कुरुक्षेत्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kurukshetr
kurukshetr manachitr
vivaran mana jata hai ki kurukshetr men mahabharat ki ladaee huee thi aur bhagavan shrikrishn ne arjun ko gita ka upadesh yahin par jyotisar namak sthan par diya tha.
rajy hariyana
zila kurukshetr zila
bhaugolik nirdeshank 29° 57′ 56.58″ uttar, 76° 50′ 13.22″ poorv
marg sthiti kurukshetr ambala se 25 mil poorv men hai.
kshetraphal 1,530 varg kimi
bhasha hindi, hariyanavi
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr
pin kod 136118
es.ti.di. kod 911744
vahan pnjiyan kod HR 07
dharmik manyata kaha jata hai ki yahan sthit vishal talab ka nirman mahakavy mahabharat men varnit kauravon aur pandavon ke poorvaj raja kuru ne karavaya tha. kurukshetr nam 'kuru ke kshetr' ka pratik hai.
any janakari kurukshetr ka pauranik mahattv adhik mana jata hai. isaka rigved aur yajurved men anek sthano par varnan kiya gaya hai.
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait

kurukshetr (angrezi: Kurukshetra) hariyana rajy ka ek aitihasik nagar aur zila hai. yah hariyana ke uttar men sthit hai tatha ambala, yamuna nagar, karanal aur kaithal se ghira huva hai. mana jata hai ki yahin mahabharat ki ladaee huee thi aur bhagavan krishn ne arjun ko gita ka upadesh yahin par jyotisar namak sthan par diya tha. yah zila basamati chaval ke utpadan ke lie bhi prasiddh hai. kaha jata hai ki yahan sthit vishal talab ka nirman mahakavy mahabharat men varnit kauravon aur pandavon ke poorvaj raja kuru ne karavaya tha. kurukshetr nam 'kuru ke kshetr' ka pratik hai. kurukshetr ka pauranik mahattv adhik mana jata hai. isaka rigved aur yajurved men anek sthano par varnan kiya gaya hai. yahan ki pauranik nadi sarasvati ka bhi atyant mahattv hai. isake atirikt anek puranon, smritiyon aur maharshi vedavyas rachit mahabharat men isaka vistrit varnan kiya gaya hain. vishesh tathy yah hai ki kurukshetr ki pauranik sima 48 kos ki mani gee hai jisamen kurukshetr ke atirikt kaithal, karanal, panipat aur jind ka kshetr sammilit hain.

pauranik ullekh

kurukshetr ambala se 25 mil poorv men hai. yah ek ati punit sthal hai. isaka itihas puratan gathaon men sama-sa gaya hai. rigved[1]men trasadasyu ke putr kurushravan ka ullekh hua hai. 'kurushravan' ka shabdik arth hai 'kuru ki bhoomi men suna gaya ya prasiddh.' atharvaved[2]men ek kauravy pati (sambhavat: raja) ki charcha huee hai, jisane apani patni se batachit ki hai. brahman-granthon ke kal men kurukshetr ati prasiddh tirth-sthal kaha gaya hai. shatapath brahman[3]men ullikhit ek gatha se pata chalata hai ki devon ne kurukshetr men ek ygy kiya tha jisamen unhonne donon ashvinon ko pahale ygy-bhag se vnchit kar diya tha. maitrayani snhita[4]evn taittiriy brahman[5]ka kathan hai ki devon ne kurukshetr men satr ka sampadan kiya tha. in uktiyon men antarhit bhavana yah hai ki brahman-kal men vaidik log ygy-sampadan ko ati mahattv dete the, jaisa ki rigved[6]men aya hai-
'ygyey ygymayajant devastani dharmani prathamanyasanh.'

mahabharat evn kuchh puranon men kurukshetr ki simaon ke vishay men ek kuchh ashuddh shlok aya hai, yatha- tarantu evn karantuk tatha machakruk (yaksh ki pratima) evn ramahradon (parashuram dvara banaye gaye talabon) ke bich ki bhoomi kurukshetr, samantapanchak, evn brahma ki uttari vedi hai.[7] isaka phal yah hai ki kurukshetr kee namon se vyakt hua hai, yatha- brahmasar, ramahrad, samantapanchak, vinashan, sannihati.[8]kurukshetr ki sima ke lie dekhie kaningham[9], jinhonne tippani ki hai ki kurukshetr ambala ke dakshin 30 milon tak tatha panipat ke uttar 40 milon tak vistrit hai. prachin kal men vaidik logon ki snskriti evn kary-kalapon ka kendr kurukshetr tha. kramash: vaidik log poorv evn dakshin ki or badhe aur gnga-yamuna ke desh men phail gaye tatha age chalakar videh (ya mithila) bharatiy snskriti ka kendr ho gaya

mahabharat ke yuddh men arjun ko samajhate huye shrikrishn

vaidik snskriti

kurukshetr brahmanakal men vaidik snskriti ka kendr tha aur vahan vistar ke sath ygy avashy sampadit hote rahe honge. isi se ise dharmakshetr kaha gaya aur devon ko devakirti isi se prapt huee ki unhonne dharm (ygy, tap adi) ka palan kiya tha aur kurukshetr men satron ka sampadan kiya tha. kuchh brahman-granthon men aya hai ki bahlik pratipiy namak ek kauravy raja tha. taittiriy brahman[10]men aya hai ki kuru-panchal shishir-kal men poorv ki or gaye, pashchim men ve grishm ritu men gaye jo sabase buri ritu hai. aitarey brahman ka ullekh ati mahattvapoorn hai. sarasvati ne kavash muni ki raksha ki thi aur jahan vah daudati huee gayi use parisarak kaha gaya.[11]ek any sthan par aitarey brahman[12]men aya hai ki usake kal men kurukshetr men 'nyagrodh' ko 'nyubj' kaha jata tha. aitarey brahman ne kuruon evn pnchalon ke deshon ka ullekh vash-ushinaron ke deshon ke sath kiya hai.[13]taittiriy aranyak[14]men gatha ayi hai ki devon ne ek satr kiya aur usake lie kurukshetr vedi ke roop men tha.[15] us vedi ke dakshin or khandav tha, uttari bhag toorghn tha, prishth bhag parin tha aur maru (registan) utkar (kooda val gaddha) tha. isase prakat hota hai ki khandav, toorghn evn parin kurukshetr ke sima-bhag the aur maru janapad kurukshetr se kuchh door tha. avashvalayan[16], latyayan[17]evn katyayan[18]ke shrautasootr tandy brahman evn any brahmanon ka anusaran karate hain aur kee aise tirthon ka varnan karate hain jahan sarasvat satron ka sampadan hua tha, yatha plaksh prastravarn (jahan se sarasvati nikalati hai), sarasvati ka vaitandhav-hrad; kurukshetr men parin ka sthal, karapachav desh men bahati yamuna evn triplakshavaharan ka desh.

sandarbh

  • chhandogy upanishad[19]men us ushasti chakrayan ki gatha ayi hai jo kuru desh men tusharapat hone se apani yuva patni ke sath ibhy-gram men rahane laga tha aur bhikshatan karake jivika chalata tha.
  • nirukt[20]ne vyakhya upasthit ki hai ki rigved[21]men ullikhit devapi evn shantanu aitihasik vyakti the aur kuru ke raja rishtishen ke putr the.
  • panini[22]ne vyutpatti ki hai ki 'kuru' se 'kauravy' bana hai; pahale ka arth hai 'raja' aur doosare ka 'apaty'.
  • mahabharat ne kurukshetr ki mahatta ke vishay men bahudha ullekh kiya hai. isamen aya hai ki sarasvati ke dakshin evn drishadvati ke uttar ki bhoomi kurukshetr men thi aur jo log usamen nivas karate the manon svarg men rahate the.[23]
  • vaman puran[24]men kurukshetr ko brahmavart kaha gaya hai. vaman puran ke anusar sarasvati evn drishadvati ke bich ka desh kuru-jagal tha. kintu manu[25]ne brahmavart ko vah desh kaha hai jise brahmadev ne sarasvati evn drishadvati namak pavitr nadiyon ke madhy men banaya tha. brahmarshidesh vah tha jo pavitrata men thoda kam aur kurukshetr, matsy, pnchal evn shoorasen se milakar bana tha. in vachanon se prakat hota hai ki aryavart men brahmavart sarvottam desh tha aur kurukshetr bhi bahut anshon men isake saman hi tha.[26] hamane yah bhi dekh liya hai ki brahman-kal men atyant punit nadi sarasvati kurukshetr se hokar bahati thi aur jahan yah marubhoomi men antarhit ho gayi thi use 'vinashan' kaha jata tha aur vahi bhi ek tirthasthal tha.

ygyiy vedi

arambhik roop men kurukshetr brahma ki ygyiy vedi kaha jata tha, age chalakar ise samantapanchak kaha gaya, jabaki parashuram ne apane pita ki hatya ke pratishodh men kshatriyon ke rakt se panch kund bana dale, jo pitaron ke ashirvachanon se kalantar men panch pavitr jalashayon men parivartit ho gaye. age chalakar yah bhoomi kurukshetr ke nam se prasiddh huee jab ki snvaran ke putr raja kuru ne sone ke hal se sat kos ki bhoomi jot dali.[27]

indr se var

kuru namak raja ke nam par hi 'kurukshetr' nam pada hai. kuru ne indr se var manga tha ki vah bhoomi, jise usane jota tha, dharmakshetr kahalaye aur jo log vahan snan karen ya maren ve mahapunyaphal payen.[28] kauravon evn pandavon ka yuddh yahin hua tha. bhagavadgita ke pratham shlok men 'dharmakshetr' shabd aya hai. vayu puran[29]evn koorm puran[30] men aya hai ki shraddh ke lie kurujangal ek yogy desh hai. satavin shatabdi men huenasang ne is desh ki charcha ki hai jisaki rajadhani sthanvishvar (adhunik thanesar, jo kurukshetr ka kendr hai) thi aur jo dharmik puny ki bhoomi ke lie prasiddh tha. van parv [31]evn vaman puran [32]men kurukshetr ka vistar panch yojan vyas men kaha gaya hai.[33]

kurukshetr ki mahatta

mahabharat evn puranon men varnit kurukshetr ki mahatta ke vishay men ham yahan savistar nahin likh sakate. van parv[34]men aya hai ki kurukshetr ke sabhi log papamukt ho jate hain aur vah bhi jo sada aisa kahata hai- 'main kurukshetr ko jaoonga aur vahan rahoonga.'[35] is vishv men isase badhakar koee any punit sthal nahin hai. yahan tak ki yahan ki udi huee dhooli ke kan papi ko param pad dete hain.' yahan tak ki gnga ki bhi tulana kurukshetr se ki gayi hai.[36]naradiy puran[37]men aya hai ki grahon, nakshatron evn taraganon ko kalagati se (akash se) niche gir padane ka bhay hai, kintu ve, jo kurukshetr men marate hain pun: prithvi par nahin girate, arthath ve pun: janm nahin lete.[38]

tirthon ka ullekh

yah gyatavy hai ki yadyapi vanaparv ne 83ven adhyay men sarasvati tat par evn kurukshetr men katipay tirthon ka ullekh kiya hai, kintu brahmanon evn shrautasootron men ullikhit tirthon se unaka mel nahin khata, keval 'vinashan'[39]evn 'sarak'[40]ke vishay men aisa nahin kaha ja sakata. isase yah prakat hota hai ki vanaparv ka sarasvati evn kurukshetr se snbandhit ullekh shrautasootron ke ullekh se kee shatabdiyon ke pashchath ka hai. naradiy puran[41]ne kurukshetr ke lagabhag 100 tirthon ke nam diye hain. inaka vivaran dena yahan sambhav nahin hai, kintu kuchh ke vishay men kuchh kahana avashyak hai. pahala tirth hai brahmasar jahan raja kuru snnyasi ke roop men rahate the.[42]ainshyent jiyagraphi aauph indiya[43]men aya hai ki yah sar 3546 phut (poorv se pashchim) lamba evn uttar se dakshin 1900 phut chauda tha.

kurukshetr yuddh

vaman puran[44]ne savistar varnan kiya hai aur usaka kathan hai ki yah adha yojan vistrit tha. chakratirth sambhavat: vah sthan hai jahan krishn ne bhishm par akraman karane ke lie chakr uthaya tha.[45]vyasasthali thanesar ke dakshin-pashchim 17 mil door adhunik sthali hai jahan vyas ne putr ki hani par mar jane ka pran kiya tha.[46]asthipur[47]thanesar ke pashchim aur aujasaghat ke dakshin hai, jahan par mahabharat men mare gaye yoddha jalaye gaye the. kaningham[48]ke mat se chakratirth asthipur hi hai aur alaberooni ke kal men yah kurukshetr men ek prasiddh tirth tha.

tirth-sthal evn van

prithoodak, jo sarasvati par tha, vanaparv[49]dvara prashnsit hai-'logon ka kathan hai ki kurukshetr punit hai, sarasvati kurukshetr se punitatar hai, sarasvati nadi se usake (sarasvati ke) tirth-sthal adhik punit hain aur prithoodak in sabhi sarasvati ke tirthon se uttam hai. prithoodak se badhakar koee any tirth nahin hai'.[50] shalyaparv[51]men aya hai ki jo bhi koee punit vachanon ka path karata hua sarasvati ke: kurukshetrn kurukshetratsarasvati. sarasvatyashch tirthani tirthebhyashch prithoodakamh॥ prithoodakattirthatamn uttari tat par prithoodak men pran chhodata hai, doosare din se mrityu dvara kasht nahin pata.[52]vaman puran[53]ne ise brahmayonitirth kaha hai. prithoodak aj ka pehova hai jo thanesar se 14 mil pashchim karanal zile men hai.[54] vaman puran[55]evn naradiy puran[56]men kurukshetr ke sat vanon ka ullekh hai, yatha-

  • kamyak
  • aditivan
  • vyasavan
  • phalakivan
  • sooryavan
  • madhuvan evn
  • sitavan.[57]

sat nadiyan

shalyaparv[58]men kaha gaya hai ki snsar sat sarasvatiyon dvara ghira hua hai, yatha- suprabha[59], kanchanakshi[60], vishala[61], manorama[62], surenu[63], odhavati[64]evn vimaloda.[65]vaman puran[66]men sarasvati ke sambandh men sat nadiyan ati pavitr kahi gayi hain[67]yatha-

kurukshetr ko sannihati ya sannihatya bhi kaha gaya hai.[68]vaman puran[69]ka kathan hai ki sarasvati plaksh vriksh se nikalati hai aur kee parvaton ko chhedati huee dvaitavan men pravesh karati hai. is puran men markandey dvara ki gayi sarasvati ki prashasti bhi di huee hai. alabaruni[70]ka kathan hai ki somanath se ek ban-nikshep ki doori par sarasvati samudr men mil jati hai. ek chhoti, kintu punit nadi sarasvati mahikanth nam ki pahadiyon se nikalati hai aur palanapur ke uttar-poorv hoti huee siddhapur evn patan ko par karati kee milon tak prithvi ke andar bahati hai aur kachchh ke ran men pravesh kar jati hai.[71]

pauranik katha

kuru ne jis kshetr ko bar-bar jota tha, usaka nam kurukshetr pada. kahate hain ki jab kuru bahut manoyog se is kshetr ki jutaee kar rahe the tab indr ne unase jakar is parishram ka karan poochha. kuru ne kaha-'jo bhi vyakti yahan mara jayega, vah puny lok men jayega.' indr unaka parihas karate hue svargalok chale gaye. aisa anek bar hua. indr ne devataon ko bhi batalaya. devataon ne indr se kaha-'yadi snbhav ho to kuru ko apane anukool kar lo anyatha yadi log vahan ygy karake hamara bhag diye bina svargalok chale gaye to hamara bhag nasht ho jayega.' tab indr ne pun: kuru ke pas jakar kaha-'nareshvar, tum vyarth hi kasht kar rahe ho. yadi koee bhi pashu, pakshi ya manushy nirahar rahakar athava yuddh karake yahan mara jayega to svarg ka bhagi hoga.' kuru ne yah bat man li. yahi sthan samnt-pnchak athava prajapati ki uttaravedi kahalata hai. [72]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rigved 10.33.4
  2. atharvaved 20.127.8
  3. shatapath brahman 4.1.5.13
  4. maitrayani snhita 2.1.4, 'deva vai satramasatr kurukshetre
  5. taittiriy brahman 5.1.1, 'deva vai satramasat teshan kurukshetrn vedirasith'
  6. rigved, 10.90.16
  7. tarantukarantukayoryadantarn ramahradanan ch machakrukasy. etatkurukshetrasamantapanchakn pitamahasyottaravediruchyate॥ vanaparv (83.208), shaly parv (53.24). padm puran (1.27.92) ne 'tarandakarandakayo:' path diya hai (kalpataru, tirth, pri0 171). vanaparv (83.9-15 evn 200) men aya he ki bhagavanh vishnu dvara niyukt kurukshetr ke dvarapalon men ek dvarapal tha machakrak namak yaksh. kya ham pratham shabd ko 'tarantuk' evn 'arantuk' men nahin vibhajit kar sakate? naradiy puran (uttar, 65.24) men kurukshetr ke antargat 'rantuk' namak upatirth ka ullekh hai (tirthapr0, pri0 464-465). kaningham ke mat se ratnuk' thanesar ke poorv 4 mil ki doori par kurukshetr ke ghere ke uttar-poorv men sthit ratan yaksh hai.
  8. tirthaprakash, pri0 463
  9. arkyalajikal sarve riportas, jild 14, pri0 86-106
  10. taittiriy brahman, 18.4.1
  11. aitarey brahman 8.1 ya 2.19
  12. aitarey brahman, 35.4=7.30
  13. aitarey brahman, 38.3=8.14
  14. taittiriy aranyak, 5.1.1
  15. deva vai satramasat. ... teshan kurukshetre vedirasith. tasyai khandavo dakshinardh asith. toordhnamuttarardh:. parinajjadhanardh:. marav utkar:॥ taittiriy aranyak (taittiriy aranyak 5.1.1) kya 'toorghn' 'strughn' ka prachin roop hai? 'strughn' ya adhunik 'sudh' jo prachin yamuna par hai, thaneshvar se 40 mil evn saharanapur se uttar-pashchim 10 mil par hai.
  16. avashvalayan, 12.6
  17. latyayan, 10.15
  18. katyayan, 24.6.5
  19. chhandogy upanishad, 1.10.1
  20. nirukt, 2.10
  21. rigved, 10.98.5 evn 7
  22. panini, 4.1.151 evn 4.1.172
  23. dakshinen sarasvatya drishadvatyuttaren ch. ye vasanti kurukshetre te vasanti trivishtape॥ van parv (van parv, 83.3, 204-205).
  24. vaman puran, 86.6
  25. manu, 2.17.18
  26. sarasvatidrishadvatyorantarn kurujangalamh. vaman puran (22.47); sarasvatidrishadvatyordevanadyoryadantaramh. tn devanirmitn deshn brahmavart prachakshate॥ kurukshetrn ch matsyashch panchala: shoorasenaka:॥ esh brahmarshideshon vai brahmavartadanantar:॥ manu (2.17 evn 19). yug-yug men deshon ke vistar men antar padata raha hai. pnchal dakshin evn uttar men vibhajit tha. buddh-kal men pnchal ki rajadhani kannauj thi. shoorasen desh ki rajadhani thi mathura. 'anantar' ka arth hai 'thoda kam' ya 'kisi se n to madhyam ya n bhinn'. naradiy puran <>uttar, 64.6<>.
  27. adyaisha brahmano vedistato ramahrida: smrita:. kuruna ch yat: krishtn kurukshetrn tat: smritamh॥ vaman puran (22.59-60). vaman puran (22.18-20) ke anusar brahma ki panch vediyan ye hain-
    1. samantapanchak (uttara)
    2. prayag (madhyama)
    3. gayashir (poorva)
    4. viraja (dakshina) evn
    5. pushkar (pratichi).
    'syamantapnchak' shabd bhi aya hai. (vaman puran 22.20 evn padm puran 4.17.7) vishnu puran (vishnu puran, 4.19.74-77) ke mat se kuru ki vnshavaliyon hai- 'ajamidh-riksh-snvaran-kuru' evn 'y idn dharmakshetrn chakar'.
  28. yavadetanmaya krishtn dharmakshetrn tadastu v:. snatanan ch mritanan ch mahapunyaphaln tvih॥ vaman puran (vaman puran, 22.33-34) milaie shaly parv mahabharat (shalyaparv, 53.13-14
  29. vayu puran, 7.93
  30. koorm puran, 2.20.33 evn 37.36-37
  31. van parv, 129.2
  32. vaman puran, 22.15-16
  33. vedi prajapateresha samantatpanchayojana. kurorvai ygyshilasy kshetrametanmahatman:॥ vanaparv 9.129.22); samajagam ch punarbrahmano vedimuttaramh. samantaparnchakn nam dharmasthanamanuttamamh॥ a samantadyojanani panch panch ch sarvat:॥ vaman puran (22.15-16). narad puran(uttar, 64.20)men aya hai- 'panchayojanavistarn dayasatyakshamodgamamh. syamantapanchakn tavatkurukshetramudahritamh॥'
  34. van parv, 83.1-2
  35. tato gachchhet rajendr kurukshetramabhishtutamh. papebhyo vipramuchyante tadgata: sarvajantav:॥ kurukshetrn gamishyami kurukshetre vasamyahamh. y evn satatn brooyath sarvapapai: pramuchyate॥ vanaparv (83.1-2). tikakar nilakanth ne ek vichitr vyutpattidi hai. (vanaparv 83.6)- 'kutsitn rautitikuru papn tasy kshepanath trayate iti kurukshetrn papanivartakn brahmopalabdhisthanatvadh brahmasadanamh.' 'samyakh antoyeshu kshatriyanan te samanta ramakritarudhirodahrada:, teshan panchakn samantapanchakamh.' dekhie tirthapr0 (pri0 463).
  36. kurukshetrasama gnga, vanaparv 85.88
  37. naradiy puran, 2.64.23-24
  38. grahanakshatrataranan kalen patanadh bhayam. kurukshetramritanan tu n bhooy: patann bhaveth॥ naradiy puran (uttar, 2.64.23-24), vaman puran (33.16).
  39. vanaparv 83.11
  40. jo aitarey brahman ka sambhavat: parisarak hai
  41. uttar, adhyay 65
  42. vanaparv 83.85, vaman puran 49.38-41, naradiy puran, uttar 65.95
  43. pri0 334-335
  44. vaman puran, 25.50-55
  45. vaman puran 42.5, 57.89 evn 89.3
  46. vanaparv 84.96; naradiy puran, uttarardh 65.83 evn padm puran 1.26.90-91
  47. padm puran, adi, 27.62
  48. arkyalaaujikal sarve riportas aph indiya, jild 2, pri0 219
  49. vanaparv, 83.142-149
  50. vanaparv 83.147; shantiparv152.11; padm puran, adi 27.33, 34, 36 evn kalp0 tirth, pri0 180-181, punyamahu nanyattirth kurudvah॥ (vanaparv 83.147). vaman puran (22.44) ka kathan hai- 'tasyaiv madhye bahupunyayuktn prithoodakn papaharn shivn ch. punya nadi pranamukhatan prathata jalaughayuktasy suta jaladhya॥'
  51. shalyaparv, 39.33-34
  52. arthath vah janm-maran se mukt ho jata hai
  53. vaman puran, 39.20 evn 23
  54. dekhie epigraiphiya indika, jild 1, pri0 184
  55. vaman puran, 34.3
  56. uttar 65.4-7
  57. dekhie arkyalajikal sarve riportas phaaur indiya, jild 14, pri0 90-91
  58. adhyay 38
  59. pushkar men, jahan brahma ne ek mahanh ygy karate samay usaka smaran kiya tha
  60. naimish van men
  61. gaya desh men gay dvara avahit ki huee
  62. uttar kosal men auddalak ke ygy men
  63. rishabh dvip men kuru ke ygy men
  64. kurukshetr men vasishth dvara kahi gayi
  65. jab brahma ne himalay men pun: ygy kiya
  66. vaman puran, 34.68
  67. yadyapi 9 ke nam adhe hain
  68. dekhie tirthon ki soochi
  69. vaman puran, 32.3-4
  70. sachau, jild 1, pri0 261
  71. bambee gajetiyar, jild 5, pri0 283, kurukshetr ke tirthon ki soochi ke lie dekhie, e.es. ar. aauph indiya (jild 14, pri0 17-106).
  72. mahabharat, shalyaparv, adhyay 53

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