गोदावरी नदी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।


godavari nadi
godavari ghat, nasik
desh bharat
rajy maharashtr, telngana, chhattisagadh, andhr pradesh
pramukh nagar nasik, nanded, nizamabad, rajamundri
lambaee 1465 kimi (910 mil)
pauranik ullekh varah puran[1] ne bhi kaha hai ki gautam hi jahnavi ko dandak van men le aye aur vah godavari ke nam se prasiddh ho gayi.
dharmik mahattv godavari nadi ke tat par hi trynbakeshvar, nasik, paithan jaise prasiddh tirthasthal hain. ise 'dakshinignga' bhi kahate hain.
googal manachitr godavari nadi
any janakari kalidas ne is ullekh men godavari ko 'goda' kaha hai. ‘shabd-bhed prakash’ namak kosh men bhi godavari ka roopantar ‘goda’ diya hua hai.

godavari nadi (angrezi: Godavari River) bharat ki prasiddh nadi hai. yah nadi dakshin bharat men pashchimi ghat se lekar poorvi ghat tak pravahit hoti hai. nadi ki lnbaee lagabhag 900 mil (lagabhag 1440 ki.mi.) hai. yah nadi nasik traynbak ganv ki prishthavarti pahadiyon men sthit ek bade jalagar se nikalati hai. mukhy roop se nadi ka bahav dakshin-poorv ki or hai. oopari hisse men nadi ki chaudaee ek se do mil tak hai, jisake bich-bich men baloo ki bhittikaen hain. samudr men milane se 60 mil (lagabhag 96 ki.mi.) pahale hi nadi bahut hi snkari uchch divaron ke bich se bahati hai. bngal ki khadi men dauleshvaramh ke pas delta banati huee yah nadi sat dharaon ke roop men samudr men girati hai. bharat ki prayadvipiy nadiyan- godavari aur krishna, ye donon milakar 'krishna-godavari delta' ka nirman karati hain, jo sundaraban ke bad bharat ka doosara sabase bada delta hai. is delta ko bahudha 'keji delta' bhi kaha jata hai.

mukhy dharaen

godavari ki sat shakhaen mani gee hain-

  1. gautami
  2. vasishtha
  3. kaushiki
  4. atreyi
  5. vriddh gautami
  6. tulya
  7. bharadvaji

pauranik ullekh

puranon men godavari nadi ka vivaran nimn prakar prapt hota hai-

'saptagodavari snatva niyato niyato niyatashan:.'
  • brahmapuran ke 133ven adhyay men tatha anyatr bhi godavari (gautami) ka ullekh hai.
  • shrimadbhagavat[3] men godavari ki any nadiyon ke sath ullekh hai-
'krishnavenya bhimarathi godavari nirvindhya’.'
'godavari bhimarathi krishnavenyadikastatha. sahmapadodbhava nady: smrita: papabhayapaha:.'
'godavari narmada ch bahudan ch mahanadimh.'
  • godavari nadi ko pandavon ne tirthayatra ke prasng men dekha tha-
'dvijati mukhyeshudhann visrijy godavari sagaragamagachchhath.'[6]
'amoorvimanantaralabinonan shrutva svann kanchanarkikanimh, pratyudbrajantiv khamutpatany: godavarisaras pnktayastvamh’;’ ‘atranugodn mrigaya nivritastarng vaten vinit khed: rahastvadutsng nipunnamurgha smarami vaniragrinheshu supt:.'
godavari nadi

kalidas ne is ullekh men godavari ko 'goda' kaha hai. ‘shabd-bhed prakash’ namak kosh men bhi godavari ka roopantar ‘goda’ diya hua hai.

vaidik sahity men abhi tak godavari ki kahin bhi charcha nahin prapt ho saki hai. bauddh granthon men bavari ke vishay men kee dantakathaen milati hain. brahmapuran men gautami nadi par 106 dirgh poorn adhyay hai. inamen isaki mahima varnit hai. vah pahale mahakosal ka purohit tha aur pashchath pasanedi ka, vah godavari par alak ke parshv men asyak ki bhoomi men nivas karata tha aur aisa kaha jata hai ki usane shravasti men buddh ke pas katipay shishy bheje the.[8] panini[9] ke 'snkhyaya nadi-godavaribhyan ch' vartik men 'godavari' nam aya hai aur isase 'saptagodavar' bhi parilakshit hota hai. ramayan, mahabharat evn puranon men isaki charcha huee hain. van parv[10] ne ise dakshin men payi jane vali ek punit nadi ki sngya di hai aur kaha hai ki yah nirjharapoorn evn vatikaon se achchhadit tatavali thi aur yahan munigan tapasya kiya karate the. ramayan ke arany kand va. ra.[11] ne godavari ke pas ke pnchavati namak sthal ka varnan kiya hai, jahan mrigon ke jhund raha karate the aur jo agasty ke ashram se do yojan ki doori par tha. brahm puran[12] men godavari evn isake upatirthon ka savistar varnan hua hai. tirthnsar[13] ne brahmapuran ke katipay adhyayon[14] se lagabhag 60 shlok uddhrit kiye hain, jisase yah prakat hota hai ki aj ke brahmapuran ke gautami vale adhyay 1500 ee. ke poorv upasthit the. vaman kane ke lekh ke anusar[15] brahm puran ne godavari ko samany roop men gautami kaha hai.[16] brahmapuran[17] men aya hai ki vindhy ke dakshin men gnga ko gautami aur uttar men bhagirathi kaha jata hai. godavari ki 200 yojan ki lambaee kahi gayi hai aur kaha gaya hai ki is par sadhe tin karod tirth paye jate hain.[18] dandakarany ko dharm evn mukti ka bij evn usaki bhoomi ko (usake dvara ashlisht sthal ko) punyatam kaha gaya hai.[19]

namakaran

godavari nadi, andhr pradesh

kuchh vidvanon ke anusar, isaka namakaran telugu bhasha ke shabd 'god' se hua hai, jisaka arth maryada hota hai. ek bar maharshi gautam ne ghor tap kiya. isase rudr prasann ho ge aur unhonne ek bal ke prabhav se gnga ko pravahit kiya. gngajal ke sparsh se ek mrit gay punarjivit ho uthi. isi karan isaka nam godavari pada. gautam se snbndh jud jane ke karan ise gautami bhi kaha jane laga. isamen nahane se sare pap dhul jate hain. godavari ki sat dhara vasishtha, kaushiki, vriddh gautami, bharadvaji, atreyi aur tulya ativ prasiddh hai. puranon men inaka varnan milata hai. inhen mahapunyaprapti karak bataya gaya hai-

saptagodavari snatva niyato niyatashan: .
mahapunyamaprapnoti devaloke ch gachchhati ॥

brahmagiri par utari gnga

bahut-se puranon men ek shlok aya hai- 'madhy ke desh sahy parvat ke anantar men hain, vahin par godavari hai aur vah bhoomi tinon lokon men sabase sundar hai. vahan govardhan hai, jo mandar evn gandhamadan ke saman hai.'[20] brahm puran[21] men varnan aya hai ki kis prakar gautam ne shiv ki jata se gnga ko brahmagiri par utara, jahan unaka ashram tha aur kis prakar is kary men ganesh ne sahayata di. narad puran[22] men aya hai ki jab gautam tap kar rahe the to barah varshon tak pani nahin barasa aur durbhiksh pad gaya, is par sabhi munigan unake pas gaye aur unhonne gnga ko apane ashram men utara. ve prat:kal shali ke ann bote the aur madhyahn men kat lete the aur yah kary ve tab tak karate chale gaye jab tak paryapt roop men ann ekatr nahin ho gaya. shivaji prakat hue aur rishi ne prarthana ki ki ve (shivaji) unake ashram ke pas rahen aur isi se vah parvat jahan gautam ka ashram avasthit tha, tryambak nam se vikhyat hua.[23]

mukhy nadiyan

godavari nadi ke tat par hi trynbakeshvar, nasik, paithan jaise prasiddh tirthasthal hain. ise 'dakshinignga' bhi kahate hain. isaka kafi bhag dakshin bharat men hain. isaki kul lnbaee 1465 kimi hai, jisaka 48.6 bhag maharashtr, 20.7 bhag madhy pradesh, 14 karnatak, 5.5 udisa, aur 23.8 andhr pradesh men padata hai. isamen mukhy nadiyan jo akar milati hain, ve hain–

  • poorna
  • qadam
  • pranhita
  • sabari
  • indravati
  • mujira
  • sindhukana
  • maner
  • pravar

isake muhanon men kafi kheti hoti hai aur is par kee mahattvapoorn bandh bhi bane hain.

vishesh mahatta

godavari pul, rajamahendri (andhr pradesh)

varah puran[24] ne bhi kaha hai ki gautam hi jahnavi ko dandak van men le aye aur vah godavari ke nam se prasiddh ho gayi. koorm puran[25] ne nadiyon ki ek lambi soochi dekar ant men kaha hai ki shraddh karane ke lie godavari ki vishesh mahatta hai. brahm puran[26] men aisa aya hai ki 'sabhi prakar ke kashton ko door karane ke lie keval do (upay) ghoshit hain- punit nadi gautami evn shiv jo karunakar hain. brahm puran ne yahan ke lagabhag 100 tirthon ka varnan kiya hai, yatha-

kintu sthanabhav se ham inaki charcha nahin karenge. kintu nasik, govardhan, pnchavati evn janasthan ke vishay men kuchh likh dena avashyak hai.

dan ka varnan

bharahut stoop ke ghere ke ek stambh par ek lekh hai jisamen nasik ke vasuk ki patni gorakshita ke dan ka varnan hai. yah lekh ee.poo. 200 ee. ka hai aur ab tak ke paye gaye nasik-sambandhi lekhon men sab se purana he. mahabhashy[34] men nasiky puri ka ullekh hua hen vayu puran[35] ne nasiky ko ek desh ke roop men kaha hai. pandulena ki gufaon ke nasik lekhon se pata chalata hai ki eesa ke kee shatabdiyon poorv se nasik ek samriddhishali sthal tha.[36] taaulemi (lagabhag 150 ee.) ne bhi nasik ka ullekh kiya he.[37]

itihas

godavari nadi, nasik

nasik ke itihas isake snan-sthalon, mandiron, jalashayon, tirthayatra evn pooja-krityon ke vishay men sthanabhav se adhik nahin likha ja sakata. is vishay men dekhie bambee ka gajetiyar[38] yahan yah varnit hai ki nasik men 60 mandir evn godavari ke vam tat par pnchavati men 16 mandir hain. kintu aj prachin mandiron men kadachith hi koee khada ho. sanh 1680 ee. men dakshin ki soobedari men aurngazeb ne nasik ke 25 mandir tudava dale. aj ke sabhi mandir poona ke peshavaon dvara nirmit karaye gaye hain (sanh 1850 evn 1818 ke bhitar) inamen tin ullekhaniy hain-

  • pnchavati men ramaji ka mandir
  • godavari ke bayen tat par pahale mod ke pas naro-shnkar ka mandir (ya ghantamandir)
  • nasik ke adityavar peth men sundar narayan ka mandir

gufa ka darshan

pnchavati men sita-gufa ka darshan kiya jata hai, isake pas baragad ke prachin ped hain jinake vishay men aisa vishvas hai ki ye panch vato se utpann hue hain jinase is sthan ko pnchavati ki sngya mili hai. sita-gufa se thodi door par kale ram ka mandir hai jo pashchim bharat ke sundar mandiron men pariganit hota hai. govardhan[39] evn tapovan[40] ke bich men bahut-se snan-sthal evn pavitr kund hain. godavari ki bayin or jahan isaka dakshin ki or pratham ghumav hai, nasik ka ramakund namak pavitratam sthal hai. kalaram-mandir ke prati din ke dharmik krity evn pooja yatri log nasik men hi karate hain.

nasik nam ki utpatti

nasik ke utsavon men ramanavami ek bahut bada parv hai. 'nasik' shabd 'nasika' se bana hai aur isi se 'nasiky' shabd bhi bana hai. sambhavat: yah nam isalie pada hai ki yahin par lakshman ne shoorpanakha ki nak (nasika) kati thi.[41]

pnchavati

godavari pul, rajamahendri (andhr pradesh)

ushavadat ke nasik-shilalekh men, jo bahut lamba evn prasiddh hain, 'govardhan' shabd aya hai.[42] pnchavati nam jyon-ka-tyon chala aya hai. yah gyatavy hai ki ramayan[43] men pnchavati ko desh kaha gaya hai. shaly parv[44], ramayan[45], narad puran[46] evn agni puran[47] ke mat se janasthan dandakarany men tha aur pnchavati usaka (arthath janasthan ka) ek bhag tha. janasthan vistar men 4 yojan tha aur yah nam isalie pada ki yahan janak-kul ke rajaon ne godavari ki kripa se mukti payi thi.[48]

mahapuny

jab brihaspati grah sinh rashi men pravesh karata hai us samay ka godavari-snan aj bhi mahapuny-karak mana jata hai.[49] brahm puran[50] men aisa aya hai ki tinon lokon ke sadhe tin karod devata is samay yahan snanarth ate hain aur is samay ka keval ek godavari-snan bhagirathi men prati din kiye jane vale 60 sahasr varshon tak ke snan ke barabar hai. varah puran[51] men aisa aya hai ki jab koee sinhasth varsh men godavari jata hai, vahan snan karata hai aur pitaron ka tarpan evn shraddh karata hai to usake ve pitar, jo narak men rahate hain, svarg chale jate hain, aur jo svarg ke vasi hote hain, ve mukti pa jate hain. 12 varshon ke uparant, ek bar brihaspati sinh rashi men ata hai. is sinhasth varsh men bharat ke sabhi bhagon se sahasron ki snkhya men yatrigan nasik ate hain.

pauranik katha

gautam muni bahut varshon tak vahan tapasya men lage rahe. tadanantar ambikapati bhagavan shiv ne unaki tapasya se sntusht ho unhen apane parshadaganon ke sath darshan diya aur kaha- 'var mango.'
godavari nadi
tab munivar gautam ne bhagavan trynbak ko sashtang pranam kiya aur bole-'sabaka kalyan karane vale bhagavan! apake charanon men meri sada bhakti bani rahe aur mere ashram ke samip isi parvat ke oopar apako main sada virajaman dekhoon, yahi mere liye abhisht var hai.' muni ke aisa kahane par bhakton ko manovanchhit var dene vale parvativallabh bhagavan shiv ne unhen apana samipy pradan kiya. bhagavan tryambak usi roop se vahin nivas karane lage. tabhi se vah parvat trynbak kahalane laga. subhage! jo manav bhaktibhav se godavari-gnga men jakar snan karate hain, ve bhavasagar se mukt ho jate hain. jo log godavari ke jal men snan karake us parvat par virajaman bhagavan tryambak ka vividh upacharon se poojan karate hain, ve sakshat maheshvar hain. mohini! bhagavan tryambak ka yah mahatmy mainne snkshep se bataya hai. tadanantar jahan tak godavari ka sakshat darshan hota hai, vahan tak bahut-se punyamay ashram hain. un sab men snan karake devataon tatha pitaron ka vidhipoorvak tarpan karane se manushy manovanchhit kamanaon ko prapt kar leta hai. bhadre! godavari kahin prakat hain aur kahin gupt hain; phir age jakar punyamayi godavari nadi ne is prithvi ko aplavit kiya hai. manushyon ki bhakti se jahan ve maheshvari devi prakat huee hain, vahan mahanh punyatirth hai jo snan matr se papon ko har lene vala hai. tadanantar godavari devi pnchavati men jakar bhali-bhanti prakash men ayi hain. vahan ve sampoorn lokon ko uttam gati pradan karati hain. vidhinandini! jo manushy niyam evn vrat ka palan karate hue pnchavati ki godavari men snan karata hai, vah abhisht kamanaon ko prapt kar leta hai. jab treta yug men bhagavan shri ram apani dharmapatni sita aur chhote bhaee lakshman ke sath akar rahane lage, tab se unhonne pnchavati ko aur bhi punyamayi bana diya. shubhe! is prakar yah sab gautamashram ka mahatmy kaha gaya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. varah puran, 71.37-44
  2. vanaparv 85, 43
  3. shrimadbhagavat 5, 19, 18
  4. vishnupuran 2, 3, 12
  5. bhishmaparv 9, 14
  6. vanaparv 118, 3
  7. raghuvnsh 13, 33, 13, 35
  8. suttanipat, saikred buk av di eest, jild 10, bhag 2, 184 evn 187
  9. panini, 5.4.75
  10. van parv mahabharat, 88.2
  11. ramayan (arany kand), 13.13 evn 21
  12. brahm puran, adhyay 70-175
  13. nrisinh puran ka ek bhag
  14. brahm puran, yatha- 89, 91, 106, 107, 116-118, 121, 122, 131, 144, 154, 159, 172
  15. jarnal av di bambe branch av di eshiyatik sosaiti, sanh 1917, pri0 27-28
  16. vindhyasy dakshine gnga gautami sa nigadyate. uttare sapi vindhyasy bhagirathyabhidhiyate॥ brahm puran (78.77) evn tirthasar (pri. 45).
  17. brahmapuran, 78.77
  18. brahm puran 77.8-9
  19. tisr: kotyoardhakoti ch yojananan shatadvayen. tirthani munishardool sambhavishyanti gautam॥ brahm puran (77.8-9). dharmabijn muktibijn dandakaranyamuchyate. visheshadh gautamishlishto desh: punyatamoabhavath॥ brahm puran (161.73).
  20. sahyasyanantare chaite tatr godavari nadi. prithivyamapi kritsnayan s pradesho manoram:. yatr govardhano nam mandaro gandhamadan:॥ matsy puran (114.37-38=vayu puran 45.112-113=markandey puran 54.34-35=brahmand puran 2.16.43). aur dekhie brahm puran (27.43-44).
  21. brahm puran, 27.43-44
  22. narad puran, uttarardh, 72
  23. narad puran, shlok 24
  24. varah puran, 71.37-44
  25. koorm puran, 2.20.29-35
  26. brahm puran, 124.93
  27. brahm puran, 71.6
  28. brahm puran, 980.1-3
  29. brahm puran, 988.1
  30. brahm puran, adhyay 91
  31. brahm puran, 106
  32. brahm puran, 106.55
  33. brahm puran, 159
  34. mahabhashy, 6.1.63
  35. vayu puran, 45.130
  36. epigraiphiya indika, jild 8, pri0 59-96
  37. taaulemi, pri0 156
  38. jild 16, nasik zila
  39. nasik se 6 mil pashchim
  40. nasik se 1॥ mil dakshin-poorv
  41. dekhie bambee gajetiyar, jild 6, pri. 517-518, 529-531 evn 522-526
  42. dekhie bambee gajetiyar, jild 16, pri. 569-570
  43. ramayan, 3.13.13
  44. shaly parv, 939.9-10
  45. ramayan, 3.21.19-20
  46. naradiy puran, 2.75.30
  47. agni puran, 7.2-3
  48. brahm puran 88.22-24
  49. dharmasindhu, pri. 7
  50. brahm puran, 152.38-39
  51. varah puran, 71.45-46

snbndhit lekh

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