnu vanu.
so navi bhadu jasu jha chhishgu gattu. tn navi vimanu jahi saru n pattu॥
ghatta - jagadntu balu marui hindi jahin jen jahin.
sngam mahihen rund nirntar tahi je tahin॥


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. taha y maur devass. 4-9
  2. laddhu mitt bhamnten ranaarachaden. so sijjnte sijji vi tah bhari bharnten॥4-9॥
  3. ek kadvak = ath yamak, ek yamak = do pad, sndhi = sarg.
  4. chumuhu saynbhu siriharisu don. naloiu ki eesanu banu. 1-5॥ (mainen chaturmukh, svaynbhoo shriharsh, dron, kavi eeshan aur ban ka avalokan nahin kiy.

snbndhit lekh

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