सरस्वती नदी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।


sarasvati nadi
sarasvati nadi
desh bharat, pakistan
rajy himachal pradesh, hariyana, rajasthan, pnjab
udgam sthal uttaranchal men roopan nam ke himanad se[1]
sahayak nadiyan yamuna, sataluj v ghagghar
pauranik ullekh rigved ke nadi sookt men sarasvati ka ullekh hai, 'imn men gnge yamune sarasvati shutudri stomn sachata parushnya asiknya maroodvadhe vitastayarjikiye shrrinuhya sushomaya'[2]
dharmik mahattv prayag ke nikat gnga-yamuna sngam men milane vali ek nadi jisaka rng lal mana jata tha.
any janakari valmiki ramayan men bharat ke kekay desh se ayodhya ane ke prasng men sarasvati aur gnga ko par karane ka varnan hai- 'sarasvatin ch gnga ch yugmen pratipady ch, uttaranh viramatsyanan bharundn pravishadvanamh'[3]
Disamb2.jpg sarasvati ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- sarasvati (bahuvikalpi)

sarasvati nadi pauranik hindoo dharm granthon tatha rigved men varnit mukhy nadiyon men se ek hai. rigved ke nadi sookt men sarasvati ka ullekh hai, 'imn men gnge yamune sarasvati shutudri stomn sachata parushnya asiknya maroodvadhe vitastayarjikiye shrrinuhya sushomaya'[4] ved puranon men gnga aur sindhu se jyada mahattv sarasvati nadi ko diya gaya hai. isaka udgam bala zila ke simavarti kshetr sirapur ki shivalik pahadiyon men mana jata hai. vahan se bahati huee yah jaladhara patiyala men vinashan namak sthan men baloo men lupt ho jati hai.

namakaran

‘saras’ yani jisamen jal ho tatha ‘vati’ yani vali arthat jalavali; is arth men isaka namakaran hua hai. isaka ant aprakat hone ke karan ise ant:salila ki sngya di gee hai.

bhaugolik snrachana

maidani kshetr men isaka pravesh adi badri ke pas hota hai. bhavanipur aur balachhapar se gujarati huee yah baloo men lupt ho jati hai, phir thodi door par karanal se bahati hai. ghaghara nadi jisaka udh-gam bhi isi kshetr se hai, 175 kimi ki doori par jakar rasoola ke nikat isase mil jati hai. yah bikaner ke pahale hanumanagadh ke pas balukamay rashi men lupt ho jati hai. ab bhi bikaner se qarib das kimi door retile ilake ko sarasvati kahakar pukarate hain.

pauranik sndarbh

ved aur puranon men sarasvati ka varnan nadi ke roop men nahin, balki vani tatha vidya ki devi ke roop men hua hai. skndapuran aur mahabharat men isaka vivaran badi shraddha-bhakti se kiya gaya hai. inake anusar sarasvati nadi himalay se nikalakar kurukshetr, virat, pushkar, siddhapur, prabhas adi ilakon se hoti huee gujarat ke kachchh ke raste se sagar men milati thi. prayag men gnga aur yamuna se sarasvati ka sngam hua. kee bhoo-vigyani manate hain, aur rigved men bhi kaha gaya hai, ki hazaron sal pahale sataluj (jo sindhu nadi ki sahayak nadi hai) aur yamuna (jo gnga ki sahayak nadi hai) ke bich ek vishal nadi thi jo himalay se lekar arab sagar tak bahati thi. aj ye bhoogarbhi badalav ke karan sookh gayi hai. rigved men, vaidik kal men is nadi sarasvati ko 'naditama' ki upadhi di gayi hai. us sabhyata men sarasvati hi sabase badi aur mukhy nadi thi, gnga nahin. sarasvati nadi hariyana, pnjab v rajasthan se hokar bahati thi aur kachchh ke ran men jakar arab sagar men milati thi. tab sarasvati ke kinare basa rajasthan bhi harabhara tha. us samay yamuna, sataluj v ghagghar isaki pramukh sahayak nadiyan thin. bad men sataluj v yamuna ne bhoogarbhiy halachalon ke karan apana marg badal liya aur sarasvati se door ho geen. himalay ki pahadiyon men prachin kal se hibhoogarbhiy gatividhiyan chalati rahi hain.

snbhavatah aisi hi kisi halachal ke karan sarasvati ka prakritik marg avaruddh hua aur vah marg badalakar bahane lagi. badale marg par ise himalay se jal nahin mila aur yah varsha jal se bahane vali nadi banakar rah gee. dhire-dhire rajasthan kshetr men mausam garm hota gaya aur varsha jal bhi n milane ke karan sarasvati nadi sookhakar vilupt ho gee. ke es valdiya ki pustak 'sarasvati, d rivar dait disepiyard' aur bi pi radhakrishna v es es medha ki pustak 'vaidik sarasvati' men kaha gaya hai ki manasarovar se nikalane vali sarasvati himalay ko par karate hue hariyana, rajasthan ke raste kachchh pahunchati thi.

vaigyanik praman evn puratatvik tathy

1996 men 'indas-sarasvati sivilaijeshan' nam se jab ek pustak prakash men ayi to vaidik sabhyata, hadappa sabhyata aur aryon ke bare men ek naya drishtikon samane aya. is pustak ke lekhak suprasiddh puratatvavidh daau. svarajy prakash gupt ne pahali bar hadappa sabhyata ko sindhu-sarasvati sabhyata nam diya aur aryon ko bharat ka mool nivasi siddh kiya. unaka yah shodh ab ek badi pariyojana 'sindhu-sarasvati pariyojana' ke roop men samane ane vala hai. bharatiy puratatv parishadh ke adhyaksh da. svarajy prakash gupt 'etalas aph indas-sarasvati sivilaijeshan' jaise bade prakalp par kary kar rahe hain. apane is prakalp ko poornataya vaigyanik aur pramanik adhar par duniya ke samane lane ke lie unhonne bharatiy antariksh anusndhan snsthan (bngalaur), phijikal risarch leboretari (ahamadabad), bhoogarbh sarvekshan vibhag (bharat sarakar) sahit desh ke anek agrani snsthanon aur vaigyanikon ko is prakalp ke sath joda. isase poorv daau. gupt ki anek mahattvapoorn pustaken prakashit ho chuki hain, jinamen pramukh hain-'dispojal aph d ded end phijikal taips in enshiynt indiya', 'toorijm,myoojiyams end monyooments', 'd roots aph indiyan art'. shighr hi 'ailiments aph indiyan art' aur 'kalcharal toorijm in indiya' shirshak se prakashit hone vali inaki do pustakon men prachin bharatiy kala aur snskriti ki vistrit janakari sapraman shamil hai.[1] sarasvati ek vishal nadi thi. pahadon ko todati huee nikalati thi aur maidanon se hoti huee samudr men jakar vilin ho jati thi. isaka varnan rigved men bar-bar ata hai. kee mndalon men isaka varnan hai. rigved vaidik kal men isamen hamesha jal rahata tha. sarasvati aj ki gnga ki tarah us samay ki vishal nadiyon men se ek thi. uttar vaidik kal aur mahabharat kal men yah nadi bahut kuchh sookh chuki thi. rishi yahan tak kahate hain ki ab to usamen machhali bhi jivit nahin rah sakati. tab sarasvati nadi men pani bahut kam tha. lekin barasat ke mausam men isamen pani a jata tha. to rigvaidik kal, uttar vaidik kal aur mahabharat kal men praman milate hain ki ek nadi, jo sadanira thi, dhire-dhire vilupt ho gee.[1]

sindhu-sarasvati sabhyata ki khoj men jute visheshgy

  1. daau. ke. kastoori rngan (adhyaksh, bharatiy antariksh anusndhan sngathan, bngalaur)
  2. pro. yashapal (poorv adhyaksh, vishvavidyalay anudan ayog, nee dilli)
  3. daau. ashok singhavi (phijikal risarch leboretari, ahamadabad)
  4. daau. svarajy prakash gupt (bharatiy puratatv parishadh, nee dilli)
  5. daau. es.ke. tndan (bhoogarbh vigyan vibhag, dilli vishvavidyalay, nee dilli)
  6. daau. es. kalyan raman (sarasvati-sindhu shodh kendr, chennee)
  7. vijay mohan kumar puri (himanad visheshgy, poorv nideshak,bharatiy bhoogarbh sarvekshan vibhag, lakhanoo)
  8. pro. ke.es. valdiya (javahar lal neharoo edavansd sentar phar risarch, bngalaur)
  9. daau. es.em.rav (bhabha paramanu anusndhan kendr, mumbee)
  10. je.ar. sharma, da. e.ke. gupta, shri es. shrinivasan (door snvedi seva kendr, jodhapur, bharatiy antariksh anusndhan)[1]

sarasvati ka udgam

yah uttaranchal men roopan nam ke himanad (gleshiyar) se nikali. roopan gleshiyar ko ab sarasvati gleshiyar bhi kaha jane laga hai. naitavar men akar yah himanad jal men parivartit ho jata tha, phir jaladhar ke roop men adi badri tak sarasvati bahakar ati thi aur age chali jati thi. mahabharat men mile varnan ke anusar sarasvati hariyana men yamuna nagar se thoda oopar aur shivalik pahadiyon se thoda sa niche adi badri namak sthan se nikalati thi. aj bhi log is sthan ko tirthasthal ke roop men manate hain aur vahan jate hain. kintu aj adi badri namak sthan se bahane vali nadi bahut door tak nahin jati ek patali dhara ki tarah jagah-jagah dikhaee dene vali is nadi ko log sarasvati kah dete hain. vaidik aur mahabharat kalin varnan ke anusar isi nadi ke kinare brahmavart tha, kurukshetr tha, lekin aj vahan jalashay hain. ab prashn uthata hai ki ye jalashay kya hain, kyon hain? un jalashayon men bhi pani nahin hai. is pariprekshy men dekha jae to kisi nadi ke sookhane ki prakriya ek din men to hoti nahin, yah koee ghatana nahin ek prakriya hai, jisamen saikadon varsh lagate hain. jab nadi sookhati hai to jahan-jahan pani gahara hota hai, vahan-vahan talab ya jhilen rah jati hain. ye talab aur jhilen arddh-chandrakar shakl men payi jati hain. aj bhi kurukshetr men brahmasarovar ya pehava men is prakar ke arddh-chandrakar sarovar dekhane ko milate hain, lekin ye bhi sookh ge hain. lekin ye sarovar praman hain ki us sthan par kabhi koee vishal nadi bahati thi aur usake sookhane ke bad vahan vishal jhilen ban gayin. yadi vahan se nadi nahin bahati thi to itani badi jhilen vahan kaise hotin? in jhilon ki sthiti yahi darshati hai ki kisi samay yahan vishal nadi bahati thi.[1]

sarasvati ke vilupt hone ke karan

tamam vaigyanik aur bhoogarbhiy khojon se pata chala hai ki kisi samay is kshetr men bhishan bhookamp ae, jisake karan jamin ke niche ke pahad oopar uth ge aur sarasvati nadi ka jal pichhe ki or chala gaya. vaidik kal men ek aur nadi ka zikr ata hai, vah nadi thi drishadvati. yah sarasvati ki sahayak nadi thi. yah bhi hariyana se hokar bahati thi. kalantar men jab bhishan bhookamp ae aur hariyana tatha rajasthan ki dharati ke niche pahad oopar uthe, to nadiyon ke bahav ki disha badal gee aur drishadvati nadi, jo sarasvati nadi ki sahayak nadi thi, uttar aur poorv ki or bahane lagi. isi drishadvati ko ab yamuna kaha jata hai, isaka itihas 4,000 varsh poorv mana jata hai. yamuna pahale chambal ki sahayak nadi thi. bahut bad men yah ilahabad men gnga se jakar mili. yahi vah kal tha jab sarasvati ka jal bhi yamuna men mil gaya. rigved kal men sarasvati samudr men girati thi. prayag men sarasvati kabhi nahin pahunchi. bhoochal ane ke karan jab jamin oopar uthi to sarasvati ka pani yamuna men gir gaya. isalie yamuna men yamuna ke sath sarasvati ka jal bhi pravahit hone laga. sirph isilie prayag men tin nadiyon ka sngam mana gaya jabaki yatharth men vahan tin nadiyon ka sngam nahin hai. vahan keval do nadiyan hain. sarasvati kabhi bhi ilahabad tak nahin pahunchi.[5]

sarasvati ka mahattv

  • vaidik kal men sarasvati ki badi mahima thi aur ise param pavitr nadi mana jata tha. rigved ke nadi sookt men sarasvati ka ullekh hai, 'imn men gnge yamune sarasvati shutudri stomn sachata parushnya asiknya maroodvadhe vitastayarjikiye shrrinuhya sushomaya'[6] sarasvati rigved men keval 'nadi devata' ke roop men varnit hai (isaki vndana tin sampoorn tatha anek prakirn mantron men ki gee hai), kintu brahman grathon men ise vani ki devi ya vachh ke roop men dekha gaya aur uttar vaidik kal men sarasvati ko mukhyat:, vani ke atirikt buddhi ya vidya ki adhishthatri devi bhi mana gaya hai aur brahma ki patni ke roop men isaki vndana ke git gaye ge hai.
  • rigved men sarasvati ko ek vishal nadi ke roop men varnit kiya gaya hai aur isilie rath adi manishiyon ka vichar tha ki rigved men sarasvati vastut: moolaroop men sindhu ka hi abhidhan hai. kintu mekadaneld ke anusar sarasvati rigved men kee sthanon par satalaj aur yamuna ke bich ki chhoti nadi hi ke roop men varnit hai. sarasvati aur drishadvati paravarti kal men brahmavart ki poorvi sima ki nadiyan kahi gee hain. yah chhoti-si nadi ab rajasthan ke maroosthal men pahunchakar shushk ho jati hai, kintu pnjab ki nadiyon ke prachin marg ke adhyayan se kuchh bhoogolavidon ka vichar hai ki sarasvati poorvakal men sataluj ki sahayak nadi avashy rahi hogi aur is prakar vaidik kal men yah samudragamini nadi thi. yah bhi snbhav hai ki kalantar men yah nadi dakshin ki or pravahit hone lagi aur rajasthan hoti huee kachchh ki khadi men girane lagi. rajasthan tatha gujarat ki yah nadi aj bhi kee sthanon par dikhaee padati hai. siddhapur isake tat par hai. snbhav hai ki kurukshetr ka sannihit tal aur rajasthan ka prasiddhatal pushkar isi nadi ke chhode hue sarovar hain. yah nadi kee sthanon par lupt ho gee hai.
  • hapakins ka mat hai ki rigved ka adhikansh bhag sarasvati ke tatavarti pradesh men (anbala ke dakshin ka bhoobhag) rachit hua tha. shayad yahi karan hai ki sarasvati nadi vaidik kal men itani pavitr samajhi jati thi aur paravarti kal men to isako vidya, briddhi tatha vani ki devi ke roop men mana gaya. mekadanald ka mat hai ki yajurved tatha usake brahman grnth sarasvati aur yamuna ke bich ke pradesh men jise kurukshetr bhi kahate the rache gaye the. samaved ke pnchavinsh brahman (praudh ya tandy brahman) men sarasvati aur drishadvati nadiyon ke tat par kie ge ygyon ka savistar varnan hai jisase brahman kal men sarasvati ke pradesh ki punyabhoomi ke roop men manyata siddh hoti hai. shatapath brahman men videgh (videh) ke raja mathav ka mool sthan sarasvati nadi ke tat par bataya gaya hai aur kalantar men vaidik sabhyata ka poorv ki or prasar hone ke sath hi mathav ke videh (bihar) men jakar basane ka varnan hai. is katha se bhi sarasvati ka tatavarti pradesh vaidik kal ki sabhyata ka mool kendr pramanit hota hai.

ramayan men sarasvati

valmiki ramayan men bharat ke kekay desh se ayodhya ane ke prasng men sarasvati aur gnga ko par karane ka varnan hai- 'sarasvatin ch gnga ch yugmen pratipady ch, uttaranh viramatsyanan bharundn pravishadvanamh'[7] sarasvati nadi ke tatavarti sabhi tirthon ka varnan mahabharat men shalyaparv ke 35 ven se 54 ven adhyay tak savistar diya gaya hai. in sthanon ki yatra balaram ne ki thi. jis sthan par maroobhoomi men sarasvati lupt ho gee thi, use 'vinashan' kahate the.[8] is ullekh men sarasvati ke lupt hone ke sthan ke pas abhiron ka ullekh hai.

  • yoonani lekhakon ne alakshendr ke samay inaka rajy sakkhar rori (sindh, pakistan) men likha hai. is sthan par prachin aitihasik smriti ke adhar par sarasvati ko antarhit bhav se bahati mana jata tha, 'tato vinashann gachchhenniyato niyatashan: gachchhatyantarhita yatr merooprishthe sarasvati.[9] mahabharat kal men tatkalin vicharon ke adhar par yah kinvadnti prasiddh thi ki prachin pavitr nadi (sarasvati) vinashan pahunchakar nishad namak vijatiyon ke sparsh-dosh se bachane ke lie prithvi men pravesh kar gee thi.[10]
  • siddhapur (gujarat) sarasvati nadi ke tat par basa hua hai. pas hi bindusar namak sarovar hai jo mahabharat ka vinashan ho sakata hai. yah sarasvati mukhy sarasvati hi ki dhara jan padati hai. yah kachchh men girati hai kintu marg men kee sthanon par lupt ho jati hai. 'sarasvati' ka arth hai sarovaron vali nadi jo isake chhode hue sarovaron se siddh hota hai. mahabharat men anek sthanon par sarasvati ka ullekh hai. shrimadh bhagavat [11] men yamuna tatha drishadvati ke sath sarasvati ka ullekh hai.[12] meghadoot[13] men kalidas ne sarasvati ka brahmavart ke antargat varnan kiya h. [14] sarasvati ka nam kalantar men itana prasiddh hua ki bharat ki anek nadiyon ko isi ke nam par sarasvati kaha jane laga. parasiyon ke dharmagrnth jendavesta men sarasvati ka nam harahavati milata hai.
  • prayag ke nikat gnga-yamuna sngam men milane vali ek nadi jisaka rng lal mana jata tha. is nadi ka koee ullekh madhy kal ke poorv nahin milata aur triveni ki kalpana kafi bad ki jan padati hai. jis prakar pnjab ki prasiddh sarasvati maroobhoomi men lupt ho gee thi usi prakar prayag ki sarasvati ke vishay men bhi kalpana kar li gee ki vah bhi prayag men antarhit bhav se bahati hai. gnga-yamuna ke sngam ke snbndh men keval inhin do nadiyon ke sngam ka vrittant ramayan, mahabharat, kalidas tatha prachin puranon men milata hai. paravarti puranon tatha hindi adi bhashaon ke sahity men triveni ka ullekh hai. [15] kuchh logon ka mat hai ki gnga-yamuna ki snyukt dhara ka hi nam sarasvati hai. any logon ko vichar hai ki pahale prayag men sngam sthal par ek chhoti-si nadi akar milati thi jo ab lupt ho gee hai. 19 vin shati men, itali ke nivasi manoochi ne prayag ke qile ki chattan se nile pani ki sarasvati nadi ko nikalate dekha tha. yah nadi gnga-yamuna ke sngam men hi mil jati thi.[16]
  • (saurashtr) prabhas patan ke poorv ki or bahane vali chhoti nadi jo kapila men milati hai. kapila hiranya ki sahayak nadi hai jo donon kar jal leti huee prachi sarasvati men milakar samudr men girati hai.
  • (maharashtr) krishna ki sahayak pnchagnga ki ek shakha. krishna pnchagnga sngam par amarapur namak prachin tirth hai.
  • (zila gadhaval, u.pr.) ek chhoti pahadi nadi jo badarinarayan men vasudhara jate samay milati hai. sarasvati aur alakannda (gnga) ke sngam par keshavaprayag sthit hai.
  • (bihar) rajagir ke samip bahane vali nadi jo prachin kal men tapoda kahalati thi. is sarita men ushn jal ke srot the. isi karan yah tapoda nam se prasiddh thi. tapod tirth ka, jo is nadi ke tat par tha, mahabharat vanaparv men ullekh hai. gautamabuddh ke samay tapodaram namak udyan isi nadi ke tat par sthit tha. magadh-samrat bindusar pray: is nadi men snan karate the.
  • keral ki ek nadi jisake tat par honavar sthit hai.
  • prachi sarasvati, (zila parabhani, maharashtr) ek chhoti nadi jo poorna ki sahayak hai. sarasvati-poorna sngam par ek prachin sudnr mndir sthit hai.

sarasvati nadi aur hadappa sabhyata men snbndh

yadi sarasvati nadi ke tat par basi sabhyata, jise hadappa sabhyata ya sindhu-sarasvati sabhyata kaha jata hai, ko vaidik richaon se hatakar dekha jae to phir sarasvati nadi matr ek nadi rah jaegi, sabhyata khatm ho jaegi. sabhyata ka itihas batate hain sarasvati nadi tat par basi bastiyon se mile avashesh. aur in avasheshon ki kahani keval hadappa sabhyata se judati hai. hadappa sabhyata aur sarasvati nadi, donon ka astitv apas men judata hai. yadi hadappa sabhyata ki 2600 bastiyon ko dekhen to pate hain ki vartaman pakistan men sindhu tat par matr 265 bastiyan thin, jabaki shesh adhikansh bastiyan sarasvati nadi ke tat par milati hain. aj hamare samane jamini sachchaee ubhar kar a gee hai. abhi tak hadappa sabhyata ko sirph sindhu nadi ki den mana ja raha tha, lekin in shodhon se siddh ho gaya hai ki sarasvati ka is sabhyata men bahut bada yogadan hai. pustak 'etalas aph d indas-sarasvatishh sivilaijeshan' men ek vyapak shodh kary hua hai.[5]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 gupt, da. svarajy prakash. vaigyanik praman, puratatvik tathy (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) panchajany daaut kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 13 janavari, 2013.
  2. rigved 10,75,5
  3. valmiki ramayan ayo. 71,5
  4. rigved 10,75,5
  5. 5.0 5.1 aur sarasvati kyon n bahi ab tak? (hindi) (pi.ech.pi.) India Water Portal. abhigaman tithi: 13 janavari, 2013.
  6. rigved 10,75,5
  7. valmiki ramayan ayo. 71,5
  8. 'tato vinashann rajanh jagamath halayudh: shoodrabhiranri pratidveshadh yatr nashta sarasvati' maha. shaly0 37,1
  9. vinashan
  10. 'etadh vinashann nam sarasvatya vishampate dvarn nishadarashtrasy yeshan doshath sarasvati. pravishta prithivin vir ma nishada hi man vidu:
  11. shrimadh bhagavat (5,19,18
  12. mndakiniyamunasarasvatidrishadvadi gomatisarayu
  13. meghadoot poorvamegh
  14. kritva tasamabhigamamapan saumy sarasvatinamant:shuddhastvamapi bhavita varnamatren krishn:
  15. 'bharat vachan suni bhanjh triveni, bhee mriduvani sumngal deni'-tulasidas
  16. manoochi, jild 3,pri0 75.

snbndhit lekh

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